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NOV 1 t93? 

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Enacted in, 1872; as ^MS^msD in 1885. 



Author of " A Compendium of American Oriminal Law," 
"Federal P^oedurei" eto. 


(j . San FEANoispo: *-^ 

,1885.. ^ 

. Digitized by Google 

?i i 

CbPYRiaHT 1881, 

NOV 1 1932 




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Teos edition of the Penal Code contains all the amend- 
ments made thereto up to the termination of the regular 
session of the Legislature of 1881. The date of approval 
of each amendment is given at the end of the section, 
amended, * the word ** approved " indicating that tho 
amendatory act took effect at the statutory time, sixty 
days after passage, while the words "in effect" indicate 
that the act took effect ** from and after its passage." 

All the decisions of the Supreme Court of this State, as 
well as numerous decisions of foreign courts of last re- 
sort, bearing upon the subjects treated, have been added 
as notes to the text, given in as terse a form as possible, 
having regard to the point decided and its application. 
Numerous cross-references will be found throughout the 
volume, to facilitate the comparison of cognate sections, 
and render the necessity of an appeal to the index less 

The general statutes relating to subjects embraced in 
the Penal Code are given in the appendix, and those parts 
of the Code of Procedure relating to juries and evidence, 
\ as prepared by Mr. Kewmark, are bound in for conven- 
ience of reference. The whole is submitted to the profes- 
sion, with a view to aid practitioners in this interesting 
branch of the law. 


1£at 2nd, 1881. 

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PART n. 


PART m. 

§§ 1673-1614. 





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CfBOfBS AND Pmm^MSMTa, K 99»Ws. 


pjoam TO'Cari£Bi,''Wtle'il,'5i'86^: ;. 'l^i-/':; " ' 

CBIMB8 AafnMT;Pn|l£fe%^i.,*l,t^^^ 

Bewn0«ekafi.|ltf£}lQlr$l>-.U , :•. .7 .•-':,/ .^a ■•:. ... 
Escapes, fttaaldinff therein, chap, iii, $$ 105-11. 
I*o^%i eleaiiDvt^iSitfUBtiii^^PMA JoAfelal 

^ndLpublio recoijdflt ^ija cjocwp^^ i?.Hp? AT' ^* 

PeijOTT, JW14 fnJ)orn^^^yf pcrfiw^^i^iftlh Mi 11«- 

EobbBry, cbap. iv, f§ 211 -13. 
Attempts to klil, cLap. T, §§ 2X6-1Y/ '■''■'•.• 
Aisaults wit!i Intont to commit felonyv'mlier tban as- 
aaiilts witli jBt«ut to murdei^, cflja^. Vi, f§ 220-22. 
Daels aad elialleDged, chap, rii; §§ 225^., 

19 1 

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Cbdcbs against thb TEBSOs^Continued, 
False imprisoimient, chap, viii, {$ 236-97. 
Assault and battery, chap, ix, §§ 24(M5. 
libel, chap, x, §§ 21&^7. 

CBDf9i:$«hitKstTtmi;vi[fD^(3testnrAiCD Gdot>^Q^Au, Title 
iK, If fi61-Q«7. - -- .TT^f 

Eape, abduction, carnal abuse of children, and seduc- 
tion, chap, i, $$ 26I-T. 

Abandonment and fiegk^ of^children, chap. 11, §§ 270- 

Abortions, cliap, iJl, §$ 2T4-B. 
Cliild-atealing, chap, i^. 9 278. . /. / >:r a 10 
Bigamy, mce^t, and the ctimo against nature, chap. 
V, Is 281-7. ' • ' . -v^' - 

Tiolatin^ sfipulture and theTem«4iuiPJ^t(b^ ^P^'P^I^ 

Crimas ai^altiBt religion and conseiewo^ABdtMhbtra^ 
fenaes agninBt good morabi, chap. TiL §$ 299-3092 

Indeceut exposure, obaeeno exblbitibkite,^b<|JQii$,'aiui 
prlQtj, and bnwdy and other disorderly houses, 
oUap. Tiiij &| 3il-l8w i /- ., ; '. 

XotterieB, cbap. ix, §? 319-36. 

G amitig, cbap. x , §1 a30-6w :- 1; r : w ^ ;. rj- i. '. : ) 

Pawnbrokers, cbap. xi, §§ 336-43, r ^ . 

Othef Injuiiei to par&on^, chap. 3tU^ $§r$0-€7v{; . 

Cbdibs aciainst Pobliq H]la£T^/ 1?lti« z, {J 8B»-40t« 

GanoBS AOAnnrr. Pobuo Pbaoj^ Title jsS, §§ 403-^ 

Crikes AQAnrsT thb I^BYBNtTE, Title xii, SS 4SH^, 

CttiUEB AOAimh* FE6nBBTt, Title xiiij'$$4i7*-592. 
Arson, chap, L §$ 447-455. , , 

Burglary, and hou8ebire$ilrii$, <*Ap. 11, If 40M((I. 
Haring pbs^ession of 'btugiftMe^ insmme^its, and 

deadly weapons, cl^p- m, 5§ 466-7. 
Forgery and counterfeltiiig, dhap. iV; §§ i70-^. ' 
Larceny* chap. Yr §S 484f-eO{l.- 
Embezzlement, chap« vi, II 506-U. 
Extortion, chap, vii, §§ 61S-25. , • ^ _ 
False personation and cheats, chiap. viii, f § 628-86. 
Fraudulently fitting out and destroying vessjols, chap. 

Fraudulently keeping possession of wrecked property, 

Fraudulent destruction of property insured, chap* xi, 

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StrMlCAltT 6^ CONTKiTtS— pAteriL 11 

Falfte weigbts and m^^sutes^ 6hAp'. ±Li, §} S5M. 
.Fraudulent inisolvcrtacies by corporations, and other 

frauds in Ifheir nlanagement, chapiXjlU, § J 557-72. 
Fraud ulentissuis of docunients of title tomercnandise, 

v.chap..xly\§i&77-«3. , . , 
Malicious injuries to, railroad briit 

bridgee, and telflgrfkphs* chap. xv,1 

M AMOibtrjB Mlscn^rar, Tjitje xiv, ?5 594-525, . 

MisoELLAKEOUS Cbimes, Title XY, §§ 626-54. 

Violation of tbe la^s^for tlie presetvation of gamd and 

fish, chap. 1, §§ 626-37. 
Of other andmisceUaneous offenses, chap. li» §§ 638-54. 

OsNEBAZi PaorvxBloits, Tit^iaxvi, §§> 054-78. - 

PART n. 

CEIMINAIi PEOO^URE, §J 681-1570. 

Frblimxnabt Fboyisions> §§ 681-1570. 

Prevention op Publio Offbnsbs^ Title 1, §§ 692-733. 

Of Jawful resistance, chap. i;35<59a-4. 

Oi the intervention of the omcers of jostica, chap, ii, 
§§ 697-8. 

Becurity to keep the peace, chap, ill, §$ 701-14. 

Police in cities and towns, and tbeh^ attendance at ex- 
posed places, chap, iv, $$ 719^20i 

Suppression of riots, chap, v, ff 723-^. 

Proceedings for the removal of Public Officers, Title 
i 11, f§ 737-772. 
Of impeachments, chap. 1, §§ 737-53. 
Qf the removal of civu officers otherwise than by im- 
peachment, chapJ il,' {§ 768*>72. 

Proceedings from Indictment to Commitment, Title 
ill, §§ 777-88a 
Of the local jurisdiction of public offenses, chap. 1, §§ 

Of the time^f commencing criminal actions, chap, ii. 

The information, chap, ill, J$ 806-0. 
The warrant of arrest, chap. iVi §§ 811*29. 

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Pbocsxdinqs FROic^ JiOHonasT^CofUiimed. 

Arraat^ by whom and bow made, chap, r, $S 831-51. 
Batakmg, after an escapo or rescue, chap, vi, $§ 854r-5. 
'Bammination of the case, and discharge of defendant, 
or holding him to answer, chap, vii, §$ 8SS-^ 


liBifT, Title It, §§ 88»-«37. 
Preliminarsr provisions, chap, i, §§ IK8-90. 
Formation of the grand jary^ chap, ii, S$ 801-910. 
Powers and duties of a grand Jury, chap, iil, $§ 915- 

928. ■ " ' 
Presentment and proceedings thereon, chap, iv, §$ 

931-7. .: 

Thb Indictment, Title v, §§ 940-72. 

Finding and prtee&tment of the indlotment»'chap. i, }§ . 

Bulesof pleading and foim.of the indictment, chap, 
ii, §§ 948-72. 


vi, 8§ 976-1052.. 
Of the arraignment of the defendant, chap, i, §$ 976- 

990. . , . 

Setting aside the Indictment, chap, ii, §§ 995-99. 
Demurrer, chap, m, f § 1002-12. 
Plea, chap. iT,i|§ 1016-25. 
Transmission of certain indictments, chap, v, §( 1028- 

Removal of the ^tion before trial, chap, vl, §$ 1083-8. 
Mode of trial, chap, vii, 8$ 1041-3. 
Formation of thetilal jury, and the calendar of issues 

for trial,.^iap.Yiii, .§§ 1046-9. 
• Postponement of the trial, chap. Ix, § 1052. 


AND BKFOR^rjXflSQMsST, Title vii, §$ 1055-1183. 
ChaUen^B the jury, chap. 1, 8$ 1065-88. 
The triaS, chap. ii,.|f •1098tU3L . 
Conduct of the jury after cause is submitted to them, 

chap. lU, §§ 11&-43. 
The verdi9t, phap. iv, §§ 1147-67. 
3msofeice " • - ** — 

BUk of exception, chap, v, §§ 1170-6. 

vii, §^ 1185-9. 

BUls of exception, chap, v, §5 ii 
. K^yr trials, chap, vi, .§f 1179^2. 
Anrest of judgment, chap, vii, §^ 

Judgment and Exdb^rSoM', Title viii, §$ 1191^12da 
The judgnttbt,rchap; i, §J 1191»-1207. • 
The execution, chap. 11, §§ 1213-da 

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Appeals, when allowed, and how taken* aim the effect 

. t;hejeo;f^9,hap i, §§ 1235-46. , . ., , 
l>i8iii!^^n]|-^ti appeal for IrregularftV, chap, li, §§ 1218h 

1249. ^ ' 

Argument of the appeid, -ehap iii, §§ 1252-55. 
Judgment upon appeal, chap, iy, |§ 125&-65. 

MlSCBLLANBOUS PBOCBKPINGis, Titl^ X, §§ 1268-142a 

BaU, chap, i, §§ 126^1317. 

Who may be witnesses in cruttlna\ aotion9» ehap. ii, 

Compelling the attendance of witnesses^ ofaap. iii, §f 

Examination .of witnesses conditionally, chap, iv, §§ 

Examination of witnesses on commission.^ chap: v, §§ 

1349-62. » 

Inquiry into the insanity of the defendant before trial 

or after conviction, chap, vi, §§ 1367-73. 
Compromising certain public offenses by leave of the 

court, chap, vii, §§ 1377-9. 
Dismissal of the action, before or after indictment, fox 

want of prosecution or otherwise, chap, viii, §§ 

Proceedings against corporations, chap, ix, §§ 1390-7. 
Entitling affidavits, chap, x, § 1401. 
Errors and mistakes in pleadings and other proceed* 

ings, chap xi, § 1404. 
Disposal of property stolen or embezzled, chap, xii, §$ 

Beprieves, commutations, and pardons, chap, xiil, §§ 

Procekdings in Justices* ani> Folicb Coubts and Ap» 

PBALS, Title xi, §§ 1426-70. 
Proceedings in Justices' and Police Courts, chap, i, §§ 

Appeals, chap, ii, §§ 1466-70. 
Sfbciaii Fbocbbdinos of a Cbiminaii Katitbb, Title xii, 

}$ 1473-1564. 
Of the writ of habeas corpus, chap, i, §§ 1473-1505. 
Of coroners' inquests and duties of coroners, chap, ii, 

§§ 1510-19. 
Of search warrants, chap, iii, §| 1523-42. 
Proceedings against fugitives from justice, chap, iv, 

§§ 1547-58. 
Miscellaneous provisions respecting special proceed« 

lugs of a crmiinal nature, chap, v, §§ 1562-4. 

PXN. CODB.— 9. 

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lufraisoNiBD Pbbsohs BBOuaiBX nrro Ooubt, Title xiii, { 

PART m. 


Of thb StATB P&ISOK, Title i, 1673-05. 
Of the State prison, chap, i, §§ 1573-87. 
Of the discharge oi prisoners before the expixstion of 
their term of service^ chap, ii, §§ 1590-1595. 

Of GotTNTY Jails, Title ii, §§ 1597-1614. 

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iUrt. I, § 1. All men are by nature free and' independ- 
ent, and liave certain inalienable rights, among wbicb 
are those of enjoying and defenjiiing life and liberty; 
■cqiuxing, possessing, and protecting property; and pur 
tning and obtaining safety and bappiness. 

Inalienabld rights.— Legislative p6Wer cannot rea<;h them except 
on eowrletioncf citeieMI -KeU. 67 » sod no pettum cin l»e deprived of 
his libera wlthont Intervention of a Jiury— 1 8toekt» Ch. 181 ; oat every 
Mvson may be restricted from exerosing bis iteots In a manner bo ai 
to Interfere with tbe tights of otber»--88 GaTTM. 

Art. ]; § 4. * • • No person shall be rendered in. 

competent to be a witness or Juror on acooniit of his opin« 

ions on matters of religious belief, 

Testimonr may be received wttbont respect to^reUgtoos belief ot 
witness— 17 u&L 612. The rule appUM'to dyingdeclSnktions of de- 
ceased^-SlCaLOSS; 4aid,S4i, . il^ 

Art. I, § 5. The privilege of the \iT:lt oif habeas corpus 
shall not be suspended, unless wheti, Ih ^ses of rebellion 
or inyasion, the public siafety may require its suspension. 

See ConsL U. & art. 1^ S 9> snbd. 2. > 

Art. I, § 6. - All persons shall be bailable by sufficient 
sureties, unless for capital offenses where the proof is eiri* 
dent or the presumption great. Excessive bail shall not 
be required, lior excessive fines' bapoeedi nor shall cruel 
or unusnal puniistiments be infUcted. Witnesses shall not 
be unreasonably deiaiaed^. nor confined in any zoom 
where criminals ace aetnaUy impfisened. . * 

Om offense— 2 pfitsb. Bep.~362. 'Ifie'rlgbt is MouHed to those «Uy. who 

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have not been conTicted-41 CaL 29; Ex parte Wafldns, 7 Peters, 568; 
as where ]nry foil to agree, and are discbarged— 41 Cal. 220; 69 Mo. 
598: nor does it apply to capital cases in which bail may be made a 
matter of discretion, or may do forbidden— 19 Cal. 639; 19 Ala. 661: 28 
id. 89: 84 Id. 270; 9 Ark. 222; as where the evidence would not siistain 
a veraiot/of mmerin the, first degree— 34 Ala- 270; 8 AiBhsk 327i 19 

ohio,li9(_ _ :..... .;.(!/.> 

Bail after conviction.— Pending appeal, admission to bafl is In dis- 

cretion of court— 48 Cal. 3; id. 653; 41 id. 80; a discretion measured hy 
legal rules, and by reference toutalogies of the law— 48 Cal. 6; 49 id. 
680. Statutes, making bail a matter of discretion, are constitutional — 
41 Cal. 29. The discretion will be exercised whenever substantial Jos- 
tice may be ijromotea— 44 ^aL Q55. . , r. 

Who. may release on bail.^To procure release on ball, the prisoner 
must go bezo/re the'^magtlsiritd who issued the waitant, or soine maefs> 
tratein the saqie county— 64 <;:!aL 102; and after GQuviotion. the Ju4£e 
of the court m^ which -the^lS was had-48 Cal. 653; 49 id. 680^ afld 
then, o " 
On an a. 
on bail is n^^ impri3opmentr-41 Cal. 210. 

Bzoesgive bail, rednctien o£.-*-In flxinff amouut, the purpose 
should be to cause the appearanee of aecu8ed^64 Cal. 75; and on the 
Mplioatlon for reduction, the guilt of accdsed will toe presumed— M 
Cal. 75; 44 id. 655. The co«rt or Judge is not authorised to interfere* 
unless the bail is excessive, and greatly disproportionate to the offense 
—44 Gal. 556: 64p»1.75., Fifteen thousand uoliars not excessive for as- 
sault to murder— 44 Cal. 655: nor one hundred and twelve thousand 
dollars fbi^tanflistinetfeioniee^ CaL 410ft. ., 

Art I, § 7. The right of trial T>y jury shall be secured 
toa4,an<lr9i;i^Jiifnft6!I^ie. • * * A trial by Jury may 
be waived in all criminal cases not amounting' to fdlony, 
by consent pi both x>arties« ^^ressed in ox>ei> court. 

Trial by jury*— Tho right ts secured by the Constitution* 7 PBtara, 
652; Iji all cotnnaon-law tu!tlori!i— 1?3 CaL Uo. It estcntls only to prosocu- 
tlona by indictmcMit^OTliiftinuatloii— Sii Ala. ]^%i itdCKji no^spplyco 
prtfceedlnj?sou ifroacntmeiit licfaruji jcistlto of tlie, 12 CoatiAU, 
nor to flammary ronjediea g I vn^ Ly Eitatutc—T Gn. iSM j 2U Ala. IbS; 42 Fii. 
Bt. m\ as CLIP actloa of a ncjllcfl matflstnkte In ccsrainlttliitf i* minor to 
the Industrial ecbool— 51 Cai, 2!W, It Is ivright Tvlikh c«uu6t bij waived 
l)y consent of defendant— 18 N. Y. 13^; I ritts. <|1^J3. The LeLrLslattjro 
may remilttte the loanHur of trial— J^l lo^a, ,i5Li; a cal, lia. Alietia m-e 
noE eatltled Co ajtiry compoEad of oue-liqjr Qli^^na— 51 CaL 5S^. 

Art. ly ^ 8; Offenses heretofore required to be prose- 
cuted by indlcttnexit, shall be prosecuted by information^ 
After examination and commitibeiit by a magistrate, or bj 
indictment, with i or "Withont such examinatton aaod leonr' 
mitme&t; '.as may be porescribed by iaw* Aigraad jur^ 
BhaU iSe drawn a^ stutnmoned at le^t^ once a yeax in ^ach 
dotinty. ' 

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FiroieotiUon lyytfidletment of a&ycrtme, inclading mlsdaneanord, 
la not pn>lilbited-53 OaL 412. 

ZxceptioQfl to grand Jury,— Tho law may proTido that ^xri-ptiona 
be takeu at a piirticnlir time— } a Cal. i2ii; niKl If lio dccliuea to Uo so, 
liC waives h\B right t*s iJo &« after indktincivt— 45 CaL fr50. It Ia com- 

f>tteiit for Ihii JLb;iil.sIjitiii-c!i lo reatrlct; tlio ETOUUt^a of «-£] alien ge-Hl6 Cal, 
iG. As. to w^mt of tonrurr^nce— W Cal. US; M UI 37; Wallflc© C. ,r, 
flia.; fallurii to Ijistrt iijimea orTPvitne^ge^, fallaro to be pre sen ted— ^il 
OdJu UJi or fcr irrpjjularity tu selecttiiEr, pummoninfft or ImpaoULlin j 
->4afcl. Wi l>ut tlint lEwii-i HamiDonetniythecciriJiicrlsLiotagroiinrl 
for c^ldlengei to the pant 1—4 fi U\. IM; 3^ Uh 03, Sop CotlCp | m^, 
T^AiH w«flatimDiouea il9 a ptiit Jury and Imptmnolccl as a gnma jury 
1» Lllef^— 49 CaL 'i4. If acL^nsiM 1:1 ItiUictc^d utiUcr Awroog uam«>lis 
msij e Uil bs tried under lila rciiil [mjnti— ^ CaJ. ^10, 

Art. I, § 9. * • • Indictments found, or informa- 
tion laid, for publications in newspapers, shall be tried in 
the county where such newspapers have their publication 
office, or in the county where the party Alleged to be 
libeled resided at the time of the alleged pubH^atiott, nn- 
less the place of trial shall be changed for good eaose. 

Art. I, § 13. In criminal prosecution in any court 
whatever, the party accused shall have tiie ri^ht to a 
speedy and public trial; to have .the process of tho court to 
compel the attendance of witnes^iqs in his behalf, and to 
appear and defend in personand with counsel. No person 
shall be twice put in j^opar^y f or the same offense; nor 
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against 
himaeU; nor be depriv,ed of life, liberty, or . property with- 
out due process of law. Xhe Legislatvure shall have power 
to provide for the taking, in the presence of the party ac- 
cused and his counsel, of depositions of witnesses, in crim- 
inal oases, cither lihan oases of homicide, where there is rea- 
son tc l)eHeVe that tho Witiiess, froin inability or other 
eanse, will iioVattehd at the trial. 

Riglrt -of 'moow^ed.^-Defdikfettit liM tte riffbt to confront and cros»> 
examine witnesses— 64 Gal. 627; bat this ri^ot may be waived— 33 Ala. 

Right to oonnMl.— In dapftal €a$e4 tha eoort mar aUow more tbati 
two cotmsbl 'toaOdress the jury, on each 8lde-4d^C^rm Order of 
argwnent-«eo43Cal.l54; id. 349; 44 id. 100; 46 id. 114; id. 802; ^ id. 105. 

Byjall breaUngamdescaping, defendant waives U^ right t^ counsel^ 

Iter dl40iai»e 
opardy— 4S CaL 

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Jdra«fd7.r-4> person to^Iet^d for mui:4eri«fter dl^^iai^e of lory, 
on indictment for manslaughter, is twice in Jeopardy— 4S CaL 3^. It, 
.trUle Jury Is btit 46Uberatinff; the Judge adjoutna the term^ it Is an ae- 


QulLUl— 4a CaL 02^. It ottacljea when % party is opce placed ou tiiftl 
Uoforo a competent eourt, on n vnlia JualcUiiBiit auU ;* tli^diatve pC 

Iury wiEliowt le'^td consent— ia CiU, ^ii\ U Id,^^; 3i Id. iJ^; I id, 3T6; 
l<],27d; e BUtclif. 5'ia: m Cotm. W: ISArk. 2tJl; 3 Erev.m; 3 Custi. 
Sl2j 1 QX 4?li ;i Hawks, 351; :i H^Jst, ITi; 17 Mass. fil5; « Wend. WO; but 
It l9 otbenvtse whera tJie Jury Is dlat^hargeJ from iioavoliiBlj^Q ueceii- 
ujtr-O Wlie^. S7!); I euiii. iJ; Baid* S/5; I MiLean, iui; (i Serff. & R, 
fiT7i aa tmm tlielr Itiablllty to aurec— 4^ t;aL 3,'Uj 41 iiLSi^j or wliere 
th acHo o liae be en H Ism Issert -54 C at 4 12 ; W Id^ ^GS, Tb© pof nt of b- 
jeotilon Khould bo exj:ir<;'ss<='d ou ilu'- i'i-t!ord— 4"'i <..':U. 3L^7e ualt??i3 the ver- 
dice Id &o iiiiiicriaJTi (■■ :;■,./■.. m ,•,-.:.,.■. M. i. i .-^■.]— ^;t i(l.<jyiJ. 

Defendant at witnefli.^Tliis proyislon implies onlf to criminal 
cases-1 Abb. U* a. 317; 1 Sa\^. 605; 10 Int. Bev. B«g. 107. **Oriinlual 
case" means one involving punishment for crinifiH-s CJi. L. N.57; 21 
Int. Rev. Bee. 251; or charge for official misconduct— 1 Wood, 499. 
Defendant need not be a witness on bis own bebalf--3S €al. 522; and 
his refusal to bo so does not tend to establish his gollt-^ id. 66; 36 
id. 522. But a question put to him on cross-examination, whether he 
had heen previouslj^ arrested, is not objectionable— 46 Cal. 148. That 
he offers himself as a witness on his own behalf does not change the 
rules of practice, nor make him a witness for the State— 41 (;aL 431. 

Art. J, § 16. Ko bill of itttainder, et pott facto law, or 
law impairing the obligations of contracts, shall er-er be 

Bill Qf attainder.— A bill of attainder is a legislative act which in- 
flicts punishment without a judicial trial-4 Wall. 277. 

Ez post facto.— These words relate exclusively to penal laiw»-S 
Dall. 390; 8 Peters, 109: 17 ^ow. 456;, 4 Wall. 172; id. 390; but not to 
crimhial procedure— 46 Cal. 114; ? Oratt.B32; 16 B. Mon7l5; 14 Tex. 402. 
A law allowing counsel for the State to open and close the argument 
is not ex post/aeto-^Q Cal. 116; nor is a statute providing that a second 
conviction for petit liarceny makes one guilty of felony— 45 oaL 482; 43 

Art 3C, § 20. • • ♦ No person shall be convicted 
of treason, unless on the evidence of two witnesses to the 
same overt act, or confession in open court. 

Art.II. §1. » » » No peirson convicted. of any in- 
famous, crime, and ?io person hereafter convicted of the 
embezzlement or misappropriation of pubUe money, shall 
ever exerpise the privilege of an elector ioi this Stat<^ 

Infamous crimes.- Larceny— 1 Boot, 485. Beceiving stolen goods-^ 
7 Met. 60Q. Fowerr— 3 Ohio St. 229; 3 Hawks, 893. ?7erlury-« SaUc. 
155; 4 East, 180; II id. 907. Snbomsaon of periury«-r3 Ot/k & D. 141; 6 
Jur. 66&^ 

Art. tV, § 17. I'he Assembly shall have the sole 
power of ihipeachment, and all im^leaehmehts shidl be 
tolled, by the Senate. When sitting fco: that purpose» th<i. 

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19 co2fSTixuTiONAL PROVISIONS. Arts. 4^6 

8enat(»8 shall be on oath or a^nnation, and no prison 

shall be convicted \rithout the concurrence of two-thirds 

of them^nbers elected. 

T^lal of ixnpeachment.'-^To be effectual, articles must be presented 
to and be received by a quonim of the entire Senate»12 Fla. 653; and 
a member of the House voting thereon la Qualified to sit on the trial, 
if subsequently elected to the Senate^Adqison's Trials 21-9: Porter's 
Trial. 53. All the functions of the goYemor are suspended during his 
trial-3 Neb. 464. 

Art. IV, § 18fc The governor, lieutenant governor, 
secretary of state>. controller, treasurer, attorney-gen- 
eral, Burveyoi^enexaly chief, jiistioe and associate jus- 
tices of the Supreme Court, and judges of the Superior 
Courts, shall be liable to impeadiment for any misde- 
meanor in office, but judgment in such oases shall §:stend 
only to removal from office, and disqualification to hold 
any office of honor, trust, or profit under the State: but 
the i>arty convicted or acquitted shall, nevertheless, be 
liable to indictment, trial, and punishment, according to 
law. All other civil officers shall be tried for misdemean- 
or in office in such manner as the legislature may provide, 

Miademeanor in office.— Trial of civil ofElcers— 45 Cal. 200. A pre- 
•idlng judge may be Impeached for prerenting an associate fronk de^^ 
Uvermg his opinion— Addison's Trial. 114; 4 DaU. 225: Porter's TriaL 
11. A removal from ofElce is part of the Judgment— 1 X<eg. Gaz. 455; 43 

ArtL TV, § 21. Ko person convicted of the embezzle- 
ment or defalcation of the public funds of thc^ United 
States, or of any Stated or. of any county or municipality 
therein, shall ever be eligible to any office of honor, trust, 
or profit under th^ State^ and the Legislature Ahall pro- 
vide, by law, for the punishment of exD^ezatl^iiO/^^t Qr de- 
falcation as a felony. 

' r ' .• ; .'-!••. 

Art. yi; § i. The judicial ppwe J of the St»^ shaU be 
vested j|L the S^ate, sltl^asa oousrtof impeachment, 
in a ^upienie Court, Sopeiior CSoortSi jintioes of the 
peace, ai^d, ^oh inferior courtai a3 the X4^ilat^]!>e nm^j 
estajbllsh in any :incorpoEatQ4. city, or ■. towix,; ^ cil<y and 
Goui^^y. . r , ■, ^,, ...,,•. ^ ^ * 

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Art. 6 coNSTrruTioNAii provisions. 20 

BftmohM of- jndioiasy— Each btandh hihs Itt functions, ana e«c]i tB 
beyona tlie conti^ol of the ottiaisr^ Cal. 43{ Id. 238; M4tbe Legistatare 
cannot confer on ono court the functions of anothei^-5 id. 230: out 
see 80 id. 680. The only case is where the ctert cannot adlond the re- 
lief soughtr-S Cal. 26; id. 34; id. 520; 9 ^d. 607; but two or more courts 
knagr have concurrent Jurisdiction over same parties and subjeot^nat- 
ter— 30 id. 680v . Tbe judgment of court which, flcst acquires Jurisdlo- 
tion cannot be interfered witb^-^l Cal. 438. 

biferior coorts.^The Municipal Criminal Court of San IVaqiciseo is 
a ecmstltntional cottrt~3» Cal. 617; 41 Id. 129; 02 id. 2B0. 

Justices of peace.— -Their Jurisdiction is exclusive as to misdemean- 
ors, where no indictment is found— ^3 Cal. 412. They may punish for 
cont6mpt-47 COL 181. They 9tetaS)etlat comts, lit favor of ^nose juris- 
diction nothliur can be a8Sumed-M€^217; 12 Cat 283: 23 Cal.401; 33 

City Osiminal Qant of S»tt. Fraaiolaoo.-^Is-a court of reeorA-OS 


Police Oonrt of San Francisco.— Intendments In favor of its Judg- 
ments in certab cases— 43 Cal. 487. It possesses the same powers and 
Jurisdiction as is or may be conferrea by law upon Justices of the 
peace*^47 Cal. 127. It is an Inferior court, and eveiytning should ap- 
pear in its proceedings to give it Jurisdiction and Justify its Judgment 

' ''^" ■'^^^.216; critIcising-45 Cal. 465. Jurisdictlona facts 

iCranchrit4; 65 03.216; critIcising-45 _.. 
must be set forth on the records— 94 CaL 821 

Art. VX § 4. The Supreme Court sliall have appellate 
Jurisdiction • • * in all criminal cases prosecuted by 
indictment or information, in a court of record, on ques- 
tions of law alone. * * * Eacli of the justices shall 
have powe^ to issue writs of Mbeas corpus to any part of 
the State, Upon petition b^ or oin hehalf of any person 
held in actual custody, and may make such writs return* 
able before hin^self , or the Supreme Court, or Wore any 
Superior Court in the State', or fcef ore Vny judge thereof. 

Appellate jurisdiction.— The Supreme Court has no JurisdlQtion in 
criimual oates of a less degree than felony— 5 Cal. 2(A; 7 Id. 140 ; Id. 168; 
9 id. 85; 16. id, 187; 20 id. 117; 29 id. 459: 30 id. 98; 81 id^ 5654 59 id. 427. 
It has no Jurisdiction in a cf-imlnal Olsq involving valldjty of a tax— 30 
CaL 98, It has Jurisdiction onappeal on -qaestlcDB <tf law atone-oo Cal. 

Habea* corpcte.-62 CaL m 

Art. VI, § 5. The Superior Courts shall have original 
jarisdiotlote • . i» « in all crltidnal cases amounting to 
felony, aii^ eases of misdemeaiftor not otherwiseprevlded 
for. -• • • They shall hav^e appellate jurisdictidn In 
suoli oases ^'AzIsiBg In jttstiees* and 'other inferior odurtSi 
in thtttr rcMpestiyei cound^ies, 'AH may be preseKbed^tHy law. 
• • • Said courts, and their judges, shall have po^er to 

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21 coNSTiTunoNAL PBOYisioNS. Arts. 6-20 

issae writs of habeas corpus j on petition by, or on behalf of 

any x>erson in actual custody, in their respective counties. 

Original jiul8diction.~Dlstrlct Courts (Superior Courte) have Juris- 
diction of actions to prevent extortion~45 Cal.200. Ttiey bave Jurls- 
ciction to order accused to answer a criminal charge-41 Cal.876; and 
whether such order is erroneous or irregular, cannot l>e considered on 
habeai corptu—lCl. ; 85 id. 100 ; 62 id. 220. Superior Courts, as successors 
of District Courts, can enforce the Judgrment rendered by the latter 
courts— M Cal. 184. See Const. Cal. art.^aii, § 3. They have jurisdiction 
on habeat corpus, and all process necessary to enforcement of their 

ludgmentsafteraiOrmationonappeal— 54Cal. 344; 43 id. 457. Aluc. 
in one district may hold court in another district— 1 Cal. 380; 2 id. 11 
Oounty Oourta (Superior Courts) are courts of general criminal 

Jurisdiction— 27 Cal. 65. This section confers appellate Jurisdiction on 
Superior Courts, when mode and means of appeal are provided--41 
Cal. 129. The Jurisdiction of County Courts extends to inquiries by in* 
tervention of grand Juries-dS Cal. 412. 

Adyonmment.-By the Act of March 1st, 1864, a district Judge may 
Bdloum a general term in one county over an intervening term in an- 
other county; and the Act of 1863, p. 333, was Intended to prevent the 
loss of a term, if the Judge did not appear on the day appointed'-42 
CaL 20. 

Art. VI, § 19. Judges shall not charge juries with 

respect to matters of fact, but may state the testimony 

and declare the law. 

InfltractLonB.— Court may instruct Jury that testimony tends to prove 
the matter~49 Cal. S60 : may state evidence and declare law, but not 
express opinion on weight of evidence— 17 id. 166: 18 id. 876; 22 id. 213; 
24 Id. 605: 27 id. 600; 84 id. 683 : 36 Id. 255. It should not instruct on con- 
troverted facts— 61 Cal. 588; or charge that the existence of afact raises 
a presumption of existence of another. fact— 51 CaL 603; 52 id. 315; 54 
id. 63; 61 id. 689. 

Art 2CX, § 2. Any citizen of this State who shall, 
after the adoption of this Constitution, fight a duel with 
deadly weapons, or send or accept a challenge to fight a 
duel with deadly weapons, either within this State or out 
of it, or who shall act as second, or knowingly aid or as* 
sist in any manner those thus offending, shall not be al- 
lowed to hold any oflELce of profit, or to enjoy the right of 
suffrage under this Constitution. 

Ditfranchisement Is not a cruel personal punishment within the 
Inhibition of the Constitution— 3 Smith, Pa. 112. See 28 Ind. 393. 

Art. XZ, § 10. Every person shall be disqualified 
from holding any office ef profit in this State who shall 
have been convicted of having given or offered a bribe to 
procure his election or appointment. 

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CApprored February 14tb, 1872.3 

The People qf Uis State of CfcUi/iamiaf reprumted inSenate 
and jMembly, do enact a$ fdUows: 


1. Thia Aot shall be known as Thb Pbkaii Code ov 
Caufobhia. and is divided into Three Parts, as follows: 

I— Of Cbdixs akd PmnsBMBzirs. 
n— Of Gbiminal PsooEDimB. 
in— Of TfiB Statb PsnoK Ain> Oouktt Jails. 


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i 2. When tUs act takes effect. 

§ 3. Not retroactive. 

§ 4. Construction of the Penal Code. 

§ 5. Provisions similar to existing laws, how construed. 

§ 6. Effect of Code upon past offenses. 

S 7. Certam terms defined In. the . senses in which ithey are used ta 

this Code. 

S 8. What Intent to defraud la sufficient. 

§ 9. Civil remedies preserved. 

S 10. Proceedings to Impeach or remove officers and others preserved, 

g 11. Authority of courts-martial preserved. Courts of Justice to 

punish for contempts. 

f 12« Ofsedtldiurdoelartngerlmespuaiflbable. Pniy oteoort. 

S 13. Punishments^ how detejrmlned. 

S 14. Witness' testlhiohy may be read against hUn oti prosecution for 


§ 15. "Crime" and "pittillc<«eiise" defined. 

S 16. Crimes, how divided. 

S 17. Felony and misdemeanor defined. 

S 18. Punishment of felony, when not oth«rwiBe>pr68cribed. 

1 19. PuDlsluaeBt Of misdemeanor, when ilotrotherwise pr«(soribed. ' 

S 20. To constitute crime there must be unity of act and intent. 

S 21. Intent, how manifested, and who considered of sound inind. 

S 22. Drunkenness no excuse for crimed When it may be comidered. 

g 23. Certain etiututes specified as continnlns; in force. 

§ 24. This act, how cited. 

2. This Code takes effect at twelve o'clock, noon, on 
the first day of January, eighteen hundred and seventy- 

3. No part of it is retroactive, unless expressly so de- 

Oonstmction.— The Code is not retrospective, unless so express- 
ed-4 Cal. 136; 2 WalL 328: 2 Cranch, 272; id. 358; 3 id. 399: 2 Gall. 139: 
id. 204; 1 Bay, 179; 1 Blackf. 220; 4 Const. S. C. 384; 1 Ala. 226: 4 
Johns. 101; 7 id. 474; 3 Me. 326; 11 Mass. 396; 3 N. H. 473: 4 id. 19; 6 Id. 
109 : 4 Serg. & B. 401 ; 13 Id. 256. It is competent in the Xeglslature to 
make a statute retroact— 1 CaL 65; 39 id. 309. So, as to acts concerning 
appeals— 28 CaL 820. 


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25 wvMSJoaisMBXiBBoyuaasB, §§4^7 

^.. ,Tlw mie 9f <lhA ooomuni lairy thut pcnu^ Btm^ 
ut«» ai» t»>lM (StBktly iConatmed, i has no 4q»pUcatilnii$o 
tbiB Cc44i . AllitBj^zoTiiiioBs ave to lk«;oolate»»cl ttc6oiil« 
. ing, to tbQ iaUrrimpAtfiti£ t]tieir tetuB, yriih «^ triewto^elEiM 
itaobjQQ^AildtopioixiQlifilkuitioei 1> 

5. Th« pxovi8iMai» t>f tfcis Code, so fttf as tliey are 
Bub^Qia^F the ay^saie as. exl0!tiE»g statojkoSf.nicistMJfloxi^ 
stnifi4 as.cQDtiiiKiatAsi^s thereof* loid not as newveoael- 
ments. i 

6. IJto act or omission commenced after twelve o'olodE, 
noon, of the da^^ on wbioh this Code takei eftoet ab 
a law, is criminal or panishable, except as pi^Soribed 
or anthorisasd by this Code, or by some of the statutes 
whioh it spedfies as continaing in force and as not af- 
fected by its provisions, or by some ordinaBoe, mmdcipal, 
county^ OFtownshlii regulation, passed or adopted mider 
such statutes, and in force when this Code takes e^dk 
Any act ortomission commenced priosr to that time may 
be inquired of, prosecuted, and punished in the samo 
manner as if this Code had not beeo, passed. 

wisffp wlitfrs3 punialiment la dimJnlsiietl— '^3 Ji. Y. M: ^i Pick. 4^)2; $ 
Cband. itidt I BlMlLr, J!*lj 7 TejL m, Uicreaaea pufllsbment for aaut>- 
Sequepc Offense may be Jmuotied— 45 CelI. 430; 47 iU. Vii set) Deaty'^a 
Ciclib. Ji-RW^Ma tl( J). I2fii mm this ia nut punishment for the first of- 
fense— Peopk ti. Stacilej. 47 CfLl. IH. If a et^tut^ Ja eliAiitfad $uba& 
Queut ttj cumni^sslou of oflense. tlie pimle^tmieut ia regulifed by the 
prior law— 7 CaL 35«i; but fitatutea c^miging tlie forms of pmcedura 
»re not cr poit facfo law&-4<i Cal, lift. See IlX PoflT Faoto, oufa^ 
Const. Frana. 

7. "Wdtds used in this Ck>d^ in the present tetlse iii^ 
dude the fttture'ae'we^l e>s the present; wc»ds used in th^ 
masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the 
tingalav munbeftlm^ades-the i^ltffal, and the plural the 
■fjngnlar;: the word pessoQ iai^udes >a eorporation as well 

PSV. CODB.— 8, 

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Jttl« a«ta^Ea^iNtt8(^f;Iwidtiiigpinc]«dB8>prlatiiig9 oatiiin- 
o»Indi»: itf^atinHi.itr.idaoiaigttoii; mUt •^etf^ 'iiioA« «f 
.l8nd«tdtenx«iiftuOBdepDath waiBnn|;loa:U>emMMMbA Vsr 

'* depose"; signatoie cxn ma^lsaaiptiKm ^'^oktatid^'.m 
Yrheik' %Iie< {MM»dii €a«ib<^ 'write,' Ud naite^ ^ilgf '^tten 

^li^e ifo'iit^iti^^i)^ 1^ |Qlld\rii|g mrd^^ aliob, l^ve ia 
'ihiJB Code the signlj^cation attached to them in this eeo- 
ti49n,|ua«98 9l^erwia4ilijgpa?e9^f|?Qm(tite»cm^^ '. 

. JPMe.>ne^i«iMd'«ti^^ to tbe fn- 

tenftwHli'tTlilch tfn aet is ctone oF^^tAed, mtUMi ktoiplf 
a purpose or willingness to commit the act, or make the 
.emiiBioQ JKitore^ to; U does not ttqjaif amx intent to 
^violate lanTk jor to injure anottar, or to acqnkeiany ad- 
i!vantage»^ !■•.■/.. 

K Second. Tbe words "neglect,"! ** ne^igdnoe,*' *^negli- 
g&at,'.*i Baad:** negligentiy»*' import a want of siidb atten- 
,tion to the-BsAnre or probable conseqaenoes of tbaaottMr 
-Amissionjas a pfudent: ipan ordinasily bestows In aoting 
in his own conoems. 

Third, The word '^ corruptly *' imports a wtonghil de- 
sign to aequire «r oaoae some pemtnlary or other advant- 
age to the person guilty of tbo act <»• omissioili i^enttd td, 
or to sbme other person. 

Fourth* The ^ords *^ malice" and '** UiAliciously" im- 
port a wish to Tex, annoy, or injure another person, or an 
Intent to do a wrongful act, established either by proof or 
prest^mption of law. 

F^h, The Tfoid "knowii^ly" imports piily a knowU 
edge that the facts exist which bring the act or omission 
."^t^ th^ provisions .c^ this Code. . Jttdoes^not^.ieqiiire 
^ny ^^awie489 of the ui4awlul9999^.p( #ueb>»9t orouiisr 
sion. , . -f.\ . 

t £lixthk The weed ''brlbe'^ signifies.. taytiilDS of villaui 
fit Mvantage* present jOc: {MOspectftTe. or/soiy; proniso or 

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a oorrQpii4ii«iiitt«iiifliimce»(^iid*wfttl]^v'ti|a piim^^ 

iMd»Uflofio|M«i««]moticr^ • •'! • > ••-'• ' V'f '••♦'^■'' ■•*"■ "' 

to BhlpfifiBfc Uicliia«ij^lptr!0< ftll kinda» «teambMMpo»*i 

naTiffated ^iom(|^c« to pla^b lortht.tmaspoftatiidB'Irf] 
iBwrcihiwidltfrqr Pffjopa* . -i : v r .•> • i . .. ii( d^ 

Eighth, The wozds "peace officer'' signify any^cna cii 
the ofSicmm meBtiidNMl ii» Metton leigfat htrndxeA^aiA^MV- 
enWm^otthisCMo*. ' - -> .., i-i i.* mi; 

. JB^MA. tCbe woKd .^1iBU«istawte'.\ slgtaiflfli aaif !oM)oi> 
the.opictw^iiMrtion<d.iii«wtioii •igl^?hiaidrtAama wijWt 
of this Code. | , .- , .\ . •• .r . .. l-'. f ' ••i«j 

T&nih. The woBd '^property" inolndes botll/xebl^Mg^^ 
person^.prop^r^^. ■ ' '...:.... '..''■ "- • '., * • •> 

.ESMeaifiA. ;Th«)Tr«idi; V real/ propcdBtiy V-|M'Im«b^^ 
"wl^h lands,, tenement ^nd^^erei^itainfentd, i ,, L , • , . 

T^eHfliiA > : 9mm wbxdsf ?* ;pe]»onal property!'' iaiduden 
nioiiey, i^d«>dB, cibMtel^/ffafltjgl^flii action, aad'^d^ioificie i^- 
ckibt, -.J.::-. • . a.. • '. •• :•'.', w^ '. 

l^ire^e^i T^ word ,'' inontV' zne^a i^aW^I 
month,' Tainki»etilcirw)se ev^ressed. > ; . ',\ 

Fourtemih,. ^ Tl^. W?^ u:?^" M^J»ci^.«94icfli . / 1 

JF^i^taBMu>,f Thi»;W0rd "^vxjjk" signifiM.^n^oiDder or pre- 
cept lb, T^t^.f^n^dji^tl^i^ liamia !of it^e i^6^%}>i oi i^\ 
ooort :<^ :|adioial c^fflip^r, and <|be wo^ ^'pst^tm,*^^ "J^li 
ox BoiBBBQiiaiBaiedi.ia. tne coarae loi judicial' prbceedia0s«t 

Sixteenth, Words and phrctses inn^t t)6 6oiii^traM a<icbra- * 
ing td thel ionWxi iohd :ther approt^d iisag^ <^f Aib^ 1^ 
gnagefr t^t t«c1iilldil'wo^» and phi«»^; ailtd'i^txctt'difibftf ' 
as masf' har^ Moftiirea'ti i^bcfn'Riia^ iinfi tipptopiiaik i&itoii* 
ing in latr, miiM'b«'«6i]^tlrded'a<^ Siidh'pea£tV&«i 

and appropriate meaning. '*'' 

ammM^tnOii (Wetdll^irtngajo|BtauttiMt9i<tcPtB^ee(6x 
mtnv pwMt' ottoerariir'ioAhev ^psnons^ arareburtntcafaAi 

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98 (P~9 PKIBUMiPMiKlr 'MWWWmWll 

vjnjy*<flfiK»j < iWbev tlra wmi M ft «b«rt «r^iNi1li6d oOfMM'' 
is reqniied bylaw to be affixed 1)i^''ftnri^tt^<t]Minil:€i 
'CiMalr^nkioliideAiafii'isiimssite tif^stUA Mai •«^><Nt tkepit- 
p«D alMMr ov. upon any «iibe*a«(ii vttaitiiiBd io 'lft(« p&pet ' 
oi^bleMsfc^ivlDffilTtBlblttaipriMitoii; TMMUl'df a 
pkivato. penpv may be^nlad^ im Ubi afaaiisier,^ dr by the' 
scroll of a pen, or by Tnritlng the tiroid'f'«ettl^^"i««ittt 
liBiiainD* •• 

iMMAMitfAw The ^Kifncd ^*8tetev'^ i#lMii'«iiq^lMI ib the 
different parts of the United States, inoliidcfei thb'DiMlittt 
dfiGUiun^ and' til* TexrItoHevb «<d ^h^^vrofAs " TMiM 
aUitemimiy^iiiBlfiidetiMl>lstKtetaikl^T^ £Ap^^ 

proved March dOth, in effect July Ist, 1874.] 

fiMdilw WtUfhllr mMnt de^gneOIr* U^teMiossuy^^ Alii, ill; 
•Met. 288: yet it freqaently sl^pilfles an evUintent wtthpiitJintlflSlrtft 
•xcii»e-lOAla.928j aEiig.iMr4Wliart.427; 12Ad.AB;m' 

(«8fsML9^ Actegf omtisiagBySg wen si sctf #f oiwuhlMkta, BMy be 
negUgeiit~2 B]atclir.ii^l .4 lloLeanj,2tf2. 

Oiiminal negligence is sn imlawfn] act 4one carelessly or a iawfoi 
sel40iM;witlumt^Aieeantto»-7ChL3i; 4M%8(MI.605; UHeiBplL IM; 
S&lfi&Mk'^^' <*»^9f¥M«^aorftlegi2faiit]::ri9.«)«tcl»^ 

i9ifM.4. BCaUce is iU^wiU against ft petwrn-MOaL 48; Mid. IBS. ni 

S Mason. 102: 4 i<L 115; A id. ltt» 81 tfioJiklt l»MaH»l»|i»Itt.J17} 
SBicli.179; 21>ey.42S. 

gutid. 6 . Any vain able Hilng Is a bribe— TO Towa» 212. 

5ud^. 1<6. OaQStrtiction q{ larmL—Kf^sort tntist ba had M t^ nat' 
m^ sign mention uf tbu VkOrJii— &4 Ul. 4j:^tt Woriiai are to oCi taken In 
tbclr QBlural and obvlnita Beti!*?. atid not Iti rt scnso unreastm^blf re- 
Btclcted or enlarged— I Wiic»*. jm; 21 N. Y. i]iQ; aii^l tbe peaulUtf fcoEB 
la ^nlQili a wonJ 13 used Is to bo actermiiiea by tbe coate:ct— 5 Petera. 
1 ] a taL mh TbQ word poison Snaloilos corporacloc»^14 Oblo St. 61 L; 
2i Ind* 363. Seo rjO Mass. 61 i 74 N. Y. 3^E. 

8. Wlieneviirj by any of tlie pToyisions of tbii Code, 
iw in^nt tp c|«^ud is veqaired in ord^ ^ constitute any , 
cfl^^, it ia sofi^cijBnf^.if an intepjt i^pp^^Hra to dsfmnid any 
pie}r|S9n,,.associa,tion», ^ body poUtio, oc porport^e, ^hat- 
over. ' ,.^... ; . .r .; . ,,.; . 

j^i, /fl9ie oq^iSsidisjto^ specify oraiflBlas It thii Oodeany 
ItebiUtyrtQidaniagest penalty, fSffeitanj itt otiiMaqmeAy 

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39 t»TstdmMABX'p»/^m$mism, S§ 10h£& 

in any civil action or proce6diia^'iOt'«<i5f»<*6<» oybinktixm 
declared punishable herein, does not a^^M' iftnyrtgfft to 
recover or enforce the same. ; ■ • . i .. ^ -- 

10. The omission to specify or affirm id this Code 
any ground of forfeiture 'of a public bfficte, 6t otlieirthist 
or spebikl kuthtoiity cbtjfferyed by law, or -ahy po^eir Con- 
ferred by law to itfapeach, ireiaovtr, de^se, or ktlSJ)end 
any pUWo QA«e> m other person holding -any tru^t, ap- 
pointment, or other special authority conf eirred by lar^, 
does not affect such forfeiture Or pow^; otttnj proceed- 
ing authorized by law to carry ib«6 effect such tm^eich- 
sient, removal, deposition, or suspeasloii. 

ll.' This Co^e does not affect any power cpnfeiamd 
l>y law upoQ. fiif y^co^irt-ii^ail;^!,. 9r otl^eir, milif aiy aii^hor- 
ity or officer, to impose 9r inflict punishment upon offei;!^- 
ers; nor any^ppwer conferred bjf law upon any publjo 
body* tribunal^ f» officer* to imppfse or indict punishment 
f or a coi^t^mptp ^ ^ 

12. jTbfl M9iMttl: sectioflBA of this Code which dselMO 
Q^neAn iffimes to be^pnnjc^bloiaa thex)ein mentione^i d4»- 
▼olveA/di^ty .upon ^he«ottrt antlMriMdto pMS sentence, 
to detennine and impose the punishme4t pre^si^bfidit • 

13. Whettelre^ iti tbis Code tbe> punishmeot (to a 
crime ifi l^U un^eteinmined between qertsUn limits,'^tie 
punisiuiient indictecl In a pai1»cular case must be 
deterdiiQfi4 by the poutt authorised to pass sentence, 
withitt raeb Hmits a» maiy pe pres<^bed by thisf Code. ; 

14. The various sections of this Code, which declare 
that evidence obtained upon the examuiatiO)i of 'a person 
as a witneais cannot be received against him in any criili- 
inal proceeding, '^o hot fbrbid such evidence being proved 
against such person upon any proceedings founded upon 
• i)liait« ^^4t^<ommit»ed in saoh ««aniiiatb 

15.' k crixkie oif^dbtto offense is an act itioiniMtted' bi 
oinlttclilliiVidldtibtEtif'tb kw^orbiddiiig bi* comniatiietiHa 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

iA|}j«od tD.wldoli l»a>iiiittx0d, apoiLOonTto^<mi tMoM^t 

Seeond, Impiiaomnent. 
^^^^Tfiircit. Fine, 

,,]jirovf<A^ BemoTaifromoffloe; or, . 
,„jf^(A, Diaqtualification to hold aifd oajof apy office 
j ,<^ 4M)&or^ tniiat,, ov prp^t JLa tlus State, .. 

'Orime defined --76 ili. 218. It Incladto every otTense made pun* 
- tohable by ImiMM Hott. m. Seef l>toty^» OrinS^^w, % 1 iC^»imlstk- 
iiieiit--feeld.cluip.yUl,SS4^v :i. 

■ i . .3*6» GiiQiea ^re dlYidBd into; 
..^Wir^< F^loniep; audi 
Second, Misdcoiaeanozsb ^ ' 

Di<«ision of crimQS into felonies ^^d m|sdeine«io»-«pee Qefty's 

' i^^l A felony is a crime which is punishable -with 

^eath, or by imprispnin^nt in the State prison, ^very 
'tith^r crime id a misdemeanor. ; When a crime punishable 
'by imprisonment in the State prison U also punishable 

by fine or imprisonment in a county jail, in the diBctetion 
»ti tbe oourt> it -shtlkll be deemed a- miBdemeaner for all 

l^urpeees after i^ judjgment impoeing ct punishment otlier 
. than imprisonment in the ' State < pzlBon. [ Approved 

March m,lW4.]' ' 

, Ccaoardefinedrt^ Oal^ mil Blacki; 180; & ld«>tfB; 8» Ga:2D0; 8 
Tml gt. App. 114^ 
Dlscretidn of court as to pnniAbment— 6 (M. 245; 66 6a. M5; 68 
< 'fh. iMXk. But ibe'dlserecton g^Tea in some oasbs (O asl6s»«littlifte» pan- 

*'*^^18.' itoxcept in. cases wJiere a different punishment is 
"nresCribedL by thls^ ^.9,4.^t every off^iise declared 'to be a 
j lelony ti pi:^nishai)re t^y imi;>ri^ox^eni; ifo, th'e,State pjdsdn 

iSM.MMf9irh^ i)aae0,'Wb«rA:»L^i9^iii90t'»cnMb^iMi,^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

jallM^txeA^clliigAis inolltiiii <ot ct>|r)^^M»tiip:cfiMPiig 

20. In every crime or pabUip. o^ense t^^re ninst exist 
- ^ii;Bl90«^Q):49i&t<c|per^^iQi^ of ^ act and fntei^i^ or ^ziininal 

nejzUi^iiVQe» , ,. 

Th^te mnst be ^ f oint Operation of act akd'liftiMJit^2d'CkL 679t 
M Id. 183; 52 Ala. 893; 58 id. 390: 9 Ark. 42; 2 B. Mon. 419; 1 I>e?t AjB. 

imderS22. • ;■■ ., . (i;;; ; • • .j;..,, , .j^, v- .. 

21;' >T&»in«eki!^ or inWnKtoinlfr manifestdd^by^tihaiOir" 
' emtttWiicM 'OoimectoA ^ with tbe^joiBeBsa^^ iahdrtlifr aoimd 
mind and discretion of the atoiBaBed; < ^ |MBMl^i> aieof 
wOfoiaAiibSkA 'wh^9M tMltlier idii«li»rnddD)liiAAtioi[i^%M» td^ 
feotedwilfti&ikiiltsri'-' v' ' " .' ^ .:, 
^ ^^Sst^MMlM Vt. 

*^i^^^^^'' CjFim,,Law^j6a. , . ,^^ 

PrBsnniptidn orom acta.— Thd tint p)^siu&^tna1f tlh!^lia(drai» M^M* 
■ary, and oTen probable consequences weM'intcatded Jv-tlw doer ;of 

^.ac^itdt'fOfiaa.fQ^d^ .fieeI>flB|y>Criinj>aw„|«a.' 
BesponsibiUty, for crime — see 

-. J. see Beipty*8.Crlm. tJeW, i W'k.**'Test 

ofMd. S ^ fti Idloei^r in wKM eoiiritets-4d.! S'S* a. XasanltgAr^ S 25. 

Bnnjtan . iil4idM£^13Mt fim^tm vof p»eftf {tf : iipfoilr )f «a )^;^Niu> 
pleads it— People v. Bell, 49 Gal. 488. See. JDe^t^fs Crim. Law, S 29 a. 

ffStt . "^Siq, p/c^ ^n^nitta^ by ja pe^n wbi^e in a. estate of 

haying been in such condition. But, whenever .t^^ a9t- 
l»a.lMMft<mep^ «^py,Ba^^^al;p^^|K;|^^^9■tvye^'or,j^ 

the fa<4 ^W^Ih»fWf>W* Wf^h 4J?Swpafte4i ^f;.<^ PW^^^M 

Voinntary intozication Is no excuse' foir. crime— 21 paL m5: 27 id« 
614: 43 id. 8&. See Desty's Crlm. Law, S 9»fc- •. • - 1 -<T)>nn.Tn!'rfi T" 


*^*!sS&^|^S^ »ff b, 

Crim. Law, S 29 a. 

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^t^tti i\i VBUiaaKASx tmamaamm. S2 

of the following statotei^i hak molDstateM iambmo^p^imd 
n doxitttkiimg^ is fotcitf/ xiut v#MMMAiMEfiB(|{ tfc^ )^QM'v4B|o|Di pf 
the 99^9^. ^^<<ff Pi^.*^' ^ ^ ^^®7 have b^exi repealled or af- 
fect^' d7 su^^^ '^ .■ . v.^ 

Tird, All acta 'incorporating or dHarterlftg nnknlisl^l 
coi^pc^tiojo%.ap4.c^c|^ame;iding or sapplemetttU^fnieh 

MefaqtPfif^ ,.^ iBM3t84^|i8pIid|iting^ citiosand oonoti^ and 
acts amending or supplementing such acts. 

TkMki^i AltactBioB felndtegrttft/Stat». del>triPS<«g gart 
^ thaiTtfiiJ atid;/qE i—^ i^g fitiale>)ioqiA(lli jk^. acta' IfflPWMMvS 
or'ia^plMMi^tiiig snfih Mte. . 

FmiHu Mi kqfai:rteBlaf>1ng aod i»relatiopi,jtotr)m^NP* 

.F(/1(A. All acts in relation to ]adgi# of 1^ pjlaimi. 

Bfaih. 'AU.m>taM»ating^rfeg«datiiigbos«dseli^ 
c^yiipiyiOiTieni fwd pTerseers in tlio sov^r^a townsIUps 
or oouHtiei of the State. 

S^penth. JiJif actit' in Velfttion t6 a bi^iicli Stiite pil^. 

JUffhthk An act, for the mone effectual pseventipn of 
«raeHr to animals* approved Mbich thiEtielh,'eigiiteen 
hundred and isizty-eight. '' 

JfhUh, ' Ail act for the sappir^nsioii of CHilneM honses 
of m-^fauie, ai^rored Hatch thUty-finrt, e|g|itMft hundred 
''and'iiizty-^bt. ' " ' • '■' ' 

T^fnUh. 'AA act telatbg to the Home of Iftte IkiebtUte 
of San Francisbo, land to pre^diibe thb powen atid dtitleB 
of the bc^Td of managers and the officers thttrttelv ap- 
proved April' ^t^ eighteen b^ndfM atad seventy. 

SUniknth. Ab ac^ coiie^ming ibUdo^ and biHiidii t& tihe 
county of Siskiyou, approved March tWeireiMh, cOg^hteen 
htlndredaiidBlrtyHEdi. 'V'.'.VW;' 'V 

i fMlfiht Ad «ct to pMvent the destviiBittMi ol :fiih in 
the ^w|^)i^„of Bolin^ Bdyi Jin ;ttatin Cbui^y, c(]);^n^ 
lianh thirty-first, eighteen hnndved and sixtjHiM^ • 

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Fcmimnth, An act to pierent the destnietion of fisli 
In Nap* Biver and Sonoma Creek, approTed January 
twenty-nlnth» eighteen hundred and sixty-eight. 

Ffft&emilh, An act to prevent the destnietion of fish and 
game in, njion, and around, the waters of Lake Merritt or 
Peralta, In the county of Alameda, approved March eight- 
eenth, eighteen hundred andseyenty. 

bixf/MinJih. An act to regulate salmon fisheries in Eel 
BiTer, in Humboldt County, approved April eighteenth, 
eighteen hundred and fifty-nine. 

Seventeenth. An act for the better protection of stock- 
raisers in the counties of Fresno, Tulare, Monterey, and 
Mariposa, approved March twentieth, eighteen hundred 
and sixty-six 

EighUtfiUh* An act concerning oysters, approved April 
twenty-eighth, eighteen hundred and fifty-one. 

NinetuftUh. An act concerning oyster-beds, approved 
April second, eighteen hundred and sixty-six. 

TSoemStUik, An act concerning gas companies, approved 
AprU fourth, eighteen hundred and seventy. 

24. This act, whenever cited, enumerated, referred to, 
or amended, may be designated simply as Trb Psnal 
CoDB, adding, when necessary, the number of the section. 

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'^h'.. inU !-.v . ,-.:r;.;:' ■< • '.W--;/. 'v...,t.; .■:■ •. -T 
.. '^. /•■-. {,.:« ^- t'\:'ii{ i:uv '., i" ,..• »* 

• •'i:-.'»iif:4:t> iil.' /. -• 7.. •..-.'■; . ' ' ' ''"' .':'»( r:i .'?'>v ,1 

v^ .. "Vm no;:-.. .- T •■ ■ • •. ' .^ ' .'/. .- . • ' • • 

i . •• . '■i.^r--l': ..V :.M , . •'•. • ' . •■'.... : 1 

•a.'rj,« i!'-' ■• ; f*-.-' t-'f»v" : .. - : ..■■ • T.t.. • uv('<y^,:'-' 

^ f.- ! ' •■' Il ti 
•/ V, : ••■ .,-fl.- . ..■.'.* ' \ /.i'. • ■}■. V- '.' ;. 

..■.''■ ^'t,: ,-• ,:ir'. ;;:.•»■» v:» ,5 : '.'■"•IT , •, •■i-\;('/' ..• v •/.i- • !''• 

. • • ^ /OJ" ^!f» •' •'' i;: f ■:• . • 'Iff r.'i i;-' /. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


$20. Wliotteiosptfbieof 9oinmlttl]ikg.«(fmeih 
I 27. ^V^oartlUa>Idt6pimUIimeiit»' 

26. All peiniom» are. pa^ble of ^ominittisig oiSiiiei ex« 
Mpt those lieloiigiiiirtpllltefolloiwiBfolASiMB: ' 

iJ .CMdren tiailer the age of lovrteettriv ibA Atamee of 
dear proof that at the time of cozmoitting the aot chaiiged 
agaliwt them, they Iroew its ^irrongf uUiew ; 

%m^\ : '. . .-. 

3. Lunatics and insane persons; 

4. Passonii vlieeanmiiitBdthe.aator]nadeilie(Ukii8^n 
charged under an ignorance or mistafce of teeft, ifUdi 4is#t 
pR>TQ8 any crifliinal intent; . . ' ' 

5. Persons who committed the act dtaiged wilhoot be** 
ingcdnaoionBtiiereof; . . 

a * Peisona who committDd -tintaet or made tiBB^omiiision 
charged through misfortune or by aocidenti when i% ap-^ 
peari that thera was n6 evU dedgxt^intenttto^br/clil^ble 
negligence; > ' . . <■ i ; ^ 

7. Married WQimB&(eam8fit for fel€mlMi>a«tfqgviidttr«hfr 
thteatu, cdminsiid, or AMroion of thel^ httiANaiKgto} 

8. Persons (unless the crime be ptmishable wllSi death) 
who committed the act or made the omission charged 
under threats or menaces sufficient to show that they had 
reasonable cause to, and did believe their lives would be 
endangered if they refused. [Approved March 30th, in 
effect July 1st, 1874.] 

Subd. 1. Oonolniivo presninption of inoap 

fants under seTen i " "'"^ "*" " "—•- 

«5; Plow. 19. Seel 

Bebnttable presninption of incapaoitf of children tMtween seven 
ind fonrteen-31 Ala. 822; 10 AUen, 296: » Halst. 162: 9 Hiunpb. 17S; 7 
Jones, (N. 0.) 61; 2 Tenn.79; 41 Vt.665t 12 Ired. 18l| 12 Bosb. 220; 1 

nsive presninption of incapacitr for crime of In- 
I year^ HUlT 479; 12 6081020; 14 Com. B. N. 8. 
» Desty'S Grim. Law, S 21. 

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|S2t mntnm'KUBiM wii 

Lead, a 0. 71; 4 Car. ft P. 236; 1 Cox C. G. 2e0. I>e8t7'8 Crlm. Law* f 
22 a. 

Subd. 2. Idiocy, in what oonai8ta-24 Ind. 231; 14 Mass. 207; 8 
Jonea,(N. G.) 136; 2 Va. Gas. 132: 17 Ala. 434; 6 McLean, 121; 6 Parker 
Cr. B. 43; Desty's Crlm. Law, S 24 a. 

Siibd, 8. Lnnatioa and inaap p0mn-6 CaL MS; 24 id. 230; S8 
id. 456; 7 Met. fiOO ; 1 Lead. OG. Mf ^ M. to. See Desty's Grim. Law, 

ibillty for crime— 2 McLean, 14; 2 Cash. 577; 9 W. Va. 559; unless 

Crim. Law, S 85 a. i. . • . •.. jr ^ ■' 

JSitbd. 6.. Accident or mlsfortiui0. as an ezcofle for crimeHA SCass. 


Jirect physical compulsion, exempts from punishment^ 

2 Dall. 846: 4 Wastafl^O. m^-f^oit* A ^. ei4[t 7 Widl. 214) tPl^^ ¥a. 398^ 
But threats of future injury, or commands from any other than a hus- 
band, do not excus»-18 St. Tri. 391 ; 5 Car. ft P. 133. See DeityVCrim. 
Law,S82b. .. - ,. - ; • -. 

: 27^. :a9ie.Ml€iwtaig> ^pcisdiU ora 'iiabi«> Jbo {nmighinQlit 
uiide#'liU9i«2vBldlf<tlii8StiBitB2<' ••' * i'<> 

1. Ali persons who commit,:in wlioleioc la.part, BByi 
«riiDB;withiaftkiis'£ttatti;i: '•<:*->-' -'V':'^-. - • 

2. All who commit larceny or robhctryiaiit <A tfaiafitata;' 
iauLbBinqpidj o^«fieioikiidi#tth:tliGrinapertyr6loleB^ this 
State; • ' .v/ ,♦..••• :'>-m: y-f iv .•'.•;•• •. -' . x-.- -; •• '.J,-', t 

3: . All mhoifMBSna^fdo,t p& ibii StaAe, tmsiamot alii« adTise 
or encourage, another person to commit a crimeiwithin 
tidfl filhtej flQiid:aM»flitehiraid's£9iindthfluiiu 

Jui^^^Mka^ar; 4HS <ft«&llfii«a48ee<MWAttedmJ>esl7iB 

, I .iu\iy..'\ '. .' -• .1 >. 'iL'../ ■ ; : ■ ' 

.•r- •,:r':«^.; .r.: ' 

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li ', ! 

.• ifj' f .'. ' 

..'1 1 - •■ . 

. : -/^ fly '■■: I i'j: 


i.rrj >. 

. .i*. I! .t; 

i .•:- 'li '■ 

.. . '!fi:u: . ' (j.ofMf ,-., 

.,, ,; ;. 

■ ^'^." .' 

, ; iJ-.-vf 

' ■ J'l ,' )U] Jv( ; T ,., 


Of Paurtawi ta-CW««J ''-■'''- ^ •■':'■ • 

110. Classification of parties ta«tiim. •' "I ' ' <! 
$ 11. Whp ap principals. 

•'tte:"1«1i6'atelMJdfesdoilfe8. "' '•' •':""*^-' •• - 

90. '1^6 jpiafties to crimes' arid class , • ^ 

1. 'Atocipafe'; iand, ' " ' '' ' ' '*^'; ...^".■*" ,/' '" 

2. Accessories. . t- ''ot .:'.-, 

31« All persons concerned in the commission of a crime, 
whether it be felony or misdemeanor, and whether they 
directly commit the act constituting the offense, or aid and 
abet in its commission, or, not being present, have advised 
and encouraged its commission, and all persons coun- 
seling, advising, or encouraging children under the age of 
fourteen years, lunatics or idiots, to commit any crime, or 
who, by fraud, contrivance, or force, occasion the drunken- 
ness of another for the purpose of causing him to com- 
mit any crime, or who, by threats, menaces, command, 
or coercion, compel another to commit any crime, are prin- 
cipals in any crime so committed. 

PrincipaUj whoi aro.— A f : ■ tbe perpetmtorof tUeoSfeusep 

or oiii; who !a jictually uil-.i^ l.i IiDiJ and abetting— 6 Col, \Z2\ 10 
id. 63; 27 liL3iOi 4iid. ^-f; 1 Brt:v. :iw; 15 Ga. 34a: 2tlinJ.l^i5; laircd. 
Hi; 12 Ohio gt.2H; ^ PklE. 4Qti, Sco Duty's Crlm. Law» M^t a. ^ 
priiKipa^J I fi th^ £ce<m d degree - 43 Cal , 24 : or* accrsmrie-f bef&re tht /net—' 
M.. expliiliUngaUL 123; LL Ul: 39 ltj.75; 33 SU. hA. Seollest/** Crlm. 
Law, 5 41.1 ft* Instij^ation to mme, kU §40^; or aid^rt and chtii^rt 
attho fact^-C3 CtVl. ISJj IfL C4j see Desity'^ Crlm. Lavf, § 37 a: <jr ac- 
€&fn^liceM~*\^* % itii n* Confix ilerntes in IL tam.mmi design, OC whlcli 
tboollene^ 1^ a port, are all prLEirip^Li— 4T Iiiil-^'S; IJ Mtr. 332; %*i Id. 
mi; ItFlclc. im\ Vl Ohio 8C. [4ti. ^'^ DcsCj'a CrlRi. Law, ^ 33 n* It Is 
not Decira»a.ry to prove that one of two eoni^plracoTS struck tbe ratal 
Wow— 1» Cal. I'iO; nor la omo cruiltk^s.!^ because tUo ono ho hllU waa al« 
ready morailly iTonnded— 4S Id. tj4. If oiiti pt^rson urgen* enyoiinufca, 
Ald^.ot AAsiatd nnotner totiU.tliole^al presumption il^Tthiit be In ten da 
to kill— @ Fac. Coast L- J. M\* Ttio ofT^n^ft of ttio aci^^saory bcf oro the 
ftct Ifl commJtteid In the county wEirre tho sub.'itaotlVB uct^i^saorlal at^ts 
ftrtt ceKEiBtuiuiuted— 3T 041. ^^l 1<^ l^^i^li^ 14^ i H4 Miiss. M ; fi7 UoW. f Fi 
mi 1 Piirier Or« B. SH& ^m Desty'a Qrlm. Law, i 40 & 

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32. All pexsons who, after full knowledge fhat a fel- 
ony haa been committed, conceal it from the magistrate, 
or harbor and protect the person charged with or convict- 
ed thereof, are accessories^ 

AooMSOilM aftnrtlM imkfwlMit^9i-Si^tL4M; 42thkt21tl Swan, 
IBS; S9 Hiss. 708. Wha t snlBde nt to create Uatonfer-see Desys Grim, 
Law,S44a. Leg«lcuiqtiiiOiiuqC<Siiimi"TiWii S44a. 

Qoiltf of a rabitantlTO orime-40 OaL MO; 28 1<L4M; 40 id.l». Sao 
De8ty'sCMiii.lMiWf9tt>a«- . • . if ..'■ 

33. Except in cases^where ^d^flv^t pimishment is 
pi^escribed, an accuwoiy. is jumify^Ableiby imprisonment 
in the State prtagniiip^ exoee<toff five 

Jail not ezceeaing 1^ years, or by fine notj^^ ~ 

thousand dollars. 

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^Mittll. §S*t!-ll 

S 87. Treason, who only can commit. 

37. Tr9^aQiiii04i»itifaj«.9U^iM>BaiataoB^ 
war against it, adhexlog i^ ita «]iMiiiefl> *o^ gOf^g;tllem 
aid and oomfort, and can be comniittcfd only by p^faona 
owing allegiance to the State. Tl^ piLu^jUment of 'txea- 

BOn f^J^Ol ^f|(4jbdl^ < . . '•: > . . < 

T^aMn against a SOittf la te'«miisft at «bifttnMi law-^ Areit. Gr. 
Pr. 883, and Is so recognized in tbj»4kMiMltiilfoatif itba iteftttfd gtolBS- 
seeConst.U.8.arj^iv.S3(7}, . . . ,. . ...,, . 

OltUtana of a Stata owe allegianca to snch.Btate^ Csaack Wi 3 
Kent, 42. Eren though they be alien tesldents— 2 Dan. tJOi ffvroeat. 
Mm »M>]^id9laCiiattiljiv«i>Ma. * 

Lavyingwar, what copstltnf ff Bosir^ Tr. «>1| t DHL 16; tDL M6; 
lid. 35; 4%nnch,75: 3Tf«M.Jr«lj«^ U #«|iiia.«M« .SaaDvity^Oim. 
Law,S<Mib. ^ . ) . 

Adhiing to anamios.— What It emhtaces-HMe Desty'ii Griiai I«w, 

Pnntahmant for tra a ao n sa o Pe8ty*l^-Crim. X^mt, 1 69 a. ' 

38l MispTislon of treason is tbe Jcopiwled^e and oon* 
cealment,^' teanaoiti wilboiii «therwiM aaauUd&g to or 
participating in th0 otUnei It IMprnMiaMv tif imprison- 
ment in the State prison foi^ a .fl?^. ^^ exceeding five 
: IBsptfftlott W tivasdn, ifbMX eoa^tatat-s^e Deatji^s Crlm; iaw« 

• J > . • 

, MV * 'L 

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8.4igf; <mmm ^i4^nmihMtai99fm 

141. yio]att<mofelectWl^*r»browlMa'«fflat(fafd^ 

142. FnadalentrejKistratlon a felony. 

;. ,144.. f(^(iif^lP9b9rMnnuiB»oCi>q«BSi • r 

1 4Sb ' FEatidoionl) votlps. <....• . > *i, 

S 46.*' A%iDptiiu: to vote .without being ai9AUfle<L 

147. PrbctxriiymefalTOtlng.''- ' ' ' !. 

148. Cbangingtmnots or altering retiiiiut»reft^ettbi'idfll06^ 

161. Adding to or subtracting from VOtes'^Vei^l' . ^ 

I n. ' Intimidating, corrupting, deeelarlaGM>R^kCMiilliit< etoeton. 

'■ ' f -w. . 'OfleMio ptoetf^offloOB ror elecMttS. . ,, 

{56. p09iinunicatlng such,ol|!e|:. ... - . , - .t u • 
t ^. 'Ml^g ihemfiers oJ^l^HiltiTe ouicuses, etc. ' 

SM. Prs^«(Dti«i99UU|9i^(N$ll«f)'. ... . . ;: i., r.i .:. r' 

S 50. Disturbapce of public meetings. , ^ 

td.-Betfclagbn'*lW6<^"^ ^■' '-' »"^ ' ' ^* " ' ■'- '"^ '^ ' 
. f <!.:.. lIMatt«iatidwitoBlaf»»l»l*^dMKMtt'^^ 
, ,|i^^i.l^«li9ti(imiQC[{AMl^A>n<a8||ditt9^ : '. < A 

' 4lr 'Every person cbargect witlb the performance of. fvny 

to elections, who willfully neglects or refuses to pex^oMi 
it, or who, in bis official capacity, knowingly and f ri^udu- 
lently acts in contrayention or violation of any of the 
provisions of such laws, is, unless a different punishment 
for such acts or omissions is prescribed by this Code, pun- 
ishable by tine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by 
imprisonment in the State prison not exceeding five years, 
or by both. 
Oflbnaes by eleotion offloer»-«ee Desty's Orlm. Law, S 70 J. 

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allows hi^elf .tQ^bfq>.ifigisterQ4 i|%t)iegi»ai r^giatordf any 
X20unt7, kaqwiag himself. «ot to^^e iBDtUled to -Buch ngis» 
^t}o^,is pin:^babl9 l^y. « .#pe noli ^9¥oei«dingjOiifi :thot&> 
8a^4 4f#N^i. ^^ WuliPPi^i^fBent in tiibe cotitdisf > jail or 
Sp^.pp^onnQt ^xceediD^.onQ.;0Mr» pr by botb.i.lBall 
c$|S^ isrbere, <)i^ tbe jt^^l o| i^ pemonndbw^god with, any 
offence un4er, j^^f^ j;»r<^yif!)iP'i^^ :Pf . i^l9 aec^ifiiiw i^. appears in 
eviidence that tbe accused stands registered in Ibe great 
,];€|gisj^]^o| anjfi«o«nty, withouit: being ^ueiified fer sacb 
registration, tbe court must order such registration to l>e 
cabceted. ■ ) -,' .' ' ■ " • 

Fraudulent registration isAmiademeaaer--S BlateM. 48. B6t BAv. 

Stat. u. s. s wi^J. - / 

43. Bvery persoil wbo, after Wng' reqnited bf tbe 

bqard^f ju^jges^t^ap^i^leetipp, refuses,^ b«;^worn,.or 
being swoiri^, refuses .tq aftswer an|r p^nftixi^^ questioni 
pro^^updoil by such l^pard, toupbii^g tbe,rigbt of apoU^ei 
io vote, is guilty of a misdemeanor. [Ap|>;^qvQ^ .tMapcb 
30tb? Vil.:«lf®ct. JHly, 1st, 1874.] . : . . > 

j>iM^ n^Ken^'p^SMAMimmoined to> appear and testify be* 
fore any board of registration, Who willfully 4i^beys 
»uol»NUBmo)M; is gttSlti^ 6f a MMiemlsknof « '- 

.,, ■*' ,i .•' • ' ••'• V >'■[ • .1 -1" •/: • • -i •■ ■ •• • 
45^. ppvel7.peJ^ff>nn9f^|iti^tPV9^l wJjoffawdiilentlj^ 
votes,' and every person who votes more itmnonoeat any 
OHO eiectirjii, c>r knowingly ijuuus m twc> ormQ^e tii^nets 
fol^Je^l iogethci't Of changea any biiUot afier ^s^njuQ b^ 
been depositeil In tbe ballot-boar, or atldg, or SL^tem^^p^ 
add, rtny ballot to tlioae illegillj polled at f^^y,,^ecr 
tioii, eitliet by fraudcilentiy mtjoilucliig the j^amfj .iptq 
tbe fcallot-box btifpre or aftor tlm ballots i^J^ h^^ 
been eou&ted ; or a^ds to^ or mix^3 with, or^jaf^mptf. to 
add to ot mix witbj tbe ballots Uwf uJly iJoUedp|>j^ber,}}2j7 
lota^ wliOe tbe sama are being counted vr ca^V/aa^^i-prat 
any otber tinao, with inteat to qliatjge the repii^Sf of sucl* 
eiectldni or carries away or deatroya, ,<»f '.ftttpayBte to 

Digitized by VjOC i i v_ 

fig 46-6 OHDtttf AQAmvt icUKmyB F&Axrcttni. il 

cany away ordMtKdy, imy pbll-lists, or ballots, or ballot- 
\>ox, for «h« p&tpoift d bt^akitig ap'or tevalidireiiir 8uch 
^lOptioB, oar willfttlly clotsAis, mntilfttes itt de^troj^ any 
^leodonrretsnui, o»in any manner «o Intetfetied yi H th6 
offioev holding imch ^IdoUbtior eonductiii^ such pk t^s^ 
or with the TOten lawfully exdrciflittg their riglfls bi vot- 
iag ali Buch «leotl(m^ as to pterent sach election or eanttua 
ttam betng f atHy held abd lawfully o^ttducted, is gnllty 
of a felony. 

. Bights vflie^aot <lepaiMtoiit4A«l»laAi8Ut^4M XMtty'f CMta. LftW, 
rWA . ,.■■ ....... 

8nte has exclnslve power to regnlate the right of saflrafo-^ CaJL 
43; 1 Hughes, 448; 11 Blatchf. 200;% Pa. St. 112; 1 McAr. iS; 
,XUsfilTo«iA«f«Ma2>Mt|i^€rlla.LMP»4.tO«. ' 

Voting twice— see id. S 70 f . When a person Is so dnuik as hot to 
be able to form an intent^ he cannot he co|^Tlc.ted— -29 Qal*<78. The 
act must be*il6iM'feaoifliig^-4d. 

46. Every person not entitled to vote, WKo fraudu- 
lently attempts to vote, or who, htifnii entitled to vote, at- 
tempts to vote more than once at any election, is guiits^ of 
a misdemeanor. 

Attempts to defrand.— As by jjiiefsonatitt^ another who htt Ilred, 
bat is at the time dead~14 Low, Can. Bep. 435: Boss. A B. 324; Bex p. 
Omap,ld.327; and ItisnotiieoeisarrtliariM niMi vtrttNiiiM4»i oeold 
prove successfiu— 12 Week. Bep). 310. « 

47. Every person, who prpcnxes^ aid^, ftastefea» eonniaUK 
or advises another to give or offer his vote at any election, 
Uiowinfl; that the person is not qualified to vote, is goUty 
of a misdemeanor. - 

48. Every officer or clerk of election who al49 In ^hangr 
fng or destroying any poll-list, or in placing any ballots 
in the ballot-box, or taking any therefrom, or adds, or at- 
tempts to add, any b^illots to those legally poUe4 at such 
election, either by fraudulently introdi;cing the same into 
the ballot-bo^ tuef orb or after the ballots therein n^y^ beexf 
counted, or adds to'or mixes '^Ith, or attempts, to add to 
or mdx itith the ballots polled any otlier t>ailots, wuUe 
the tenieafe being counted or canvaqse^ or jt^ 9^ny. ottjer 
time, with intent to dhiii^ge the result of such eiec|;j(oDj 
or alkrwa ano&er to do to, when in his power to prevent 

15 cJlftdtiMr A^uinM dsUMl ^is Mi^iteCHkMlL ' ^494tt 

the State prison for not less than two nor more tiutnsbVdi 

j«art.-fr .r-.-i ■ ■■■■ ' v/' , . ••• i! ir:-;.- V' .-^r . .. 

Wb6,*pWrlbus tO^lj/iiAilng the; baltpt df kn!:*^lfei5tot In. thi 
bktldCbos^, 'a^m^;tB to Atid' 6ni any iis6jie oxi stich 'ballot; 
oryh<y^pe5i$bi''8titt6iratti6 j^^^ tJatfot 6f mf etbdipt 
y/iA^ has tden ii&ti^d in to ftd op^tied or e^mihed ptej- 
vlb48;;tp1ffetttntf ihb'same^ the ballot-bbji 6f vrh6 
maki^i 6^^1^6ef dny tnitk or device 'on any folded t>fiil^<jlt 
trit^'^iiie -WeW to dfl'Bfertaln the nAtiife ^cif any petsbn fb* 
Vhotn'the eiiacftbT "hkfi Voted, bt who, ^Itbnt the bonseni 
of the eiebtor,'dis0ldsiedi thd WdtaJd' b! an^ pdMpn Which 
inch lii^^itibf, Jnigb, bt clett $^ fraud^entiy or lllt^ 
gaUy dWotefer t6 have b^^Vbtiitt'fot by Unch blectb^, i$ 
pnnf^^tiidijy fh^e, not l^khAn fifty* nor Wo^d^th&Bflv^ 
hiiiidjM^ildllari. ■" ' •_' /■"■ '■ ' ; "' ■ '[1'^. '"' " ;; 

an election purporting t9,))f^y<»<hfem.,l)eM ^t^«f|>?fcil»Q^ 
town, or wardfwiieitt aoctoDtiosi vaa in faot Wd^or.iviU- 
fully sabstitnt^ tcftjgkA ^fksotMiSttm wOOtiXi^^^AatStS^n 
i&'fthef|lla6aioCTtbettfcn0ixettam8, for a pxeoincl^'towA,.or 
ward where atkt^iMAofuwtm. aottnUgrheUl, fa prtitfaliifaK 

than two pwisioi»rtli^iteii)7e80i^j<< •> ">'»! • ''■> , ;!i 

1 52L/MBv«c]r;f9t«Oit>whff wHKiiHy«4df^>t^ W.Pll]y|r«Bt8 

OB ! w^ •alten teeh* ^otsfrns; i»r ixa«is)tthlif ti^ impiefiMmr 
IBiaol id s tiHkdtMte piiion. !fQ9 i»0%lfiMrtiiM^ uneicrnhf^iwr* 

52. Every person who aids or abets in the commistfdi 

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/?w#WEjifWfty#wk' liiafPffrov<4^Cfp»b.wt^.ii»#ffiBoWii*y 

lBt| 1874^3 r M Li-rof I «i—r i! ';'^>' ..:r « • .;.,-• q m1< i--. •» i r 
53. Every person who, by force, threats, meaiOMb 
Wb^yjji or any^ coJ3n^>tjjpe^,.pit}^^ 4ir^l^ OT.jpd^jct- 
ly„a,ttep^p|s to i;iftue^ce a»y elector ftji^iyiug hi^ ypter Qf 
to deter hxp^ &o^7giymg,ti^e,^tner or ^t£^ ^f}^^:( 

elector iutheiree,«:i;WQ!»9;^ot |j^ ?ifil^ qf 9n|fra,^f|c 9^ jfuTr 
nisl^e^ any elector yrishtng^ vote, wbp Qia;inQt,re^,^yi};l) 
f^ ifciclLejt, tnfonninijif, or ^yin^fsupJipleQlibj to UUj4e|«tancl 
il^j^i: it fipnt^Wip ^n^pe '5^ tietepi^^d|ifei:r 

ent jtrom ttie4i^^L9.,^i^ipJJL ik ^ttea or jpnated thpre^^ or 
d-^jfiraud^ any elector at/^?^ ^uch ei€ic,tion,^^y dec^^^d^^ 
g^f^ causing aaoh elec|or toyptjefpr ^ diftereiftf.^ei^op iov 
any ofl^9^ tjha^ i,^ jnt^^fi^^ <^ 4e^edrta'^tp,i^oi?;.or who, 
jtieip^ jUjifpec^c^v jijucljp^ acq^^ ^1^'ctipn, ???t|jlej i^ptr 

ing as such, induces, or attempts to indupep'^^^f ej[eciQr| 
either by menace or reward, or promise thereof, to' vote 
him^ai^ioiaa ^^s[«^^UbSi «)eototf%«endell C»^'d^ir^ to 
iroty, iS'lnfilty' 6< a'niftldeiiiefefctibl*. • n ; <: i »; > n • 

'''04rrt9abi^'el*»w»-^fl6e]leBtyfit2dkMu>]bnf;f b^ - * ,u'ro 

1'. 54^ Ev^ i^exoon wBo, with intent'to lirdmirte !t)iei^lee» 
ticta of hlmsell bar^finsit 'otiiBr. parson^ )eUhte^ / >• --fr f -r / 
■ 'li FT«iBhtg]eirt>)¥tehiiBt «rt sft hto cm |imiww t»«iiiqpiite<1» 
ing of electors previoua«ofO(>:diEEia9^«i60tiM^ o.v ? > • 
' % '• Myg ibr, inropftrds^ Mr ei^geli^tOriiN^^er mn^^fwi^li 

entertainment; ' '~ .• . - . 

^ '3i S^tthfehes o^'Mitai^'ib^ay^ deifv«f dpy ttk>n€l^r 

votiMRiittti tM ipoUs; «#'iOi'<tl»' pttvpoifarfof cutipeiutetiiig 
aiOrp^RMxt^for ^o<tisrStig«lt0ndaiie«^ vMMdrsiilf tb* ^lta$ 
except for the conveyance of voters vrhonm^}Mi^tm4i^ 

.ru.--, ■ ; .,' rl'j/.r. Z'^ iJun 'v/^f/ fi-../i i vi^vM .SC 

litized by Google 

tionof BJifmxMAkMfi teit<^t Hfftn^ ^ tttp WU WM "of lw>ldi Ag 
and condhietiil^^itbliti mdetinsfs 'f 6t ^l)i^8lB(JuMbi&'6f ^^b* 

r ««4B'gQfltFol'ai«BiMMiieft]iep. "*: -i 

Refrethmentt.— OiTlng refresbments.tniratBriv'f* IntvniM Hit Yoto 

-2Tyrw.l34; or f oniiaUBg Ut^oors^ , . ..: . 

Foxnlahing money/ or properly, to inflnence ydte-eee De8t7*tt 


S5. ^visiry person Who, t>eing d c&iidid&te at toy eleo- 
tibn, olfem' ot agrees to appoint ot procure the appoitit^ 
tnent 6i any 'pattictilar persbn to oificb, as axi inducement 
of ^ni^idimtion to 'any person to Vote f or,' or prociire or 
aid in procuring thd election of snob candidate, !s suHty 
pf a miadismeanor. . . 

Gk^rlntf'ipromUtefl of rewaf d to prOo^ Totes-^ee Detfty^i Crlb^ 

HSn I2ir«i7:p«]«on,notl>euigacMidid« 
j^jqatQS toy Q£^«ir^ ]nad<» Ut Yiojlation of the last ^^tion, to 
anxpenio^ with intent jto indace him to vote fpr, or. to 
procure or aid in. procuring the election of the candidate 
mai:ipg,the o^or, is guilty of a misd^neanor. 

59i firery j^rson who gitM or- Offfefs a* brib6 to aoiy 
officer or member of any legislatifve cauimSy political eont 
Teiiti{m« cioiiiniittee» primary ejection, r or political gather- 
ing of ««y kind) b^d for the( purpose ol npmin«tiAg can* 
didato» for Q^«ea of boncnr, trnat. or profit, ia tbiq State, 
with intent to influence the pezson.ta whom, auoh bribe is 
glTesiiCMr' offered to be more favorable to one candidate 
than another,; and every perseoi member. lOl either of the 
bodies in tllf3 feetiH^i xneo^q^Md, who repeives lec* oilers 
to receive any such bribe, is punishable by imprisonment 
in the State prison not less than one, nor more than four- 
teen years. 

58. Every person who, by threats, intimidations, or 
unlawful violence, willfully hinders or prevents electors 

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ol ' DUbUo iCiiiflitlfniib ifl multT ai^ a tninil fiiaiiianr 

any pa|]|U^»Hi9itii|ff of «te«^>r» ov otlMm. iMRf ijilly being 
held for the purpose of cQuM&dam 9^Wf>> ^ifMlio««, ia 
l^iltyt of «>iiiiadQmeaiQor. 

Distnrbing electort~see Destyli Criln. Law, S 71 1 

60. Eyerj person who makes, offers, or aooeptB taiy 

bet or wager ypoa the result of any electloiv Pf opoii^tho 

^ucceds or failure of any person or candidate, or upon the 

number, of Votes to be cast, either ^nthe ^tggr^^ti^.Qr for 

any particular candidate, or upon the vote to ,l^(). c^st by 

any person, is guilty of a misdemeanor* , , , - 

Befting on elections.— On the result of an election, is indictable^ 
2 iQd. 4!^: 11 Ala. 643; 4 B. Mon. I; 1 Ohio 8t. IS»; 3 Hnmph. 801; 
6 id. Ml t 9 Dana» 31; I tfeigs, 1%; ban not after the eifio^^lB over 
^ Sneed, 437; 2 Ala. 340; or Dettlng on an election out of me State^-i 
m. 629. Bets on several different results are one bet— 6 Sneed, 662'. A 
sale of propert/ may be a bet— 2 Ind. 4d9 : 16 B. Mon. 326, Or tho offer 
M a^Mseiit on rasid« of ilM ele(Mon 1^ a iMt^i SisMSi ft 1^^ 

61. Every person who 'Mllfully folates' any of the 
proTisions of th6 laws of this State relating to electidiis is, 
tlnless a different punishment f oir suoh Yiolatipii is pre* 
scribed by this Code, punishable by dni^ not exceeding 
QnctthoneAud doUmrs, or by imp^^nment in., the SitRte 
priBOQ not; exceeding five ye$Ms^ or by beUi . : > 

62. Every person whb printsany ti(^el hot in canf ona« 
ity witii section one thousand one fauodred'andl niiMty^one 
of the Political Code, or #ko circttlatesoatg^veBto ati6tiie» 
any ticket, knowing at the time that siiicfa tidk^ dMs not 
conform to the provistons of section dnb thoosimd on* 
hundred and ninety-one of the Political Oode, is- guilty of 
amisdem^nor. [Approved Ma»efh'2%nl, 1874^] > 

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Of Crimes by and against the ZLcecutiye Power 
of the State. 

f 65l Acting in a pnlisUc capacity witlioat baTing qaalifleiL 

S 66. Acts of ofUcen defaeto not affected. 

S 67. Glviiig or offering bribes to executive officers. 

S 68. Asking or receirlng bribes. 

S 69. Resisting officers. 

S 70. Extortion. 

S 71. QfflcezB lllegaUy Interested in contracts. 

S 72. Presenting fraudulent bills or (Claims for aUowaneo or payment. 

S 73. Buying appointments to office. 

S 74. Tatdng rewards for deputation. 

$76. Sxereislngfttictions of office WTongfolly. 

S 76b Refusal to surrender bo<dcB, etc, to successor. 

5 77. Sections to apply to administratlTe and ministerial officers. 

65. E7ery person who exerolBes any function of a pub* 
lie office Tvlthout taking the oath of office, or without giv- 
ing the required bond, ia guilty of a misdemeanor. [Ap» 
proved March 30th, in effect July Ist, 1874.] 

66. The last section shall not be construed to affect the 
validity of acts done by a person exercising th6 functions 
of a public office in fact, where other persons than hiinself 
are interested in maintaining the validity of such acts. 

67. Every person who gives or offers any bribe to any 
executive ofQcer of this State, with intent to influence him 
in respect to any act, decision, vote, opinion, or other pro- 
ceeding as such officer, is punishable by imprisonment in 
the State prison not« less than one nor more than fourteen 
years, and is disqualified from holding any office in this 

Ezeontlve offioer8.-^It is indictable to be concerned In bribing, or 
attempting to bribd, a cabinet mlni8tei^~4 Burr. 2{94; a commlssiouer 
of tbe reTenno-2 Dan. 3Mt Wbart. St. TrL 138; a sberlfl— 14 Ala. 603; 

6 Tex. Ct. App. 665; 1 Va. Cfas. 138. 

Pen. Cods-5. 

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^ iSd»^0 dfttBCfiS AGAINST EXEC0tlVF. Pd^BR. 50 

The offbr of a bribe Is sofflcient, wltbout tender or prodaction of 
the money— € Pac. Ck>ast L. J. 1021 ; 33 N. J. L. 102. See Desty's Crlm. 
Law, S 71 b. ^ 

68. Every executlye officer, or person elected or ap- 
pointed to an execatire '<Jifi^e,. trho asks, receives, or 
agrees ,to receive, any "bribe, upon any agreement or un- 
derstanding that Ms vote, opinion, or aistion upon any 
matter then pending, or which may be brought before him 
in his official capacity, shall be ibfluenced thereby, is ptm- 
ishable by imprisonment in the State prison not \esis than 
one nor more th^n fourteen years; and, in addition there- 
to, forfeits his office, and is forever disqualified from hold- 
ing any office in this State. 

Accepting bribes.— An offer by on officer, to i^eeeiveft brib^, is in. 
dlctable-e5IlL58.r SeeIDB8ty'aOrim.L»w,|71o. 

69. Every person who attempts, by meaus 0;f any 
threat or violence, to deter or prevent an executive 
officer from performing any duty imposed upon' such 
officer bjr law, or who knowingly resists, by the use of 
force oir violence, such, o£&O0r4 in the performance of his 
duty, is punishable by fine not ex<;eeding fire thousand 
dollars, and impiosonment in the county jail not exceed- 
ing five years. . ; 

Offense, constmed.— The offense consists In any act which & de- 
signed to, and actnaliy does, prevent or hinder the officer In the per- 
formance of his duty-Trl? lU. 373; 40 Iowa, 169; 103 Mass. 443: 12314. 
420; 2 Parker Cr. R.l3: 8 Vt. 110: 62 N. H. 500; 2 Strob. 73: 108 Mass. 
426: 89 Cq&n. 244; 15 Mo. ^86; 12 AUt. 199. See DeSty's Gzlm. Law, 
S76a. ^ 

70. Every executive or mJLnister;al officer who know- 
ingly asks or receives any emolument, gratuity, or reward, 
or any promise thereof, excepting such'as may be author- 
ized by law, for doing any official act, is guilty of a usis- 
demeaiior. I Approved Karch 30t b , 1 n eff ec fc July 1 s fc, 1874,] 

Esrtoj-tion at commpn law Ig thn tnkJnir, liir cn!or or fjinco* money 
cr otEier tbinK oT tbIiio that U not cl\ip=tt Coweji.etil: 3 Biuh^SlJ. Be^ 
forG it a dii<*^l Fkk.i?7Ef; i^?lH,4= L. Ul; 2 SneRtl, m; I Yi-^u^US]; S 
Cowi'[i,erili ! Mont- 3:32-, h^AU. 12'J: 1 Lea. (Temi.J '2'A; b SneeiJ.bTi: 3 

A publlo offlaer oidy tian be convicted of tbU olfe^ise-^iio Qa, ?3JL 
Bee Deaty'fl Ci'liii, Luw, *f 64 b. 

Sa wy . il^i. Qr ftu^n than it dui'—l Viijal i^s, ? I , it £a enoiigli if au j vitlu- 
9.hl 8 tMu^ la riatulved -5 Blackf . m. See Uu^ty *a CrI ul Iaw, | M & 

hU olTejise— eft 

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61 . CBTiraa ASAXXXX jbxjscciiltvjc FomB. ^SS^^^^ 

this filafta from making. di> beiiigiiiiteveptodiin coitiiteaebr, 
or from biwoniliig a<viBiidbcot ptawhAwr at saleii, OF^ipm 
pwrotuwiiag ^brip, 0K4>tUer evidaiicesof iniic^btednea^ w]i6 
Tiriatpsai^2Pa£ the pcoTiBlDiis.ofanab dsmts^ is piiiliBliable 
bjra'fiae^ol not niora tl|ai| .etethoiiBalid:'diollarjj 6r by 
impdsomBeiit in tiie Stale pcisoa ^jsot i iiitniQ' than' £.1*6 
jesasi abdiiB (oceyesiMaqtaliltml fn^- boldipg aax «ffl6^ 
inthlaState^ - i- ' : . 

72. E^erj person who, with intent to def htiid, presehtu 
for fiUowanOQjor f<» pasrment tio ancrBtateboatd or offi- 
ces^^or ;to any oouitty, $owti;^ citgr^ imrd^ or^vUlage^boMrd 
or officer, authorized-toallow orpay the namfiU genuine, 
any false or fraudulent claim, bill, account, voucher, or 
writing, is guilty of felony. 

73. Every person who gives or offeri^ any gratuity or 

reward, in consideration that he or any other person shall 

be appointed to any public office, or shall be permitted to 

exercise or discharge the duties thereof, is guilty of a 


Bnying appointments to office— 3 Serg. & B. 838; 36 Wis. 213; 9 
Cent. L. J. 495; 6 HiU,27: 32 Yt. 526; 2 Ya. Caa. 460: 2 Camp. 229; U 
Mo<L 387; 3 Burr. 1335; 4 id. 2494. See Desty's Crim. Law. S 70 h. 

74. Every public officer who, for any gratuity or re- 
ward, appoints another person to a public office, or per- 
mits another person to exercise or discharge any of the 
duties of his office, is punishable by a fine not exceeding 
five thousand dollars, and, in addition thereto, forfeits 
hia office, and is forever disqualified from holding any 
office in this State. * 

75. Every person who willfully and knowingly in- 
trudes himself into any public office to which he has not 
been elected or appointed, and every person who, having 
been an executive officer, willfully exercises any of the 
functions of his office after his term has expired^ and a 
succ-essor has been elected or appointed and has qualified, 
is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

8} TG-y flannai xoMJonn ezbcutivk fowxe. 02 

76. Svery oi&sBritdMte. office is alxdJahed by law, or 
who, alter thees^iratioijL of the time for whiofa he may be 
appbinted or elected, or after he has resigned or been 
legally removed &om office, wiUf nllyi and nnlewfally 
withholds or detaiaa from his snoccasor, or other person 
entitled thereto, the records, papers, docomentsv or other 
writing appertidning ov belonging to his office^ or muti- 
lates, destfoyi; or takes away the same» i» pnaishable by 
imprisonment in the State prison not less than one nor 
more than ten y^^n. 

77. The Tarions peoTisiona ol tliia chapter apply to 
administratire and ministerial officers, in the same man- 
ner as if they were mentioned therein. 

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TitLE VI, 

Of CrimeB against the Legislative Power. 

S 8L Preventing the meeting of the Legialaton. 

S 83. Disturbing the Legislature while in session. 

S 81 Altering dtaft of bin or resolntion. 

SSi. Altering enreUed copy oCUUprreaoliillOQ. 

S U, OiTiBg or offering briber to members of the LegUUtorau 

S 88. BecelYing bribes by members of the LegisUtore. 

S 87. Witnesses refusing to attend, etc., bef orb the Leglslatiire. 

S 88. Bribes "bj members of the LegislBtise. 

S 89. loblq^lng; / 

81. .Every person who willfully, and by force or fraud, 
prevents the Xiegislatore of this State, or either of the 
houses composing it, or any of the members thereof, 
frcmi meeting or organizing, is guilty of felony; 

82. Every person who willfully distuibs the Legisla* 

ture of this State, or either of the houses composing it, 

while in session, or who commits any disorderly cotiduct 

in the immediate view and presence of either house, 

tending to interrupt its proceedings or impifttr the respect 

due to its authority, is guilty of a misdemeanor. ' ■ 

Legislative bodies hare inherent po^mtt to punish for contempt of 
their rule? and orderft-8 Wheat. 2Mj 7id.S8: rMcAr.iUf IWood. A 
M. 440; 9 Johns. 395: 6 id. 337; TPaTL. J. 220; 14 Gray, 226; 37 N. H. 450. 
See 1 Kent, 230rCash. Li. A P. of Legls. Assem. MS, «08; <I2S, 6S5; 
Desty's Crim. Law, S 73 d.^And any Jlnismt, contumely, threat, or vio- 
lence, or imputation of bribery, or corruption, is an ael of contdmpt-* 
6 Wheat. 20^ I WUs. 299; a id. 188. But the power ^.the LegisUtura 
cannot extend beyond t3ie session-^ Wheat. 204; 13 Md. 642. 

83. Every person who fraudulently alters the draft of 
any bill or resolutioi^ which has been presented to either 
of the houses cpmposing the Legislature, to be passed or 
adopted, with intent tp procure it to be passed or adopted 
by either house, or certified by the presiding officer of 
either house, in language different ^rdm that intended by 
such house, is guilty of felony. 

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84. Every person who fraudulently alters the enrolled 
copy of any bill or resolution which has been passed or 
adopted by the Legislature of this State, with intent to 
procure it to be appro^Yfid by the goyernor, or certified by 
the secretary of stat^, or printed or published by the 
printer of ^^e. statutes, In language different from^that in 
whici it' was passed or adopted by the Legislature, is 
guilty of felony. 

85. Every person who gives or offein to give ^b^be to 
any member of the LegieMtiirej or to another person for 
him-, or attemptsi by iti*hafee,' deceit, suppressfonof truth, 
or ai|y corrupt meaij^j, to influence a member in ^ving or 
withholding his VQt^ipir in nottattending the housje or any 
committee of which he is a member, is punisliable by im- 
prisonipaent in the.St^te prison not less than one nor more 
than ten years. .... 

Giving biib*& to leglaMlva oMcera^-Wliart. Prec. 1012. , " *' 

Ojjfer of bri^fi.— Tt !s as much a, prima to ofTer a bribe 63 tof&k^ 
fitie-^tS N. J, Ij. 103 j S Pac. Q. h. J. KWL Tlie olietiJ^e Lhi t!:um|ilet« wbaft 
the oHer id made, Altbou^b lii a niaLter notlu Lhe powejr of tbeof" 
fleer— 33 N. J. JL. ll)f . Th& attempt 1.^ aiiiQrleiitt evL'iii tliougli tlio od.cD§e 
bonot eojisiimmattid-HiiKiin. fiu; ;j<3 Tl';X. 'S\\h Sfo 1* A^a, tW;<; 4 Burr., 
S4?M; aOanip.i'JSj 2 Lrt* Raym, 13^7. And^^ithoQt tquder or produo 
Uon of tlio [uunoy oli^red— ^Tofi. 0. U J.lCi^li 1 Va. Cos, Ija. Sisa 
JDeaty'a CtJm. Law, S 71 b. 

86. Ey-ery member of e^itiher o^ the houses composing 
the Legislature of this Btate Ty^ho asks, receives, or agrees 
to receive, any briber upon, ,^ny u^derstanding thajt his 
oflici^l vote, 0J)itij9n, jndgi?hent, or ftistlon shall be in- 
fluenced thereby, or' shall be given, in any. particular 
ma^iUf, op:.i;'ppn fttfy paiticular w^le of any guestion 
or raatter upon whidh he may be reguired to feet in his 
official capacity. Of giyea, or offers, or promises to give 
any official vote in consideration that antjfher metober of 
the Tjegislature sLall give any such Vote, either upon the 
same or another questions ia puhisha'ble by imprisonment 
ill the Stata prison not less ilbr more tban'fbiir- 
teen years, and upon conviction theredf shall, in addition 
to aftiii puhlshment, forfeit his 6jpicft,!be disfranchised,' 

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£5 csocj¥«.A<?AnrsT X.E0XSLATIV8 roi^rjBR. §§87-9 

and forever disqualified from holding any office or publio 
trust. p[n effect April Gth, 1880.] 

RecelTing bribe.— An offer by an officer to receive a bribe Is indict- 
able— 65 111. B8. See Desty's Crlm. Law, S 71 G. 

Contracts for contingent compensation for obtaining legislation, or 

293; 54 Me. '^; 35 Mass. 472: 1 Aiken, 264 ; 5 Watts & 8. 315; 7 Watts, 
152; 14 N. Y. 289; 18 Pick. 470; 8 Ala. 719; 2 Va. Cas. 460. 

87. Every person who, being summoned to attend as 
witness before either house of the Legislature . or any 
committee thereof, refuses or neglects, without lawful 
excuse, to attend pursuant to such summons; and every 
person who, being pr^ei^ beforiS^iUier house of the Leg- 
islature or any comiriittfee tirereof i willfully refuses to be 
sworn, or t^w9werAi)y.GBaterial and proper question, or 
to produce, upon reasonable notice, any material and 
proper books, papers,' or- ^dociimeutsiii his ^ssessiott>o^ 
under his control, is guilty of a misdemeant^v. 

88. Every member of the Legislattire convicted of any 
crime deflied in this chapter, in addition to' thd punish- 
ment ptescribedVforf kid' liitf 'office, and Is fbrever disqual- 
ified from holding any office in 'this State. ' 

89. Every person who obtains, or seeks to obtain 
money or oth^ir. th/ug oi v^lue from angthcr person^ upon 
a pretense, claim, or representation tHat he can, pi: will 
improperly influence in any manner the action of any 
member of a legislative body in regard to any vote or 
legislative matter, is guilty of a felony. Upon the trial no 
person otherwise competent as a witness shall be excused 
from testifying as such concerning the offense charged, on 
the grounds that such testimony may criminate himself, 
or subject him to public infamy, but such testimony shall 
not afterward be used against him in any judicial pro- 
ceeding, except for perjury in giving such testimony. [In 
effect April 6th, 1880.] 

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Of Crimes ae;alnBt Pablio Jostloa. 


n. Bbsoua, 

m. Escapes and aidutq thebbik. 
ly, FoBGiNO, Stealing, MuTii«ATiNa, and Falsi* 
TYING Judicial and Public Ebcobds Aia> 
y. Pebjubt and Subobnation of Pebjuby. 
yi. Talsifyinq Evidence. 
yn. Otheb Offenses against Public Justice. 
yiEL CoNSpntACY. 

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i 9L QlTtog bribes to judges Juron, referees, ftQ. 
S n. BeceiTtog bribes by judicial officers, Jorors, etc. 
S M. Extortion. 

I 9S> Improper sttenipts to tnfinenoe jtOMis, refereest etc* 
i M. MiscoB4notofjnrors» referees, etc. 
S 97. Justice or constable pnrcbaslngjndgueBt. 
S M. Offloeis convicted of, disfranchised. 
S 99. Soperlntendent of printing. Interest In contracts, etc. 
S 100. Snperlnteiident of printing, collnslon In f nmlsEilng m^ 

92. Et«T7 person who gives or offers to ghre a bribe to 
any judicial officer, juror, referee, arbitrator, or umpire, or 
to any person who may be authorized by law to hear or de- 
termine any question or controversy, with intent to influ- 
ence his vote, opinion, or decision upbn any matter or 
question which is or may be brought before him for deci- 
sion, is punishable by imprisonment in the Btate prison 
not less than one nor more than ten years. 

Bribery, what oonsttti^tes.— It is the gftlag or receiving of any 
Talnable thing, In order that the receiver may be cormptly Influenced 
thereby. In the discharge of some pabllo duty— 10 Iowa, 212. See Des* 
ty's OnA. Law. f 71 a. It must be In some suit, mattev, ov cause, pead« 
ingorbroug|it]Mforehlm-2CaL66i{ 14Ala.603. 

Jodicial officers.— The statute confines the offense to acting more 
Cavorably to one side than the other^-2 Cat fiOfr 

Jvstieesef «hepeaee,orany]iidtelalollleer*^I4jya.OIS3 9iTt,b. 
FkoiMiitlBg attosneys-^ Ind. 189$ I Ya. Oss* WU4 IAN 60ti Conf . 

Members of municipal board— 33 N. J. L. 102. 

OfFbrlng brlb«,— Thfi offer of a bfH)fli la a crlm&-43 N, J. Im 10%; even 
thotlgh thfi offense be not consummat^a— 65 lU. fia^afi ^rai* 2S4. See U 
AlaJvt^S i Burr, aiu*; 2 Curup.^a; a Ld. Rayiii. 1377 j nor, although In 
«! matternot in the pawer of the ijfficer to toiiaiimtnMe— 3a N, J. U IIM ; 
and no sahveiiiuerit *<:* of ilia offictf will eicyLlpats— 7 Tci, VU App. 
18L When* pwtrkiiew that tU& onrt to wbgni he offered the brttw 
Wifl und^ aa*. the offeoae Is committed-^ Sawy. ML A tender or 
ftToductian of the money U nnt neresaary— 6 Pae. C. I* J, IWlj 1 Va. 
^4. lU. B^Q liiisty's Crfiu. Law, i :i b. 

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It 93-5 KKSBSKWAom ooRRvncmvi' 0ft 

93. Every judicial officer, jaror, referee, arbitrator, or 
nxQpire, and every person authorized by law to hear or 
determine any question or controversy, who asks, re- 
ceives, or agrees to receive, any bribe, upon any agree- 
ment or understanding'' th&t hiet Votfe, opinion, or decision 
upon any matter pr.^i^e8UoA, which i»fiii.fna.y be brought 
before him for decision, shall be influenced thereby, is 
punishal^le by Imprisonment in the State prison n^t less 
than one nor more than ten years. 

Ao6«»tiBi^.MM.;»Jt|f.2vtti$if toj^ annadue reward iq inflnenco 
behavloi' m^mce— 4 BL com. 139: aAdttitQlrer to recelt^ a Bribe Is tn- 
<Uctable-65 IlL 88. T&mMttt easA tff» H »ai y <ie niM talne^^ Bid. Ml ; 

94. Ever;^ judidal officer "Whio auks or i^ceiVefe any 
emojiibieixjj^^atuity, ot reward,. oi^ any promise ^^Ixereof, 
except such as may be authorijzed by law^ for doing any 
official act, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

' £3et<MMbii.->-N^ fees can be fisaeted Dm itUM 9ivvt|l«|S iTliw^kao* 
tl<me(l bjrtbe courU or jpiefxiUtted by. andei^tuwet and wliore no re- 
mtmeratwWls* ^roiattetf, ws oflleer tnosTpenann nie ditHeS' witboi^ 
U^ ^wv.4731 1: BetKid; B^AM; ^ 9p. Can. 0.9. 2^; M id. 18^ Seo 
Deity's Crifn. Layir, % 84 a, b. It Is an Indictable offense. See icL 85 a. 

95. Jplvesy person :W^o cpiruptly atteixu^ts to influence 
»}uror, or. any. person summipned or drawn i»^ a juror, or 
^Qsen as an Strbitrator, or umpire, or appointed f^ re{e):ee, 
in respect to his verdict in, or decision of ,£^y canse or 
proc^dingr p^n4ing or abont ^ b^.^onght before him, 
eiti^er^ ■ - • ' i-r • . . ■ '- 

1. By^ means of any communication, orsi ci wrltteua 
had with him except in the Tegular course of proCeediBge; 

2. By means of any book,, paper, or instrument eid^ib^ 
ited,43fUierv»iBethaaiB theffignlar oomaa >of proceedings; 

&. By flMatiaof any threat, iJitiUiidatioii, peywiUMinm, or 
entreaty; or, j . / '. • - -k- ;.-.. 

4. Bt! .xnean«t.^f i3iiaiy,.pirQm|Be,oir assurance o^ any 
peotxni^ oi; otJier '«dvaxrt)Bige; i • . 

— is panlsbal^e' by flne not exceeding jflva thousand 
doUarskjor ihy impillBQnmeniin lif^e'l^^ j^ldiQi^'ndt ^eed* 
ing five y^rs. 'j [A|r^roVed IMtixcik 90fh, m eSe^ J^j Ist^ 
lj874l ■**■ *' ' 'r. .' .'.: - ••• ..J V .- \ , 

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to a juiy, -wiiiiboat directioiu of the ,«oairt-^ Qofvei^ 4l0<* ; 

9€L. Every jiirqr,TOCiperaQn ^amx.criMUBmottfid as a 
jnxor, or chosen aflrbxtcaitor. or >iimpiiei- or Apfwdnted ref* 
eree, whoviAhet^ . -, 

1. Makes anyprcnBise or agreetneot'to give a reidiot 
or declsioii for osr against any party; or» 

2. Willfully Md ccyrruptly petmits any communication 
to be made to him, 6r receives any book, pltper, fnstm- 
ment erin^t)Mna«io<n rdlaling to any caosd-or matter pend- 
ing before 'lt£En, «jtc(^pt according to the f«galar cooxae of 

—is ptmisl]fable by fine not exceeding five thousand dol- 
lars, or by imprisonment In the State prison not exceed- 
ing five years. [Approved March 30th, in effect July Ist, 

97. Every justice of the peace or constable of the same 
township who purchases or is interested in the purchase 
of any judgment or part thereof on the docket of, or on 
any. docket in possession of, such justice, is guilty of a 

98b Every officer convicted of any crime defined in 
this chapter, in addition to the punishment prescribed, 
forfeits his office, and is forever disqualified from holding 
any office in this State. 

99. The superintendent of state printing shall not, 
during his continuance in office, have any interest, direct- 
ly or indirectly, in any printing of any kind, or in any 
binding, engraving, or lithographfng, or in a contract for 
furnishing paper or other printing-stock or material con- 
nected with the State printing; and any violation of these 
provisions shall subject him, on conviction before a court 
of competent jurisdiction, to imprisonment in the State 
prison for a term of not less than two years nor more 
than five years, and a fine of not less than one thousand 

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doUars nor more than three thonaaiid doUan, or b j both 
ench fl&e and imprisomnent. [In effect April let, 1878.] 

lOOl If the said emperintendent of state printing Bhall 
corruptly eoUade with any person or pereoas famishing 
paper or matwials, or bidding therefor, or with any other 
person or persons, or have any secret nndentanding with 
him or them» by himself or through others, to def rand the 
State, or by which the State sliall be defrauded or made 
to sustain a loss, contrary to the tme intent and meaning 
of this act, he shall, upon coniriction thereof, in any court 
of competent jurisdiction, forfeit his offioei and be subject 
to imprisonment in the State prison for a term of not less 
than two years, and to a Une of not less than one thon- 
sand dollars nor more than three thousand dollars, or 
both such fine and imprisonment, pn effect April 3rd, 

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S 101. Bescnlng pii8«Mfr&.. ' i. ( a> .- 

101. Every pesrsbi* vjija ,re3/5i\i«ijj' oj? a tt«^tf toffscue, 
or aids another person ia^BdMuiaii^iOrt^tifUDiiliag iozf scoe, 
any pr^M>a»v'itom MiypxteoH^'OV' from any officetoir per- 
son having him in lawful ctistody, is ptinlshkbie^ is fol- 
lows; J f : "■ f. .' .'• '• •• • •]•.-; • '»v I S''"I 

1. ii such prisoner ,^as i^^custody J^ipJ^ f^ cpavio|tioi^ <^ 
felony puhishable with dosk^i^ p-y. M^r^oi]|pi^t in ^e 
State priso|i n9t. less! tl^ one inor inpre than loi^een 
years. , .' V'. . V .■ •/, j,,." " ;'/.. . ., '' ., > 

2. If such prisoner ^ad in eustod;^ upon a conyictipn 9^ 
any other felonyrhyiipalprisonme^tin the Sib^t^ VJ^^^oa 
not less than six months, nor more than five years. ^ 

3. If wucfli^HBoflto wa^ fn ou^rtto'dy upott a ^arge; of 'fel- 
ony: by a fine not «X6eediiig oiiethousai&d dollars, and 
imprisotifenent In the bounty jail net^ e±te^itij^ tWo^ears. 

4. If sneh ptisoi^er ^as in Custody" ^h^lrWis^Hhab tt^km 

a charge or" €f6nviction of lelbny :- by fihie nfot exeeedinfg 

five hulidred dollars^ aoOt yApiiakiidmikA tii the ksoUfity Jail 

not. exceeding 8ix,jpoi?ylihfl,. . . , ... j ,....,, . 

Rescne Is the violent deliverj of a. prisoner from lawful. cnttpdyf- 
91 Wend'. MO^ ^to 4^ MiCo^. ISl ; "^t^ thbii^TvaSTptm^ tak^lio 
part in the violence— T.Charlt.U;.,sa»mJS^^^2lf^ ttiniiBtafit be 
from accident, or to avert th)reate'0eirdftn^e'i>--see l^Bnsff.^^ed. 
894. Thela](^ilS(onDteat«bit>etw'«m«ri^ 

prisoner ^lU phdi&r ^e^-M H4r Idd. WtXamQcm^S^Smylieria' 
dieted as atffttt»mptMftM«. 100. -^ . = . rr^.^^'Tr* 

XOa. .Srefy.ptaidB.iiaiOMtrillfnllj'ii^ 
«rtab»ftO|rAttoifeqni^[<l»«ake, i»;5Lasi8liB*iiimy pftrsO]i4irCak- 
ing^or »^teiD|rtiinsft6.taker^]Minithe^e«8tody cfi 'aoif offlcf^ 
Qt ptiBQilt any Inraoaal >pvpff«iy i^hlob'SviolyiiDttMnrutft 
porwn hij^ in Jtitbaigid aba.i^i9mfprffeimht)lAwi<li^tgQXIi^ 
of a misdemeanor. 
Pxs. GoML— a. 

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St|dhU$|0 B80APE8, AllP;A»SfO THBBBDf. 


S 106. E8capesfromStBtoi»fMiiU} - '>' ' -^i • 
S 108. .i4Mta4ttt*fii»p«fntei8«tt«#Miitti;i ' 
S 107. EscaDes from other than State prison. 
'' ""f iw vll6ej% diifreni&^'i^on'^cfs to'esbiipe. ♦ 

•T'vi Alltt.jQMrr7li«taxto9rtMalMi4PiaMfill»aldla«i< 

105. Every prisoner confined in the State prison for a 
iMn \ifsk''^hii f6¥^ life, tt^o'edddp^'s tlieridfrom/is |)\inUli- 
"iifftl^V)^E^^6^^<<^t til the'dtdtj^i^fisoti-for a term equ^l 
' in leh^h to' the ttoW'tie -^rss irfdtViri^ ittlie'tlme of stich 
escape; said second term of imprisonment to conlinenoe 
^frorii the'tii!di6 he would othte'rTli;&S hive i^n discharged 
'*rthiits8ifd^iaoi.^'^ltn effect- AtrtU'ilith,l880.i ' 

I tf^ }&uk ^ w j^or life, who ^tteaii^ %o esofipo from 99»h 
prism, isr ^,xi^jM A l^onj^/and* i>a..<}Qini(9tiwi th^veaf, 
. tiiq ^^jjo^ ' of iixyirisQ wen^ il^eiridox fhaU joopmience from 
,tjji^, t^zoa) 8j^9Ji.iCQ|iyipt wpiqLJ4 pj;lwrwip0 -ha^e beeia dis- 
; ichariE^ ifoigk ^diP^lsonu [loi ^ecti April im^ tSSO,} / 

107. Every prisoner confined in a'zQr other prison tlian 
tji^ 3M4ei pi^s^ ^ho eac^pea or attempts to ascape there- 
from^ isignilify of a itilsddi^eanorf , , . 

^4ttA]^'iehaili60MlHvteiriM9 Deatyfs GWol Law^ i 71a. 

' ■ LiahiUty^putjr'eMapiBfi^'^we P^t^'s Gilm. Law/| 77 b. 
'" fti^on hrbaeh; cb^ostnied^ee D^^^b dim. Xfrw,|,7ft a. . 

108i : iBYery kfa^l)^ «£ :4 fobum, ah«ft9» deputy sheriff, 
-<Kn9tablo».«f jaUerv ioF parsoiiienplejr^fiitfagiiBid, Wbo 
•infOdvdttutJsy (pbntshras, .pmcureS) . aid%KcoiiiiiTM al; or 
-mokoatSMaH^ perakitrf the enqqseiof janjrpcfsQner in oattody, 
^ipf^ilfehsble: by ImprisQaLmMibite t|ia:i£ttate >^pilMn not 

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exceeding ten yean, and fine not exceeding ten thonsand 
Fennitting etoapey UabOlty fop-aee Desty*! Grim. Iaw, i 80 •• 

109. Every person who willfully assists any prisoner 
confined in any prison^ WQ^ti^la^ol custody of any 

section one nundred and el^ht of tms 1 
LUMUtyaptfiltg^mf— li*p e< < e> D«H|» BitBfc JbeaTt leil % 

anytliing useitil io aictj %. pjuspner! i^ xiiailpf ^5?* ,^4^^ 
with intent thereby to facil)ify;e.: the escape lO^ &mv P^^ 
oner conQned thereins is punishable as provided in aee- 
tion due hn^idfed aiid eight of tliis Code* 
0«nviorins arUelfla hito jMl to aid aa escape Ia a iUbstaatfTBoilbnM 

Am^ihig to break P^'iaou rendera tbe party asaUtljig an »eeeiJiQrv 
-^m Um% Bl ! 15 Me.l*JO; ft Jehns. 7l> j Bn-sa A B- C. U. ifen CiJC* AM' 
S!:u!). So uf c dn v «i } iiig t u^trtufj eu tft t£> eoablu blid id Ul'^uK J i^Lp^kje 4 BI, 
Com. as : ag a trowbkir— L^w R. I 0. C. 27 i bat li wlfo la not ItabJo ir tlva 
Instrimjent wqa iimvurcd Ly hli dlrcciloDS-^L C&r. & F. Llgltni>to. la 
a trlaJi for aiding a prisoner to oscapoi anotbfT prisoner c^ftiipLoj; W 
tbe eamo nieana Is aQtHpa^ietps trimmU^S Tex. Ct. App. ISS^* 

111 . Whenever a trial flhaTl be bad of any i^erson nh-^ 
der any of tbo provisionii of eectiotis one hundred and' 
five and one hundred and six of this Code, andwhi^ik^^^ 

committed therein, the county ele^km^f 4hcHMyai^<lv%tt:e^ 
for their approval; and after .^i^ ^I«PJ»}»:iW^4t*fl«4{ 

.^Vi . I i'. .'li- >c> ,«jgj> ,':,i4 uC ;t >J.'"'I a ;.fsi .-..•!. L - Cwui mi >;. --O.-i'^'* 
«.>» !o^' ,<•,.<.,!» l;. ,:j.»M.i loii -f" •. •- .1 ,-. '. ,•.,.. ..).M ■ J,:! - .iv, .J,, , 

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i'lK.^nc'it 1,0* ; cT;f>MV>x''» ton ouh !>:;« .^i.. v ;j ,: •^»i;:f,'.',, • • 

xOw .'■•''J~X .'^■J»'-''> 'j' ',j'i''-i '»'—■!■'! ...I. .1 .oq.'- .<^ •>".'. '.r:-' ' . 
: / lo-'ijj yiin Hi-^.the.;-, vllii''^" a' «)?[v; i''*-i)ir /: w.l ,CCi 

II 111 Offermgifuseorfor^eainstni]^^ 

113. Every offlfl^ )W=ipS . ¥» 9i^^f>^;9f^ 9(^7 W<»4r 
Aled or deposited in any public offi^6, i^rpli^edift Ills' 

xvino^ng or secrelifetg tbe -whole ot imy pArt ^of saoh: 
r^dird»,ma^i.bQoU papar* or pirpico^dlsigil^riwlio; paoaitei 

114'' EVeiy'limdik lioi^Ah^<yflNfef tiUishWis^^elEtd^ to 
liVtM |hntoeditiir «<^t«^^» ^(^ i^ j^rmtt^'of' ItolyoT'tlif^ ^s 

jkil iki^ ^6eeditiif ^<d''ybki^; V^ b^ 

hWditi dollars, or l>y botli. 

SraiixrA or mutiifltion of & rectifd tufty bo flei^tDeii fOTff^ry— ?7 
Iowa. 4120; I if Mass, 34; but uoft ty omu*ir»lw a roMlpc fxom ft IfOua^^ 
Iititl , T& ; or an tu<l oraem ent li om a n ot^— l Aikpn , 3 1 1 ; b ut 1 1 f ^ f o re^erF 
UnwiiiiADUy twnlterthefiiimia a iiote-+ iiiM,i&5; tS Ohio 8c45*i 
Eft Iow{t» tA I ; Knaii. & E. C. C. IM ; 7 Caf . ^ P-tifitf. It is f oiklt / lit cam- 
jaoii law to Alter or fnislfy c^ny Judtcbi or executive record, writ^ or- 
4erpOr deposition— 3 Mass* 13(i; 41 Uill. m; fiO Me. 409; ii Car. & r. U9j 
fi Id. 1% :2 East P. G. seclt ^ GkL 7!; but nol political clt^imcnts of u<> 
legml effetit--^ La. An, 557. Seo D^^-'ft Crim. Iaw, tit, fonuXBY. 

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115. Every person who knowingly procures or offers 
any false or forged instrument to be filed, registered, or 
recorded in any public office within this State, which in- 
stnxment, if genuine,, n^ghi^ be ^J^d, or registered, or re- 
corded under any law" of ' this' State, or of the United 
State8,.l».gtatydf<f«ott5tf. ^ ' • ^ > ••«' ^ 

Patdng a forged dead on record— 27 Mlclv 3S7;^ AS)h^ App^ Qeo. 441. 

116. Every person whaadds anynantes to tbie list of 
persons selected to serve as jurors''fbr'^e^«ioUnty, ^either 
by placing the sam^ in thje jtiry-bb3C, qr dthefwiiw, or ex- 

any oi tfai^ jplMetr^lfpaymr.oo&toini^ jnrors, 

otvtvBlStittm'tft's^iao^mtLfStkmLm^ wktai^ can- 

not be read, or changes suc^'uatii^ t)^ ^^^^iec^ ^f pa- 
per, except, iiji paries al^ow^d S? »l^w, ,i3 guilty;of ' a felony. 
[Approved March 30th, in effect July 1st, 1874.] 

tb'the K«t of'-petsfeins'seflclctetf d^ Jtirotfe, whb nialicioti^i^, 
Cbnhiptl^, oiWillfuBf Witlfteii to ^; fil^e 6r lii(iortfec<r'llst, 
• or ali^ (sbi^Wirig t!>tlieif 'iikjke£- tliatit %hosW irelW6te<ft^ 'br 
whd, being' fe^ufirfetll)^ \ to*' \«iAtfe* dfdwii' tbo nanies 
p1sc^6)^ih!6 66tM\SA ii^1^"61i^6e^rat6 pieces of ^apiefr, 
does hot writ^ ^owx^ $i^^pXsif0i jlni t%, Jf](3p;rrbaii'*]i»fi( isaine 
&amiM^t^d^1iti0eerti!ated list, Aa^.ilo ']ilQ|t« afid lio 
less tkan are da BQch iiaU, is cpifty lof a felony* . 

V; rr ' •<■' -f "-v;'^ l.rir' ••'rav.:' 

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■ ■ CHAPTIjft^'V^' ' ' ■ ' ■ * ; "' 

■• ■' I ■.]. 
•n -i ;• .1 

'i'ltSi'PerJmyddflhed. ■ "•' ' ■^'" ' 

S 121. ,,I]TegiilivrllytP9d9Uiil0t9^1])g;. , ( ,, u 

S 122. Ihcdmpeteiicy of witness ho de^eiue. 
1 121 Knowleeig« of mikt0rialft7 cir testMony ncit ne^^ 
t IM.'^ Jtt]dBr^IttilttOiis;JMei/M»Bidia«M i 

, 1^127. Sal^riiAtion of |>eijui7.. \ 

f fSsJ^'Frocn^^ the execution Of Iniio6enti;k^ - 

will testify, declare, depose, or certify truly before any 
competent tribunal^ oMcer, or person, In auy of the (uaises 
in wliich BQch au oath may by law be administered, will- 
fully and contrary to aucli oatli BtE^tea as trae any mate- 
rial matter which he knowa to be false^ ia guilty of perjury. 
PorlcuT* J3 tho iTiUIul and corrupt flTvearing to a matter of fact 
which the party Ms no proliahle cansofor toellcvlnjr, ortlirit ho floes Dot 

Icu^^liit the tlmei to be true—Bee Desty'a Grim,. La w^ \ 75 a ^ or wbero 
iwears that he *' tUousht" or *' bclieyeia" a fact, wneri f " '" " 

...UB'ht&nd believed otht^ris^e— I'bllU (?r, C.) ^U; ID Q. .,, . 

l»eacJi^327i bat&eea Low.2;f:i; 1 8r*rague, MS; naia.STO; or wlit^ra he 

Bweai^ to a fact ho did not know? to be true— 2 host. L, It. ITS; 17 N. M, 
S73; or to b wear cornmtly that be Is Ignorant of a cE^rtaJn fact— fl Yerpf. 
211 ; \ Spraffue. 5.W* The oatli must be i-akcu wltb dciiheratioii, and not 
tbrouF^h BuriirLsie, In advertence, or a bona fds mistake Ra to faota^- 
Bee Desty'a Crlm. l^w, § 75 b; or rashly or lnt:oiisldonitely,ac cor ding- 
to belief— 4 DalL 372; fi Gray. 73; 41 Md,425; 43 Ga. 170; 7 Car. & P. 17: 
II Q. B. 102si; SO If the oath be honest, and la taken under mlvke of 
coimsel, It Is not perJury-H6 McLean, 409; i2 Iowa, 205; 6 McLean, 573; 
1 MorrlA, £0, 

Oath to be lawfiillT administered-tee Desty's Crim. Iaw. i 75 c; 
before competent parties— Id. S 75 d; In a Jndlclai proceeding— id. S 75 f ; 
or other proceedings— id. S 75 g. 

Matter swom to, must be materlal-«ee Desty's Crim. Law, SS 75 h-1. 

ETldence— The complaint is admissible to show the pendency of the 
case in which the perjury is alleged to have been committed— 54 Cal. 
528. The evidence ofone witness is not suihcient to convict; it must 
be something more than sufficient to counterbalance the oath of the 
nrisoner-lTPeters, 430; S. 0. 1 Green C. B. 97; 57 Mo. 292; S. 0. 1 Am. 
Cr. A. 502. 

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• «^d^ |W^?>«f»*^W flft*i;¥7/ra .otharriopa^l Wlhpi*w4 
by law of attesting the truth^efc 1;i«t.iTWQUili »f»A^ : . ' 

' 1^. ' SSo ^lucli of an oath 6^ bfi^Oe ^ r^Jiates tp the fa- 
''ture performance of oAclal daties Ib not such an'oath as 
is intended by the two preceding sections. 
'OfflMsI btfthl'^^a^iJtiir'dbOB liot l£bliid^fiAtit<^ hitsW or ed&tbiigeii- 

i JtStHi^ i Brdaiitf«Me]iM>«y«; tmoMiscUiiMi^f ot pek^tilr^r thftt 
the oatll)jifa»<sri^nini9t8niil(<mltokea 'itt> fta -inegcOat maA- 

or on WattiP>salm8and HjmiiihHMtoKLitrs BBVIdslliiff tbelidoitiMiy 
beo]iiltted--lC»F.&I^.19S|.. ^ .. .... 

' the accused :wa8 ^ot ^gro^etip^tp ,^ve the teptip^cniy, 49P- 

. p^^Jfl^ay p^fiic^^ ^^ ^juph! J4]*efiwa:M(f^W«g^r. ■ -It is 

.8Uffi»leiit>thiM he>d{d^i!«'«ac]^!t^ such 

deposition or certificate. 

Oompettncyorincompetenoy of witness Is immaterial— 10 Johns. 
187; 10 Ohio» 220; 3 Yeates, 414; or that the false testimony be Inad- 
ml88ible-23 N. Y. 85; 9 Gox C. 0. 105. 

123. It is no defense to a prosecution for perjury that 
the accused did not know the materiality of the false 
statement made by him; or that it did not, in fact, affect 
the proceeding in or for which it was made. It is suffi- 
cient that it was material, and might have been used to 
affect such proceeding. 

124. The making of a deposition or certificate is 
deemed to be complete, within the provisions of this chap- 
ter, from the time when it is delivered by the accused to 
any other person, with the intent that it be uttered or 
published as true. 

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1^6. Perji^ry is puni&fhable by ^mpdsonniQntJbartbe 
State prison not less tban pue, nor more tiian fourteen 
years. .,.-.,. ,..•'..• 

„ X27« ^Yery pf^cinyhp ^Ufu;i^y,p]}QC4|Tep«nQti^ 
son to commit perjury is guilty of subomfttibn- of pet- 
'i«Q3y#^ ffiOd if piliilaksbl»:iii4be'«BM0 mtaMmvsBA he f«4ald 
ke if iKan|9MiU;r«Qilt|r'ofiti»>iiii3iii9rdti(i^^ 

128. Every person who, by willf ulperjury, or suborna- 
tion of pierjuty, t>ro6tires tl^-o6nyi)6ti6li 4nd ^xbctOlon of 
anv Innocent person, is ^tmlshable by death. 
'"■ ^ CMmMi nasi itfeliiMs fSt» ote^tbto oi^ attempting to' ietJoiti tin ^on- 

•uj ' 

J -•«.». ' • 

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. 'i ■■■,1a< I'U-r , '.'/.' m;-: ■'-,..' ,M -,.,;- V.'. •)! 7.1, ri!'*/ 

,|m. |>ffSiiTMi«f«W»fllW^^ .-! .....'. :v- 

SIM. Preparing false erif^l^^. j; . 

ilSS. DeptrpyiDgeTldenceV ' ' '"' ' ' ' '• ' 

i 117. BriUDgwltneMes. 
^flM. tteMlTliir«ro««ia«^Mi6^I^ebMb«il / 

i. . - '"I . ) ■;•. ;• n . ■■.■ .?'!.,,'. //.,'.♦■•, 

altered or antedated, is guil'ty of felony;. . ; . ^ . , , , , . .^ 
Fawiying , rridance-eee 2 Ear. (DeL) 288 ; U' lid. SO. ' 

133. ifevery persbjpl wiV^r^^ fraud or dec^t 
or kiiowlni^ly xnakea or ezJhiMl^ any Ifaplae a tat e men t, rep* 
resentation, to^en, or ^^iitig, to any witness, or pei-^n 
aboat io be called aa a witness upon anj tri^l, proceeding, 
inquiry^ o^ ^yeatigation' whaMve^ aulbori^d by law, 
with intent to affeci the Testimony of such witneafij If 
goilty of a misdemeanor. 

134. Every person guilty of preparing any false ox 
ante-dated book, paper, record, instrument in writing, or 
other matter or thing, with intent to produce it, or allow 
it to be produced for any fraudulent or deceitful purpose, 
as genuine or true, upon any trial, proceeding, or inquiry 
whateyer, authorized by law, is guilty of felony. 

Fabrioatimi of eTldence— 2 HUl, mi 10 Clark. A F. IM; 2 East,M2i 
> Term. |tep. U9; 2 Sbow. 1. See 2 Wbart. C. L. aOk ed. « ISMs 2 Bast 
P. 0. 821. 

135. Erery person who, knowing that any book, pa* 
per, record, ihstrument in writing, or other matter oz 

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thing, is a1x>at to be produced in evidence upon any trial, 
inquiry, or investigation whatever, authorized by law, 
willfully destroys or conceals the same, with intent there- 
by to prevent it from beUigr^^dfijs^^is guilty of a misde- 

136. Every person' Who Wih/tiliy pi^^ents or dissuades 
any person who is or may beeoaie • withassv firexatttlend- 
ing upon any trial, proceeding, ^o^TititiUii^/'a'UilioriieiEL by 
law, is guilty of a misdeme'i^tt6^ ' '\ ' \ 

137. Every jfeumm^Wlm S^^ Pff, Off«f»^ prifiroffl^ to 
give, to any witness, or person about to be called ^as a 
witness, any bi^e, upon any ui^d^rsialfding cfr^iigteefite^t 
that the'teWaiifibiiijr oiP liuch wthiete Shalt be'tWwW)/!^ 
eitetedi WwhbitteniirtJs'by toy'C*hfet ineahs ftkudttWlitiy* 
toiiidtice any peorson to glve^ fklto'ot' VithliM^ i^tl^' 
m6iif;'ik iijhf of a fclouy. [AJIijrcHred^ManSli 30l!h, ft' 
effect July 1st, 1874.] ^ ^^ : : .1 >: I if . I .i 

13a Everj- person wl^o is a witness, or is about ^pe 
called aa sacli^ who teceivejS or'ofters'io' w^^^ apy 
bilbei upon any understiah^ingithat^is^tes^motiysh 
iiifluenced tbereby, or that he will a1)S(eini himsel^^ ^^p^ 
the trial or proceeding uijon, which his'testimbhy'i^ re^. 
quired, ia guilty of a feibny^' lA^jprpVed'M^rp^^ iti' 

efiect July lat| 18T4.1 

\m ti; !xi-.':aiJ'i ■ fiiviM'i ,i i 

; I.- ^! 

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I 143. OlBiwrrefDSingtoaiTestpafttMe^iai^wfttYerU^ 

I 144. Beceivlng fee for ^errlcieijB in tu^estlnir f iiglUTes. 

i '145. beiayln^f t6 t4ke peifson an^^dttfd t>6ford H 'fnaglstrat«. 

Illft. Mhkfei^ttni98M*6t^M^12i4dfrUi!#fiilaiithort^^^ 

1 147«: Iidiwiiauiittj'toprlsalienL. u>. ' .; : . i> 

I 148. }^eal8ti»gi^>^C!Qffl^e|S9li»,t^e.<ltoGtipf^oltf^ 

I 149. Assanltf «tc., by officers, imder color, Of aafl^ori^, 

i ISO: Befusit^ to BXh officers tn airest, etc. ' ^ ^ " ' ' 

i 151. Takki8r«ata^]tidi61]iioiiilt8'.' ' ' - ;.::>. 

i l;6^,.Aamialftpi^>e¥t^}^f^Bl^,<^t^ . • ' . 

i 153. Cpippoimdifig crimes. 

1 1547 irettdrfhtu'duleiitlirconceaUnflr his property. 

i 155. Defendant fraadolently coneeUmg blS'property. 

i 126« . Srandnlent iiret^^vs^^e^i^vo ,to,l>lr(j]xpf iai^ifiM, 

i 167/ SutxBtltnting one child for another. 

) issi' iOon^mbo barratry defined. ''Hb-^p^nikl^ed.- ' 

^159.' What pnkjfitf required. ■' • 

i J£0. • Misbonjliiet by attom«ss. 

i 161. Buying demands or suit by an attorney. , . , , 

i 162. Attorneys forbidden to defend prosecutions-carried on tqr 

' fhiMripvtiMiB «r totoHity by thaoMMli^. ■ 
I UL ,T4ffittition.^pfejeedlBgp»p<ilQn. . - > : 
i 164* Grand j.uror actizig after challenge ])as been allpwed. . 
\\ii. Bribing |}oards of superrisors, etc. 
i les. Criminal coiiteinpts. ' " * " - ■ ' 

I mi 'JUstfcevOAcates^ypliMlcoffleers. 
i U^ QMiWUwIt^ef ladie$ni0Bthayiiigl)ieeQ.ftnAd4 
i 169. Disclosing what t;ran^pired before t^e grand |i|uir, 
1170. Maliciously procuring search warrant. ' ' 
i 17L . tlniuit&orlsed- c^mmvilQatlon-wlth con^oti r\ .\ - - . 
Lia. S,^j»ii|gnfi9pp,w|lj^0r^]9l|ef.9f:flte^#i;j|P9^ r . 
1173. Impoxlili^ (orp|gn Qonvfcts. ,, ^ . ,^- -.:,», . 
i'174. Bringing Chinese, into the dtatOp^ ' ' . ", 
i 175. Beparate'anddisttnct'ijirciisectttidtti'' "'* ■ i> '^i- 
\ J[7«. pmf^sloniqf du^yby f iij^,o|^c(ir. . . . > v j .r 
1 1^., Offense for which no penal^iS'Prescrlbed.. ^ 
yivL ' Ofitcerir of dbrpotah^hs'hbt to employ' Okinese. 
1 179. Goiporations not to employ Chinese. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

g§ 152-8 mMmmuvjJuixiwr'nmidtfi4wntm. 9fi 

142. Every sheriif , coroner, keeper of a jail, constable, 
or other peace officer, who willf ally refuses to receive or 
arrest any person charged with a criminal offense, is pan- 
ishable by fine not oicceefUog^^yQ.thoasand dollars, and 
imprisonment in the coiinty 'jail not exceeding five years. 

Negllgonsnefia psktto^ntz^iyavJaaiHMrtu cffoBMiitthoiigli no 
mischief accraed therefrom—2 CoIcL 181; 1 Bay, S16; S Bash, »; 4 id. 

14a "S^i^etypisfiniiAi holdfng the^tifftiee of public adminis- 
trator, ^hp wfllfully .refuses or neglect* to perform the 
duties therectid oi; ^J^p, yiQ^^ites ai^ proF^ipn of law relat- 
ing to his duties or the duties of hia offtce, f or wtiich some 
other ptihfshmenf 'B not prelicribed, is punishable by fine 
not excdedltig fiVe thousatld dollars, or Imprisonment in 
the county jail not exceeding two yeaxs^.or both. 

144 Every person w*ho violates any of the provisions- 
of section one thousand fiye hundred and fitl^-eight is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. i 

145. iSvery pttbiid officer or other person", Ijatli^g ar- 
rested anyp^n^i^ ^ppn a crJLminal charge^ who willfully 
delays to take such person before ^ a magistrate, having 
jurisdiction, to take his examination, is guilty' of a mis- 
demeanor. ' * 

146. Every/ pablio officeiir,.or pezaon pretending to be 
a public officer, who,- under the pretense or co^or of any 
proceks 6t other legal authority, arrests any pei^son o? de- 
tains him against his will, or sej^es or, levle^ npon'^any 
property, or dispossesses anyone of any landB or. tene- 
ments, without a Regular proeess o>r> Otber lawf til authbrity 
therefor, !i j^fuilty of a misdemeanor. ■] . 

147. Every officer who is gniity^ of willf ui inhumanity 
or opprewioik "toward any prisoner unddr his bare or in 
his custody, is punishable by fine npt exceeding two 
thousand dollars, ai^J^y remqval from offic<^ ,>, 

14a Every persdn <»fhp wiEfttUy re^i^tti, d<ilkyt|i or ol?- 
structs any public officer, ^,n the discharge or ^^tt^mpt to 

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flY#«totiiftfid >d(fllaMi Mid liftpriftMaitoiit in €I!e o&Qoaf y 

Jail not oxceecling fivo years. 

EesiBting offlcer.^To constltuta the offensop tbo offloer molt be au" 
thorizcd tu eicctitfl tlio pt ucess^ rmH tlio process must bo legal— 2 Gale 
£ D. 8&1; a Gny, 354; 1 DhbtiIo- ft74; 12 Mot. 'in: B Barn. & C! 89; 1 Car. 
& K.4(i!^; 1 Lcat-h, 516; 11 Tiico^ 2»&. Tb« official act^ of an officer <^ 
facfa lire v^ld eo far as the rignts of tho puUHo or of th& person* are 
concerned— 12 4ia. &40j ;J1 0*. i^l7. Tber& must lie porno oTert Bct-«l 
Conn. 244; S. C- 1 GrKftn €. K. 2lii6; but a blow la not iiecfissarj'— 39 AJsw 
27'ii 44 Vc. 636. Reiiioijistranee la not resbtaace— 3 Brewat. 343 j see 4t 
G^ &i}7 ; nor Is ref m^l to obey an omccr an tudlctabl« ^eslstaac&^-^s 
Md. 4!J0; 2fl Oblo St. l^B : 37 Wla. 195 : 43 Tei. 329, Violence agalust tJoA 
omccr Is neceasarf ^3 wa&b. Q. Q. iaS^ Soe Deatf 'a Crlai. Law, S 7ft a. 

/: 1491 ^Itvwf. ptibttis Mxjir trbc^ aadiar «iilor of svtboriljr, 

without lawful necessity, assaults or IjoaitM any pflTsoki^ ii 

I^uDlfliMible'by fine qot ^Ktdeedliig tevm ttkOKUumd dolUtts, 

and Impriflomnelxt iil ' the county jail not ezoMdlog fh^ 

yeais.. .'.:;'■.■'.;.'. ■ ■ ^ ::i-- 

AuanMilnLofflofrtJ^li^Klro a.nsrIA oOhBMitafidB^ will #£a 
pauper, cut off her hair— 4 Car. & IB, 239: 8ee 6 Jiir.2«3: or where aa 

150. Every male jkemoip. abovo eigbtjeon; joaxt o£ ago 
who noi^Acts or rof UflS' to join 4be poBaa ootnltetna or 
power of the cotinty, bjr ijiestlecting or refusing to aid and 
assist in ^kin^. or l^rr^sting any" person Ugainst lirttom 
there may be i»»«ed any process, or by negleotix^g to aid 
and assist in retiiktiig any person who, af ttftbeitig arreted 
or oonfinied, may have soaped from suoh araest or ioapris* 
onmen^^orby ndgl^ctingor refusing toaid alid assist iti 
preventini^ any breach of the pcaoie, or the commission of 
any criminal offense, belni^ thereto lawfully required by 
any, sheriff » deputy sheriff* coron6r, cpnstable, judge, or 
justice of the' p^e,- Or bther officer concerned in th« ad- 
ministration of justice, is punishable by fine of not leas 
thc^ fifty nor niorb than one thousand dollars. 

151. Bepealed. [ Approred Match dOth, in effect July 

^ 152; !Repealieid. [Approived Maidi 90th, in efteot Jnl^ 

Pes. Ck>D«^-T. 

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promise thereof, upon any *agi3m9t|il«|Ol^/9r^AoQ9tolii|]tg;^ 
ooiB90iiBd-or.'Oonaeai>siloir drime^ -opto abstAilk> tpottti-aSy 
^daeictttioK ttt^ii^^f; or/tlQ' witlih^^ m? ev14en^ilke>irei<i>ii 
i^eepfi fii;th^t|^9^;pr<ii^aied^% Ttjy'U^ftij ,^e4'Ctlnfe«: 
fliay be ooQunN>xnidBd by i«aye o£ eoturt^ iapiuiifllittbiea^ 

olS-j^y tmSt^oi^tttdWein tfifi^JJjUt^¥?1«'c<ti .xlbt'.4^<ieeai^^ 

ttMt €»lam: 1in»pwodabBb]jd hjt ^detfllii 'itf < fin^pnsollnicttft.ln 

tihOiMite^prisoBifasaifa.K 'i . .-i, , -i;-.^ ■•. ■•-> ' - ■ • 
,t>^:!Bt!r laiiizlioiliiMiA te;th6')Sta(tecfffi8oli ndt difcMdiliiB 
tbree^ 9^aK»i/.orjdii jth^%t)oim1qr ilailrinot.,jCEB«M6d|jig Mo: 
months, where the crime was punishable by imprisonmentt 

3. By lnipiaaQiim€»t in iba ooiuniy jail ncit axoeedijE^. 
six months, or by fine not exceeding five iltindifed dollars, 

f «Ai|8«8i<j-Aiifigre0mMifeii(AtoinroMtnit&wor(to piat 

- Obifi^ialMttir <»fleiteeFB{-^^<Ati (jff«tt«^'«i^iM1i,ili thettlsoPMMii of llitf 

£a8M6L5ia.294: 4Barn.,&^lor.421: 7 Taunt. 422^ See Waahbum O. 

mity of the offense— iJPiS. ttS^nlspiMSsned Stcommonlaw'Sylne 
»o<i^^^^|»^l^Mni^^#^^.^x>/«t|lf>^,ft4i;^ Cfin|.,L^,,, J.J, 

154. Every debtor who fraudulently remjat'eB: hJtf 
conveys, assigns, or conceals his property, withlf^jit |ij^ 

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claain8,,ox ^QQMO^/is puni8aa2)l6; Dy4iap]isQD]iie&^ 

luff five thousand dollars, or by both. ' ' '^ '' ' 

or 'figfl^i'nkf/WWmiliitjnagmiMA iifU tfciaMaMreiidored <ol^^h0 f^^ 

ceals, 'sells, or disposes of such propofff^^iviritii. laitaDt 
to )ii^^J^ ^etejMm^ifHf^^^^ 99^^91^ boingtmg^iifii.Ao- 
tioa 0£ j^oy^k^Btg, sw^hj j^^mciH, e«r'.iRitli>eisoh< ^bufedntrnH 
moves such property beyond the limits oCthe rctop^^Ay in 
whiQ]^ ^..iP9^:..^/aV th^ J^imfi oi t^jOsimx^ncmiiitnt .of 
such action or the rendering of such judgment, is pnni9h!» 

OJSfi. : JB^efeyipecabftiWliofrtfuieMlclfitrj^'^reduefeA^^ tii^ 
fant, falsely pretending it to have-'t^een hcftnW wHf pait- 
ent whose child would b«»'«lt«iti8d to inheriti ai^ -real 

person laWffflff 3^ ^ntithill thereto, is pup^ia^iie, "^y^ ifnjp^is? 
onnWahVitt'tblB Staty prison riot exceeiin^' fen yws. ',, , ^ 

1^7^ . , il^vex^ pprsQn ,$f».:qF}»<qm/;PA^iQ£ant has h^m :Mii- 
flcted foi|''nW:slrig,,ed^c4tip^\^f ^tt^^ 9t)iejr:iiur&pip^,, w}iPi" 
with intent t»^^eoeiyBt inf^ ^p^nfii^uQiR gnaffHtan pi BUeh 
child, ^ubjf^ti^te?!, o^ p^Q^ftc^^tp »^9J»,;^fyfe^rt^^ 
another cjiil4 in jt)i^ .p%e 9^ tl^e onq^o (jpij^jieid, ^jpreaUs^ 
able by imp^j^Qiiiperit, A4 i^^ SP^^.S^^m^-flf^ ifm999^dng 
seven^y^Wft,^ ..,, ^^^,^„.^,..,, .,. ,«. ,1,;^ . ;<. ;>;r:r..-w.i .: •: . 

X^. <:;oi]«nw» >^tfliraibC]ruif» iUi&(»pcactjbBr of = ewttlng 
g99^nd]«f|Sb^4ioift}jlVi9oefdlati:9p ^M ^UUptadabemii hf 

and by fine not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

«xc«^ .tipojii. pK><»f %}^ lie Iia« excitAd smta or psooeed* 
ing^^lh^pi at le«^ t]imiiuta]ice8».tmd wt^a cpi3^ 
or xnalicions intent to rex and annoy. 


- .1. .ItiigiQili^. of aii!f 4A«}«tt or Mllitoidii^ or oonMttte to 

any.d088lt«r;tdlli»ioa, imh iilMii« to dobdive the oonrt 

Of «i7^{Mvty;:or, - iJ- • 

^ ;2.. WiUlallydoUrft his oUenft'B suH WithiayieW to his 

ewhgi^n; or, • 

3. Willfully roofliUMS mif tnonoy or alloiviuioe for or 
cm <MV90iia^ ]qI •f^ny'iooQW witldb ho has owt'iaid Mt or 

-wiaffoU^ o^a mMMBMnorv i ; ' 

1^1 Jivery attorney wl)6, eitlier direciti^ pr indiresily, 
bnySp or i3 interested in buying, any eyideiiiQe ot 4ebt or 
tiling in action,, with intent to hrmg suit thereon^ is guUty 
of a misdemeanor. 

p deiiis&da.-i-lt IS'ik'inMlMNSii^r f tor aa atichner to tnxriuij 

: Bribiiftf nmtibws of4HBltttii«l|itl bsurd-t^t N. J. Mi. 
■ IMt Every irtHotirey %lio; dlrecily or indirectly, ad- 
vlMlf)6ltoIatiott to, 6r aids, 01^ promoters thd defei^se pf 
Utiy >B«lf&ii ot-pArbCeeding k any court, the prosecution of 
which is carried on, aided, or promoted by any person as 
dlflttM*attoittBy^jar:other {mttfb pjofaeanw; %hh%fabm 
tttch ;pwtfiB teiditedlly or indlioot^ c^ttaeiol6d''flai' a piM> 
fMl3).oft.^^«ho^hsixiB9lii2iiflel£ piOiiMntsdl/ o» ifl anyttaiihittr 

d by Google 

as district attorney or other public proseSetilltft, «f tt^tlearOK 
aiTe<^tyWiiiaiJ!<6(Milj;atf^e^ilkrelat!6n'lK>;>oti)^^ aiiy 
port ih, teSdel^nsij tl^t^f, a^ aM6to«y oi* oth^i^iiM), oif 
ti^io tAett or tfecciv^ aiiy raloabl^ 66Ui^ldttMiMoh frbi^ of 
cm l>ifrhall^ aik^^f^iidaAt in anjr sa61i «e€ioti; t(p6h any 
nntf 'CrttA'rtfl tit ^ Of agteitoiMit iHUite^t^ ltliVlftg^irt9latft>ti to 
the defense thereof, is guilty of a misdeffleahbr; tliid fti 
addiridii'to fho piMsfmieht prejibritye^ thi»refori forfeits 
Ids license to j(itAcftieehkw. ' ; 

163. Hie precedilig sedtion does' not p'rolilbit an at- 
torney from defending himself ii; person, as attorney or 
conn^i; wiieii prosectited, either civilly or crlininali^« 

16^ -Syeiiy ff^stij^ juror w^q,, with knowledge that a 
challenge.. mterposeid ^^fi^^t hi^A hy a djaf end^plb ; ^i^ 
been alldwed, is p^entaJ!,;pr takes, part, ^r. Mtcipapta, tc^ 
take|^CMr^.;lp.^econ3lderaliion of the,, change j^gaii^t tho 
defendant who interposed the. ch9^ileaig6| pr.tjiie 4^^.* 
ecations , o^ .th^jpr^d, jury thereon,' Js^ guMty "of a.naisi^e- 

mevftber^l^U. QQPim/9n eouncU, boar^ of supesviioriii.oi; 
boavd of.tei|»t«6a o^sAy cQuntjTirciliyv ojr wvporai^loiw wti^ 
intent to corruptly inflnes^e :su€^ . membf^r .iahis «eti(G»[ 
on any matter or sttbrjeicU pending^ liefoittttha body of 
which he is aaneoifaer, and every zneviWo^ eithetsvof the 
bodies iUi^ntilQi^i^ tn t^is sisctlbn ^rfho receives or oftexa, to 
recehre any s^ch bribe, to punishable by imprisdnmeiit itf 
the State prison for a term not less than one nox nioie 
thtfB f oi^viieM 7«kM, «iia 1^ ^idaMIIM tMa, teldink'ttiay 
office in^tiiisBtata;.' 

lf$. Ev«ry,peisf>n.guiilty of gay ciwtexnpt ^ 'i^T^\oi 
eKlri^:i0f the f tipo^iiig kinds^ is jg^iilty of a misdcsolei^nor^ 
> 1 DisolPderly, Contemptaot^ 
mitted 'dnring> the iitfting. ^ ' any ocinrt i>t ]iUtice, ! In Uun 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

W^,4jiftto.4^»irth9i?Hy, . .;".iri i-.:-;-.....-. 

lires^Q^; of. 9•^^ ^y^g^jj^ft, wfeilfr •pMUftDdir.^MWW* Jfl fWF 

3^ Ally Iwroach ^ ^^^ poayife, ^^piw, .^/t ^ho^ 44f tm^?|06 
directly tending to interrupt the pi;<9oaedipg8 of ^^yrvCOurU- 

4. Wilful d|8<^b^ience pf .a.n7,proc€»s8.^Qr^<^ 
^uu^ issued by any cpur|; • ' ' •,. / . 

' is.' fiii9i8^i>9e 'vyillfallT offered Ipr ainy J^r^pni, to the 
lawftll order or process of any court. 
' e. ^he contutnttclons and unla^ul reit^s^l of any per- 
iion to'be siMm a3 a withes; x>r, 'vrhen so itwotn,'t1^d like 
tfeff tisal' to' ana^wer fttiy material itjiiiBstio'ii. ' ''"!'•'•'• 

t! '*he pubHb'atibti of af^lsdor gtdsfely"lkilfc<j&jytef*e. 
l^oyt'(6fH;hfet*oceedlnfi;8 0fiany^6ourt: '' ' . '^';*' 

k 'It^Aa^iiiAtig to any cOiitt' bavinigf 'powe^'t6 pftsa i^^- 
tence upon any prisoner under conyiction, or to any mbiin- 
Iterof ioeb eeurt, any^aiAdAtit, *fji «e«UaM»iy,'oyfbpMeiit- 
ation>^ «ny kindy verbal oi« writtMi, ln> aggtairfttioK or 
mlftfgtflloi^ of ,lbe puflilShnlettV'ta t^ iiiipoMdJii|>teiiBnMM 
prtfl^aer,>exdeptaspR>Tiaediii«liiffOod6. - ^ ')> > ' ' 

fesslonai or m^espectfol language hyiax attorney:— isjncL?^! 14 1 
W-JAJII.SQ.' . • —• . -.. . 

yond its actaal presence, it is a constructive contempt— 36 Jjxd. X'3§. 
isMyi: XMsdbefdit^e^ 6{ erd^r* of to^ is M c<>tttehn>t-9)Mey, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^, o^wmmvt- Arnold -wrwo-^fiK^. M(M7t^ 

been held tobtemptii: Misbehavior by an officer, aa a flberlti tci bo 
guilty ul iiiaJpractit^e— 'J Burr. TifH'; '^''^ cleik to fraiicbilentJy ttltHliold 
mpuey bclongJcig to an estate— 1 Elaekf. Itti; or&n auoruey t^ntenng 
a olsmlasaL In (Uirftspecttu] ]laii£iUgo--i Ind. Jul; 23 Id. 47 j orfor^lliig 
an Imd^cfi^t petit ton for dlvoicc-^ Id. G27: or for instStutliig: a ficilr 
ttdii»slili-^6' Id, 6«; -J Tei. aao? 8 How. 23*; or for suing out an at- 
tacli^ent far & witness who baa not bpea serve rt wltb praties 5— 3 uolo. 
2951 or falling tfn pay or loplrvy a juagmpnt— 45 Ind. 31JS; or making 
U30 of laiHO Ih^truiDeiit to obstnict Ju3tic«i-6 Term Rep. ei«; tmt to 
T^tiiSG to defend a poor ppr^on-4 Ind. &:Jj— or to advho a cJSeivt ot tlio 

forrec&38, approiicbliig the chleC Just Ecei n^ing abusivBaDd vitup^ra- 
tlTfl feiifmage— '25 La. An. 632; or proposing to a furor to alcrtiaJ froifl 
tbe wUiuow of the iuiy-rpom how the Jury 6tan>l-»<M N* J. L,l03j or, 
while a criminal charge is petidlngn to impugn tho luij>Lirtlality of the 
JudgOf or excite, public prtjudlcc, Is a coTitempt^WalL Sr, V; 11 
Johns, 460; i Yeates. i^i m N. Q. aST ; lii Arir. 384 ; UJIL lii5. 

Power to pnniah for contempts.— Every court has a right to protect 
Itself from a violation of its decefiey and propriety'— i Ind, C37; 1 
Blackf. mi as Ijfca. la«: ti iti. 47; S5 Id. 3fia; i!3 id. iioa, inid baa an Inber* 
ent power to punish for contempt of Us rales and orders— see many 
i^aatfB clc«t| ill Ue&fcy'y Crlm. Law, s ?1 a; aud for coti^tnictlve con* 
tempts— Id. JuMticL'S of the peace navo the aame power as couria of 
record-l CaJ. 14; 4T id. 131^ 4e lud. 6S7. 

16^1 ' EiVery jhibiiis 6fSttet aii'tfiortied b'y law to makis 
o^'#i^)snr ^eitm^it^ot^ d«fit6t"^n*ltiiig, whd in'ikeft and 
delltei^ H8 mt^* ^ trac^^eHiiffdatb b^ wHtin|r, <sotitalii^ 
itig^^atdiiieiit^ T^eh^ be knb^ to be :l&IiM; la gtiilty of a 

flrfaffeiieabor/^ ''*^^=" ■■^ :;•.:- .■...•■•. • ;; ;>; ■ , 

^ i^jj^very grand iiii;or, cUsitrifstattofney^ cl^rk, judg^, 
ox pthf^f 9%i^^^\^i^q^)QX|cej?jb l^y'iaei^lng 6v iii exejcuting a 
^af^a^ij^ of ar^e5^1;sfill|ulfy (lispJiose^ tb^ fs^qjt of apyeserit- 
ment or indictment haying been made for a.jtelony, until 
tb^ defje^ndant )ias , been arrested^ is ^ilty of a mis^e- 
meahof." . '" " ""' '. ' -"•^' •-'■ '■'" ' '••■ • 

■:■■ ;;:i': > t > '.-f • .ji-, Mjii ff-. .;.t. •:•'.>!,;"■,;.,• v-;, •^, ■•- 

rMSj 1Bif»i!^8r»Bdjiuio9iifihfi(iiirO(WlvJie]|^quirie^ 
ai^cQtiBl^TtelllfttUjsjdliolofes «i7(*f^Ml9Ti«0 A4dj«^>elbre 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^ '2trO«v oimitsis A^ASJist tVfkAc' Jo^^tltJ 80 

pmne)^4^>:p fuiylDtliei'' g^fti^jidt^ ttiay fidVv toted m a 
mallet hbfiyto tbem, ii ftUlty of a misAeamiiot. 

able cause procures a search-warrant br vrmarant'iof ' ar« 
rest' to be iteued fitta ^estibcfuteA, !«: gftilty «f a, 'B|lBd^ 

.171. livery' |»ersoi^:Do(a«ltho]d£^- by la«4 whOt'V^ 
oat the consent oCtUe war4eb, or otlxer officer ik <Akir^ at 
the State prisdn, 6ominunlcat)0ti ^th an^ conti^ tl^«^«$ii, 
or brings into or conveys out of the State prison any let- 
ter or writing to or icpm my convict^ is guiAty ol amis^ 
demeaj&dt* ' i"' '[''''','■"[ , i 

ITSt ' is^ery pe)Cson Who, witlrin two mUcis iff the IM^d 
belongiiigto this State, upcin which the St^te jpriflon is 
situated, or '^thin one mile o£ th0 Insane Asylum at 
Kapa, or ^thin bneinile of tlie 'jg^bunQs beloh^nj^ and ihe tTni^Anut^ b£ California in,. AlatxiedA 
County, tiH m iaia'Stai99>tpltQl, cf^yr^Uxi the.Bmiiif of 
the groui^ lldJlEMeb^ {(nd,beI<Mii|[ing thei^sti>^>alUs giirea 
away, or exposes for sale, any. vlBoua 6c alcoholib U^pxoa,^ 
isguUtarof.^i3Pi^s4ew^^j;.^, X^i^ effect <A,|)i41,3i;^187ej .. 

173« J^Fery vei^ta|n» 'luttitey; of . i^ ye*^ ^r, oth«9 sper*^ 
son, who . willfuUy^inipor^i ^^gs« ^or^Sf^dj^i ^or, qai^i^ oc 
procures, to lie bxo^gtht or |iwlH.iD4io thiaEmtej^^y P^noa 
who is a foreign convict of any crime w;hic^f .^.ff)iU'( 
mitted vithin this State^ would be punishable therein, 
(treasoh and mispiflsion of treasfon e2ccepied)-or Whois de- 
livered or sent to him froM any prison Or ptaee bf con- 
^eibent ill any place without this State, is guilty of &' 
misdetn^'anot.' . ' • . . i .... 

174. Every person 1i)ringing to or landing within this 
State any person born either in the empire of China or 
J«F|knibt*th« is%fl4«r*iia}atfi(ti« nyitliecmplte/df (XH&, 
with<mt 'ffirM t^'eMfltfttif «otti« eommltlKmer tff tnnnlgia^ 
fidn eVldenbe«aii4fib«^«bmMh OMniiisffeBiiex^ttet^iidr 
peiboA' desiM volttiltAartlSr t»4tobM lBl»ithirMi0to;'airili|» 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Bi icanawiM litjfTTwr^wiBLigaJBMMWL §§^31!^^ 

ing the landing, is punishable hj a fine .i]£iMi*. lev tUan 
4«0 noMnqret thaAiay&auMMattctdpMniiiji dohj iDl|>rin>n- 
>xienlin.tb»oouiilf jaii:]iatilen:t]iaii;tweoiiaca:UM»;tlui&i 
' tWehwifnCfntihSt n Jj-)i.::. ..:■:';!"; i -io rt; Uv-], ! aj. . 

£t9i ' :E^Ns^ MMdttitl' t>^Mxf^^'the'^lJkti^''^^erred 

within this State contrary to the provisions it isuch seb- 
^tibnii^ zanders <th€J ^MMon^bstnglng oar lawiiii^iiatile io a 
• Mii*iftte))irdsebtiilon and penalty. ' ^ <i ^ >i ^i) ^ ' 

176. Every willful omission to perfOnii any duty ^a^ 
joiDfid bylaw up on any pulilic officer, or person holding 
any public tmat ^r ©mployment, where no special pro- 
vfsiQii shall have been made for the punishment of Buch 
delinguency » is punishable fta a mlBdemeanor. ' 

177. When an act or onu salon is declared by a ktatute 
to be a publie offense^ and no penalty for the ofiensci is 
preaoribed in any Btatute^ the act or omission is puniah* 
able as a miademoaiior. [Approved March 30th, in effect 
Jnly 1st, 1874.] 

178. Any officer, director^ muiager, member, stock- 
holder, clerk, agent, servant, attorney, employ^, assignee, 
or contractor of any corporation now existing, or hereafter 
formed under the laws of this State, who shall employ, in 
any manner or capacity, upon any work or business of 
such corporation, any Chinese or Mongolian, is guilty of 
a misdemeanor, and is punishable by a fine of not less 
than one hundred nor more than one thousand dollars, or 
by imprisonment in the county jail of not less than fifty 
nor more than five hundred days, or by both such fine 
and imprisonment; provided^ that no director of a corpo- 
ration shall be deemed guilty under this section who re- 
fuses to assent to such employment, and has such dissent 
recorded in the minutes of the board of directors. 

1. Every person who, having been convicted for vio- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^iMiituri(UA«io& tln«e6l'ttfDHikioli>boii«lc*ipB, Aki] 

talAe'ttiCaUovm^' :m «.•/■!•>:■...... •• <{ ,i.i i.' r-r . •• 

boi finodxaot . leu/ tboni flvtt< htmdhacl ^or < .move .thikft ^ve 

thousand dollara, or by imprisonment nolj|0Miit]iBil' tvto 


both such ;flne <ai4 . imycj^oi^ipent* . [jfi t!^^ ;^«bruaxgr 

. 13th, i88(Kj ,.;::.,;,;',■..,.;,... .,.;^ : . ....•"..,, 

formed under the lawj^of lhiii.'6totAi>|lildH^¥41.«l«i^r* 
4irectjjr pr in^directl^, \u^ any cajia^uty^, ^njr. ^hiA^ or 
,Mong9lian, flliaU te guilty .of' a .n^l84sniCjaiior,".an$, typon 
'cQni^(M4pn tiiereof s^aU for tlib first, offins^^ be ^ned 'n6t 
leas than i^ye hun^ri^A ^^^ more than five ,tl)ousand dol- 
lars, and upQu thejB^bi^cl conviction i^hallxli]f' addition to 
said penalty^ ^rfeit its charter and franchise, and ah its 
QpiiJd^dte^lgiitd^'aiift prtVlldges; iM ft shafll^be the duty 
pf the aitomey^iietal^tb''tak6 th^' nebeSs&t^ 8te|rti'tb 
tinifQt60 8\i<£f](f6tf^Ai^e; [Iii6«^':^ebtimif 18tfi;168(K} 

. I •*->>; '» . .;. J , '. la. >JJ55 .':.ii-i-±'i< .'fi'i^'.; ,^..' •• .•«•.» '■ 
, ')' !!• /. ■ •• // '..}'' ,...;'»..•.,. • J • .. ^, ii r- •;•' •.'• 

; . .; 'u / •.'•-!:. i"; • i !..; • t >" ■•i-'? ,jv':n j. 

.. i'-. i' .;■ • .••'•' I". I. .-■»■. uii -i-ii i.M. .'ii.i -HI. I .• 

'. • .' i><". '. . '.'..';;-/ 1- : '^ .. 1^1 M-.u p. ,ir.; ^i 

■ ...i I'-j '; f.: c' •''.' :.•• ' ; ■' j', /li' -'fw fi /■ ■ '.•■!'» .. -joU 

• • '. ■."■ . 'A' f U.i ' .. v-. .■.-,• ..•rt'.MUHtr )■,•{..!. ..,-:: 

• ' 0- •'...'. • {»i.»ia\; .i\:. : 1 '.-;'»-.»;;•'.,..; ni ^..^>J. 
. • r* J-« r «'U .■ ;■<.'♦"•. .;.»;• ■■...I'i It !•;.. -ii 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

9smm»*m. ^ cSimf 

: . . : •.;■.).•».•; •.II .- I •;..* ■ '. 
. -■ ri't . ' ..' ■".-:)<* . ■■.•:' " •: 

' .n t- . .•■...:■•.. .J . • ■': ' i.f- I ' .:: ./ T 

;..' • • 1 . ... 

*n 1 . . . . / ... 

S188. N»tftlier ogpnplriieie>»iiBl>luibte ciiaainantr> : i ^ 

mim&i (Axit0'pvoear«tt06ll»irrti> l« olUtig^ or ali^^ (ot 

any crime; .'!.••:•'•. • .• •• ..• •.;.;•. 

.J». J^(^/t(> lopi^ or nmilifttiii an^'ft^^ 8iq[Grpn» or 
jpvotfb^dUjgi •■.-. • . 

4.'. To cheat and 4efrAttd any penox».ol aBy propest^ l)y 
a&y n(i6aid£l whidi are in; ^emselvies ctiittinaly br tto bbtaiiii 
xri6^ey ojT p):opefty by latee |)i:6«Qii^^; oi^, 

5. .Tio commijb any actiajurioua to t^epnblio bealthi. to 

pull)Uc ini^]^, or for the petyerdioji. o?' (^l:!Struction of 

jus:^ice,. or due administration of the laws; 

i .-^they are punishable, by imprisonmeni in the oounty 

]^1 noi^ ez)!^eedlag one year, at by^ne not ez^se^dixii; one 

1tii(opsa]ld 'dol^»/ 09^' both; ' ^^ Mlitc^ d^th^ ba 

isffeeibijuly'ltty 1874.']-- '....:,.■' .\ '■,■/■ ' 

Oonspiraoy.— ▲ conspiracy 16 ft combUifttioii of two Or foldrd persons 
tagpm|te44K4iWf4#«)9mp¥ali ^9m» crimlnal;of iim]»wfnl ptorpose, 
or tf> aocomplisii sbiQe lairrar purpose by criminal or unlawfnl means 

Subd, 1. To commit 'lUi^MMalbtefolleilserrS fiib 9t JMs M* Jo 
klllT^2 Cal. 251; x>r to rob -49 InEt. I864. or comMt bur2|junr--2 Tfix. Ct. 

albti. i»9ji¥unaisStp^iiiAWi Gs^Tjur; « f orto Mdnmi MnRie-^25 

,:.-■ <"1 '•! .., • '■-> lu ^L : 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 


Subd. 4. To cheat-0 Mass. 415; 9 Pa. St 211 ; 4 id. 210: 8 Ear. (Dei.) 
S27; 2 AUen. 168: Tbach. C. C. eOO; 1 Cosh. 190: 4 Iowa, 29; 1 Mleh. 216; 
108 Mass. 309: 4 Pa. St. 210; t Zal>. S3: 3 Q- B. 2^: 12 Cox C. C. 838: id. 
316; 2 Day. 205: 64 Me. 369; 9Ck>weii,578; 7DUI. 407; 4 8trob.266; 7 Tex. 
173; 12 B. 1. 124; 25 yt.458: 16 Weiid.546: 4 Met. Ill; 1 Dot. 357; 8 Rich. 
72: 15 N. H. 396: 1 Gusb. Ill; 39 N. J. L. 324; 5 Har. A J. 817: 4 Hktet.293i 
10 Mich. 310; 4 Cox 0.0. 9n^i^HSS>BMlHity*s Orim. Law, S n d. 

Subd, 5. Pablio health— 2 Ld. Baym. 1179. See 12 Goon. 101. 

Pablio peace— 2 Gamp. 358;'e DBDn-Bep. 623. 

PabUo justice-^ Moody. 11; 6 Mod. 185; 25 Yt. 415. 

PabUelHide--«1iM. ill; 8^ llte». ttf^TV M: l«7j 1 Mrai4fe;i44; 1 
Leach, 274; 13itot>gB>> SflePertafa fliitmLTiMr»tUb. > 

183. No conspiracies, tf&teft dfaoi iAaHsb <«tt^eMUd in 
the preceding section, are ptmi^hat>te ctimiiukliy. ' 

184. Ko agr%0a6|it^ «xeept tq eMnmii '9vielU>ny jOfion 
the person of another, or to QO««iil; VMOtk, or biitglary, 
amottste -toin leoniptraeyk^mltaM •onw 3Mti, jMsitibd such 
iigreei»Hi^:b44pi|olo effeQt;tfa0.ol^j«c« tbeceoCkjliF oim or 
more of the parties to such agreement. 

An Agreement u u^ajiiuuii iui £1^:1, 11 11 amouijta toacanBptracy.U 
In general toinpSP'to without an ovl?rtact-^M) Intl. ISG: 1 Am. Cr. K.106; 
4'iN> ILa-a: IJ! Minn, IM; I Cash, Ibii; ili Yt.4l5: 1> MiiB3-415; 4 Ualfltk 
293 i 4 Wpu(1. 2iL>; 4 Mlgh;<N; ^1 Ho. 33^5 23 Pa, St. 3->o: 4)* Mls^, 1*34: BA 
H h Itit^lf (III overt Rci— 1 Cmsh. isSi l StrftfiKP^ mii and poo a Ma^i*. *2«; 
A Hatt 4r J. al7. The iriiC oc Uiu ullfm^a ii iLe fruutlulent nod tornipt 
comUliiiitfciii with liitf^tiC tliat injury shall result— 3 Ashni. Jf47j 7 IJ^rb. 
3^»1; 4 HjLli>t. -J^ll; 5 Uar. ^i^ J. S17; ^ Mma. i^^9{ 2^ Pu. ^t. 35^^! 5 M^ 
Lean, 613: Ifl UiJ, Can. Q. I?. 543; 1 Ad. & E. 7Dtt; 1 Moody Jt H, 402; fi 
Q. B.4^; HCokittM: tkilK. Itil; sa aay iiQUiQafi iu piiriiiiJLiieuoflltiDa 
e-oiLiitLtucntpcu'l^of the c^cuiiCrljutDierciyj^LuibggravaUouof It-^'iMass. 
320; 4 Ila3at/29t; 5 fiar. A J. ;i7| and aee coaed i]lted in Deiiiy's Orim. 
LsWf j il s- 

EffergpT.— A cojiflplracy to commit a felonr* When executed, iamergv4 
tn tlieTrlDny--l DhyhI, 4; 5 Mats. llkB; 4 Wf^Ddn '^b5; 2 I*art. Cos. &4I; i 
Mlth,21tii 5 WattTicfe S. 345: 2& Vt. 413; 4i M^?. 2lb; when to commit a 
iili^tLc^F rrlfni". it Jy tiiETi;r''dt "Ht ntjt wftrn tlvB rcmflplmcy anil tho crltna 
ILTO oc Ui£9 fi^uii |rnid?^4<j Me. 2\^j 1£ id. i^i ; 5 U^is^, lU; 105 Ids 63 ; lOS 
id. 3(J9; im id. 34^; ii Met. If a; I Mleh. 216; 2 Par&. CM. 341 j flPn. 6t. 6*5 ; 
r> Fick. 4:!j; '2^ VL 415; A Pfi- int. (iit; 4 Wuriil. %&. But aea ei6 MAsi. Mt 
'J Cowen.STTj (i ALi. Tijo; 3 C*>i C. 0. '^. 

185/ It shall be unlcKitTfttl for atty person to wear atfj^ 
mask, false wniskers, or any personal disgoiao (whether 
complete or paHial ) for the paT|>0Be ^o^— 

1. Evading or escapmg discovery, recognition^ or iden> 
tification in the commission of £^ny public ofitentfe. 

2. O^ttcealmettt, flight, or escape, when charged withi 
arrested. fori' or cbn-v^cted of, any publiis offense.. Aaj 
person violiitihg any of the provisions of this section shall 
be de'eYned guilty of a misdemeanor. [Apprcfved l4^oIk 
dOth, in effect July 1st, 1874.] 

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Of Crimes against the Person. 

Chap. I. Homicips. 
H. Mayhbm. 
m. Kidnappucg. 


VI. Assaults with intent to commit FBLomr, 


VH. Duels ast> CHAxa<BNOEs. 
vm. False iMPfeaBomoENt. 
IX. Assault and Battsby*. 
X. Libel. 
PXH. Code.— 8. 

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g 187 -H^Joctotf. 



1 187. Murder defined. 

S 188. MaUce defined. 

S 189. Degrees of murder. 

S 190. Punidiment of murder. 

S 191. Petit treason ftlKiUBlied;' ]' ^ 

S 192. Hanslaoghter-VOltintsCr^und fhtolontary. 

S 193. Ponlshmeotof numslaoffhter. .. . 

S 194. De^Baife^hdii;^ dfe '^mk syelf^iml k dar* 

S 196. Excusable homicide. 

S 196. Justifiable homicide by public officers. 

S 197. Justifiable homicide by other parsons.' '- 

S 198. Bare fear not to justify kiUtnff. . 

S 199. Justifiable and excusable homioii^^aotpiml8haf>ie. 

187. Murder is tho unlaTTf ul killintc <>^ & human being, 
with malice ai^orethought. 

Murder, dbfliied—S4 CaL200; 47 Call02; vA common law— 1 Wash. 
C.C.463; 2HalSt.220; lColo.137; 44Cal.iM2>ftMet.93: 6Cush.296; see 
4 BL Com. 195. It has but one meaning— the intentional JJlUng of a 
human behig, with maUoeW6i«fiBiBSirhi^ V»id. ^sr^fd.452. 

It ia murder if the wound U infltetad jfttti ^eloviouA pfimt, and 
death ensue within a year And a diuf— 9 Cal. 273. 

The killing may be by any act, direct or indirect, whlcfa results in 
death-9 Met. 99; 63 N. 0. 1 ; 4 Mason, 105; 4 Dew 4v.B4 865. 

The person killed must be ** in being," and a child In its mother's 
womb is not a ** human being," within the definition--^ Car. Ar P. 349; 
1 Moody C. C. 84K: but every part of it must liave come from the 
motheiM» Gar. ft F. 849; 7 id. 814; id. 850; 6 id. 829; 7 id. 850. 

Murder inclndes Toluntary and involuntary manslaughter— 6 Oa. 
441: 10 id. 102; 17 id. 483; 1 id. 222; 5 id. 85; 15 id. 117; 5 id. 54; 19 id. 7; 

In case of adultery.— It Ib only when the husband discovers hiB wife 
in the act of adultery that the law mitigates the killing of her or her 

paramour on the ground of passion— 4 Mich. 83; 101012; 29 0a.724; 
2Brewst. 888; 8 fred. 830: 8 Jones. (N. O.) 74; 6 id. 433; 54 Mo. 153: 
Manning's Case, 1 Vent. 2i2; 8. C. Ld. Baym. 212; Pearson's Case, 3 
LewinTSld; or where there was no opportunity for the passion to 
subside— 22 N. Y. 147; but to kill an adulterer deliberately, and upon 
revenge, is murder— 54 Mo. 153: 35 Ind. 80: 62 N. Y. 229; 8 Jones. (N. 
C.) 74; 6 id. 433; 64N.C.608; 78 id. 515: 8 Car. ft P. 182; or to kiU bo- 
cause he has at some previous time committed adultery with his wife 
—6 Jones, (N. C. ) 433: 4 id. 74 ; 8 Ired. 330; or where he was a long thne 
cosnizant of the adulterous intercourse— 35 Ind. 80; or to kill because 

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f\A t>AHAiyA<l tiAi* n >iHmMWiy /T iKAtM\rH; #.o n-niinnilt *w/\»fc<iy a«t»ttW» MAt. im 

and one escapes, the other is giUUiX ^i^i^9C<llB^JE'nifr>^IJRr<0^ <^ 
the survivor is principal in the Murder V)f 1m otitei^rSlffinm KB 

tnS^nticide,~U a chlirt, bft bamallva <^^^1 nfterwiinl (lift) from po- 
tions, or by bniiiiea TtfctfireU In tlie wcunlj, it is imirdtir— 4m N. Y* ^i 
C^. 4 J?. il^9; LJ id. 7&1: 1 Muody U. O. 346; or, il it wa3 bom in Ek itato 
in which it was more Ukely to dJa tli^o ir born in da^ doie, it tfi nmr- 
der^DfCar. ftlL7m. There must have been au indupeadent circula' 
tlQJtt OT it eaniiot be conalilcifid to b(i alLvo ivhcu Uoru, bo ad to maXo U 
martI*fi^-*3 Iowa* 6i5; S. C. 2 Am. Cr. R. 274 : 2 Moody C, C. 2M>: fi Car. 
AP,6;J9i 7iiJ.«6tti 9id,75*; and If the mot hfr kill It wtillostiH allvo. 
It Is murder, tboiigh stUk attacdt d by tho UTobilical cord— 4«> N. Y. ea; 
S PhiU tJ'iJ; 1 Cur. & M. 6Sti| U Coi C. C, 7^; 1 Car. 4s l\mt 9 10. SS. 
A chilli mujt be actualiiy boiii jjiaJlvingstato beforo itouibeaBOt^ 
ject of uiLirder— 5 C-iir. Jt 1*. S^JL*; !j Vp. Uiui- 1^. J, 133, A persou chATfltd 
vritti murder, cominttttd In an attempt to produce aa abortloti, !j en- 
Utlca to bo admitted to ball-s Pac, C. L, J. Tiia. 

In mutual combat.— W hero parties by mutual understundlii^ ert- 
gago Lna conflict and death CDgueSt tbo slayer la giillly of mui'deiv-$7 
Mo. 4fi; S. V. 1 Am. Cr, K, 2ji. So to outer hi to a combat with a deadly 
weapon, InteTKlJria^ to uso it, and In tha coiitost to klH— 52 Vt-4*Ji: 1 
"Vji,, Ca5. W ; or Ju a combat ttI thou t weapons » to drnw a knife and kill— 
*Tped.40fl: or to prejpare aof I roniioaht weapon fjeforo goln^into tho 
d^bt, itud kf Llint? with Jt— Gd Mlaa. Sii: 4 Ired. 4ii:>; or to invito anotlic^r 
to mortal combat, and killJu^Jdm. whllo ho it^^nlngfor his weapoti— 
s;tGa.4; aee2 Whe^L <J. C'47L; or to brinfa^abuLLt a deadly quarKl, 
AQci kiltlno; one of the combataotsr— £2 Oa. l!ll ; or if one of twoeomh^t' 
aiitg retriL^ated and tho other followed, overtook and itahbed hitu, It 
lsmurdcr-4l Ired. 48:^; 1 Spear, ^i. 

la real sting oireat.— When a person in resist big arrest under lawful 

Snoctss kllH the officer, or one of tho arresting? party. It la raurder—fii5 
Ja, 1ft: 30 (Ja.42Cij J llousL JM5; IJ Uox C. G. 441; S. C. I Green a K. 
la&l ti Cold, 24*5. Whpro after tlio comitll$slon of n f felony the. wrtxng'^ 
doera flee^and ara overtukf ii by the otlii.-fc:r, who orders them to (itr< 
render. If tbey tkro upon luid kUl him it is nnirder— :^7 Val. 522. So 
where Che accused were convicts &ud kdled ttio f^uai'd to eHecttbeEr 
escape, it waa murder— 1 Tex, Ct, App, (>17, J' riViUopei-sons lawfully 
arresting offenders oro nnder the sumo protection of thelaw naofll- 
ccr$— 61 ra. St. a52: 1 Ea&t ¥. C. 2uti. But if an arrest be without 
anthorlty-2nonst.5S5t T^llLtTT; S. C.^flmTllj 1 Am. Cr. R£37i 12 
Cuab, aW; or if ho exceed his authoTitJ% or if tlio process bo def ectlvo 
— ea Ilh til; a. C. 12 IIL 37 ; l Am, Cl-. K. 2^1 ; Jui attempting to nrreatuii- 
der a warraut without seal; theklUlog ivlll bo manslaughter— 1 Eaat 
P. a ch. 5, i &aL . 

ix^ cominltting other rOfibnses.T-If an unlawful act bd done iielibei^ 
fttely» and witlvlkef Intention 'of detnf mischief, and dtetb ettsM, It til 
murder— 11 Humph. 150; as in the prosecution of an unlawful dettak 
anduslngppison— SMlcn. 10,2^: or if he att»ck ai\other^with nuUScd 
nSotettba^gi^iiiiaiisiinAWikt^JMdmtn^ B. iuftor 

he orovokes a fight and kUlfllfl»lMt«rk«n^-:^droi^V^ 18 id;> 806.' - 8e« 

108L Sacto; ni«^tee Hlay 1t>e^ etinssA or in^pl:?ed. ij^ |8 
ncpi)Q8» frhen thoM iB zbaiitfiested' a cleliberate inteiitloD 
ttidaWfaily to tdifce awky the life of & fellow-cre^tui^oi it 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ Idd ttoioomM. d8 

Isitoplied, witten no ccfoMstkhU proTOcatioai^p|>em« or 
,viMii'tb« oireiiautaBoe^ Attending the kiUing ilMrar an 
•ji>aiidOiied and maUgwnt heart ' 
BSalioe •qpMM or imp]led.-£spNai «alle» nMai ffl^nfflflffitatfc a 

nQr«cHx,1nifc taLA legal ntnm It depotes a w r miMfiil )lel ^otte wtttEont 
iistt anua of excuse— 04 C&L 4eI^ «<^ ca^s cluxTta X>W^ i rkm. L:LWt 
Idst ■DlUeg3ia<i:twtUfiil]7<lunup which tii ItaH&EeMirycoiiS^qutineQ 
iDiuc lDluiwaotJiei^^L2 Fliii. liT; l^w liL 1 G.O. 3i@ll. Implied luailoo 
iBBiilnfereiiCB fleduced from particul^ fo^Ca nuti clnjaitLseaiic<Alit« 
dlcLailTaficeTtAlii^d— ^!?€unii.3{^: 4 Jouxa, (N. C.) \m; A ULscIlT. I4ij 11 
AJleOp IKS ; S9 Lnil. &^| 3 iMy, 3tM; 10 Met. 2^9 ; S Cojt C. O. ^L ; Bell CL 
C, I i fl Coi 0. 0, 74 ; wJUlfl crpriB33 ru3lice Is never to l>€( LuTerreilt but 
Aiost tifl proved a^i^indf^H Icid, 3.-^: 2Bal1eF,M^t Me^Iet^, SI: liTeC 
MU: 43 l^. HH; 1 Curt. !154; 2 Dos, ^ V. WH^ 7 Car & V^ IfO; I Cur. ft K. 

ZiMnd malice-^IlniklledtaaUcd or mailed !■ Urn U aa evfl defUgn la 
ill^^Su. wbSre the clrcimisUiiieeftiniiniredUmcked, deiMAV^inSitmi. 
and malignaDt 8pirit-43 CttL S50; 2 Mason. 91; WlrMtCSO; 2 StroD. 77; 
II Btm^, 160; IS BmedM 9nC 288; IS Up. CaD^^LB. Stt: 14^ Lovr. 
OanTjur. 97; and the intentta ppesomed-^l jPwfeer Or. B. 154; 1 Ired* 
SM; » OQah;29»; 8 HiH, 4S»; 18 Ala* 739; 67 Ho. 40; 8. O. 1 Am. Cr. lU 

. MialioealDrethoaflW which laaa Ingredient of murder, if ezprosi 
oritmpUed-*48CaLft5. Ittnehidef aUitatesofmlndfn«hleh«bomi^ 
ekle la committed witiieat legal iiistlflGation,exkeBi]aCioiw or azeaae— 

5 TCK. Ct. App. 103; S4 QaL 48l! It distingalahet murdeir from aU eCher 

J of taomicidft*^ OaL 487;^ » Pac O. L. J.SW; » Tex. Ct. Jkpp. 


» and intenttoklll, are essential elements fnurarder—'WYlght. 


Cr. B. 8Slj 7 N. Y. «5I MrtLMU 9; X lliaaon, 91; M Mo. IM; 2S Ind. 231; 
lOMksh. IS; as PaTsi ISi; » Tax. Ct. App. 409; 15 Oratt. 6S4$ 2 Bob. 

189. All' muzder 'wtiich is peipetcated by means of 

poUoiv or lying in ^ralt, torturei or by i^oy othei: kind ot 

]tfillf ol, deUberatOp and pz^meditiated JUIHng, or whicb id 

oomnlitted in the perpetration or attempt to perpetrate 

arson, rape^ robbery, burglary^ or jnayheoi, is miirder of 

the 0^t degree; ^nd all other kinds of morders axe of the 

s|9cond degree, t-^pproved J^arch 30tih, in.^lEect ^uly l8(« 

m^i ..'■''■■ •-*■' . :, ■ .... 

. £>egreefl oi nuwiar.--rThe afeatnte diridinrmnider Intotlegrees does 
Botmtkkemnrder of the second degnee leas tliaamurder*>44Cal. 97. 
The dlflereaoe in tbjo degreea of :mara«r results from, the condltloa of 
the mind in which the design is creatied, andiiot IToin the speed wttji 
which it is executed— 3 Tex. Ct. App. 656. The division into degrees 
aeelu only to e^du^ jthepu|^hmei^. in proportion to tbetm&tJ 
of Che crime-7i Ya. Cas. 387. The^lassilicauon into degrees does not 
nalDaitln lesser less than matder~25<3al. '3614 Mid.08x Tlln jinrmaf 
fbid the party guUty of less than murder, say mans]angl?ter-Hi9Calf 

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89 sovacmm i liSI 

' ^sUberatioii.— Unless It be la pfirp«tnitlng a felimy, there imuit be tk 
deUtwrate^premcdittued, i>recoDccl ved il€iilc^ to take life to cooBtltute 
naurder In tto first degree— 39 Csil. fifH; 112 Nev. HD; 12i<L3M: *3 Cal. 
632; 5 0reg.2l6; 64 Mo. MM; S. C.2Aiu. Cr. li. 31 J; Gl Mo. MS; M ici. 
317. l>olJbei3tiOii Impltea sonic de^rrpo of reflection— 75 Pa. Bt. 403 i S, 
C I Am. Cr, R. 26"!, Ko appreel::ililfj time need liUerven" between ttie 
pi^mPdJtmeil intent and tha honm^l^al flct-)7 CAl. ^9i 24 Id. SO; 34 It). 
*^1 li 4a Id, 3R;i: S. U. I Green C. li. 41i; 44 CaJ, ft5: 48 icJ. aS; 43 ifL IBS; ti 
Pac, C. L. J. 651 ; M Ala. IJW; 75 Pa. St. 4C^3; fi. C. 1 Am. Cr. R. 2B2; 13 
Mq.*1^1 13 id. 3!^; ^3 Id. 287; U^ Id. 'J7Q; 51 Id. IK; 8 Iowa, J^25; ■&» S 
>re¥.40il; 3 Head J ^T; 6tHiid,4:i3; 6 Blackf. H'9; 23 Ik d. 231; 44 Pa. Si. 
65; mAxt^aM; laMo,435i 1 Tex, Ct, A{fii. Ev^, 

Bnemnpdo&iif pi«medit^tioii.— PramedltattoB loay %«i Infema 
from the circumstaaces of the case» aa from the use of a weaikpn lUubr 
to take Ufe-31 Pa. St. 196; 4 HaiilpbM3»; 4DaU, 1&;» AiSi&.Wl 
ZaiK iMvpg from deUherately prooorlBg m . weapoat to take lilOf4liBa. 
St. 75; » y«. €aB. 4^4 ; or conceaUnoa weapon^ Leigh, 749:. or from M 
declax^owposo-l Ohto fit. «6:,5 Humph^ 145; 3 Ya. C]M*48«ier fUNii; 
preporatioiuto conceal the l>o<ly-*ra4 Pa. fit. 187. i , 

Murder in tri t ' - ' l.ii l3 presumed from por^ 

chaiilogiif>b(iii .,iii'U '!'■■ ' J. iMii ' ' 1 tiers —45 Ala. 43; 40 Ind. 

M6; I Fuat. & 1\ tiJi; ii Crur. & T, : . . C. 4f«. Murder ttypoi- 

v>n~24 CaL IT; 17 id. S^i; 34 1 J. 21 : ; 23 Ohio St. 14<J; Ffcx. 

Ct.App. Iii3: id. 6W; 5 UL 4FJa; 7 J. ; sco 7 Cox C. C,2Mi 2B 

On. 5i8; 33 Id. STl, Poison me:iTia tniy .^niJsi,>nco whirh, when applied 
extomailrt or In any way introilucea into the Byeteni, witbout actlosf 
. luechanlcallj-, but by Ua awn lidiercnt quaUNc^a, j.^ capa!>le of destroy- 
tjig Hfe— a* CaL 147. Otiier iioiloua or aeattactlUle «ub$tiuicc3 oi' 
JldnldH are nuchas act UQiL^u tbesy.stem mechanii^ally $o<^to di'sttoy 
llie— Id . 5w ft/ina in iraijf -24 €al . 1 7 ; 34 i d . S 11 : 4 H ma p h, 1 fS&\ 7 id . 4!^! 
9 id. 657; 4 Tex. Ct. Ai^m. 41)3. " Concealed 'Ma not fijnony nig u»wUli 
" Jjln^ ill wait "~^ CaL 2)07. A person concealed muy ibout aiiotber 
without committing murder— Id. { but If he cou^^eald hiuifielf far the 
puriK>se of Bbootlnjf toother, Iio i^i " lying in wait**— Id. By rrueltv and 
iorturi^l Gi&tL&7;ii 4Dev.&]>.3^3 ti3 N.C.I; (i8Mo.3Ui 4Ma<^oii,505; 
BON.aSSSjIOTerjT.S.'il; 2Hnmph.+3g; 9Ircd.42E); 3lGa,40; 40Ala,3ftO; 
101 Mass. 1 ! e Ohio, 131; 11 Fla. 247. Aside trom tlio perpetration ^ a 
felony, murder In the. first degrt^e ia any kind o£ nnJawfuf, willful, and 
aeBlHimte kill I ng^— 48 Cal. ^h \ n id. 2m% 43 f<L 344 ; 31 Id, 21 1 ; 24 Id. 17; n 
itLm^\ 43 Id. 5!^: \1 Nev. 140: id. 3(KJ; 5 OreR. 2lEi; 64 Mo. 5^1; S. C. 3 
Ajn. Cr. R. 313; €1 Mo, &4S; £4 id, 317; which &hows an abandoned and 
mallgu&ut hoai%-^;i CuL iidO; i:i \<l, ^@. 

jyKufder in tli,e penetratipa o£a£slo|iyr-48 CaL 94; 17 id. 388; 24 id. 
17; 40li.6$S; 88A|k2U: 91^93^ UCiMaiB|i.86: 7 Tex.CLA^pB.mia8 
arsoD, bwelary. rape,orrohbeiy:^34 iCbiLi7i U 10. 311 ; 49 id. MS; 1 %1^ 
Ck AvSbvSU 3 Id. m In r6bbery-4Sx^ 868. Attempt at npe-rB 
Hnp. 4si, XM (Mr Is it necessary thai the pwty himself should hiflict Uie 
mprttU woan4> tf he be psMsent aidiog and abetting the act— 1 GaMf42A( 
r&edtltf. 1 , . ' 

Murder la tlie second degree l9 tbo unlawful WUlng* with malice 
aforethoiight, bnt without deliberation, premedJtdtlon, or precon- 
certed design to kill- 3^J Cal. eiJ4; 75 Pa. Bt. 4(rJ; S. C. 1 Am. Cr. E. WL 
AH murder not of tho first deeree Is of tho second de^ee— fl Bait. 
(Temi.) *10. I f thcro was no deliberate pre concerte d Inton tlon^ except* 
ing that Implied from circumstances 6 liowlTig no conslderAbie provoc»« 
tlon. nor an abandoned i^d maUirnant Ucart, or IT ho did not Intend to 
produce deatb, yet Intended thefciloTi,, it Li murder In the second de- 
itree— 25CflL8Kii. If circumstaocea of malko and premeditation are 
tiot prOTed, tbe law pfesmaes tbe mnrdn- in tb^ aeeond decree— 34 
Mo. 153. The court Bbould not charge^ that, klhin^ being proved, the 
law Implies that K was willful^ deUberaterand premedhcated, and ta 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

e» and iUiqs 'Ig nww wi W epf leAtftaff to 
r ciiiniiiu9t«Doe«,. •r to mow. honmMBt Ji 

^i.90. . 'JQ^iery person gaiity of mord^' mtW first idegree, 
4ti|^ Buk^T death or. confipei^ent ip iHe 3t»!^\|)ri00n ^or 
Hl^, at .^hd ais<ite1ilpii of th© jn|r:^'tr5[1ixg t^cj 6anie ; or updn 
a plea ipf gnilti^, tlie eotirt s^iall dete):<ititieth& Lottie; ^tnd 
every person guilfy ofmurdier in tlie second degree, is 
punishable by imprisonment in^-the State prison notices 
t{hifn <ieiiy«tf£r^J [In feffeiCtMiafph 28tij', t8T*.l 

.Z}iterettOn.^Untiier the amendment of 1874, tbo^ duty tanposed oik 
1lb*^»iu(t'iB to exercise the iBain» discretion whelr defendant- pfeads 
gouty, and tb«'Court fiDd» the crime mtn-der in thefir8t.deg]>ee» ad la 
to be exercised by the lury twhen they find defemiiMrt ihkU^ of'ttar^ 
to<tottefimdwT»e--4»<^^ n^ ;ntojMturo,q«,«wt^^ 
b!9tfip«9r^edTramt|i^ language oC w ^Bito 

. %9iX. ^he r!al4» 01 the common lawr distin^shii:^ €he 
^ri^gjjfV^ngkiaftt^ by his seivant/ahd o^ ^%bT^nd. by 
hill wi^di as x>etit treasion, are abolished, and these offenses, 
are homicides, 'pnmshabie in the manner prescribed by 

tfii^<jiiai>t(^r,-'.. :,:,■/:, 

t .!lj^2» Mansl amghter is the uplawfiil kiliing o£.a»h«ma(n 
J^^iB^^^hoAmaUci 'Jrt^ ! ' 

: 1 Yoltint8jirjr-^uf>d|i Asudde^^q^i^^ br heit.^pas^ion. 
i ^. InYDkintary-«in the commission of an uniaWfnl apt, 
ilpt amouiiikg to feTpny; :0r in i^lie CQpaniMion of jSi law- 
f^i^jt wWchibi|;htp)td4uce:d^ in-ai^ ijola^wljjil man- 
ner, or without due cautioi^ andclirCtEmBpebtk>a« ! - ■/ 

' MnnalangbteT defined,— a Waalt. C* 0. 515; 3 Tlorr. & T. 2 ; 1 Hayw, 
flf»0.) 4ii*; ti Eng^ 4^'. ih^ abs^fiice ti( mEiUea ciistiBUfulb^hea tt from 
mtirikjr^ Ca\. 1J7: fi Ifl. MS; ^0 Id. 4^; 5 Ba'\!fv. ii2ii\ 8 araEt. 5*^4; 
iVrtght/JO: AdaSfl-iTri; jjCawen.M; 4 Dfllt j^i; ^Ripe, Hi4i 2 V».tW. 
IPl; iJdH^ifii 2lVhrol.€. O.iiW^: Horr-A T,2; lOIfl, Jlj 1 Strqib. 4?7n i 
HR.Mqj}^^: I7jai3.imi 37111.44*; 8 Junew, (N. Cm**! SSlCUes. «a?: 
S^ra^St.t); ljRlrh-34U 31 rml.511; 4iAla.JU; 2»o3loet' 
WOi K(?iiy,124; 2 fsC Tfi* T3t». NeitiPTirmLlctf nor auliijertttipii in mAQU- 
tUil to uuJawrui BkOOLliiff^S (Jiyib.i^LiOs T Ga^U: i! lisij^t* laii; 1 Kglly, 
'J33; iTfcigs, lOG: I Fatkci c;M£, l5l; TJiatrti. L\ O. 47Ie 2 Ta.Ca#,2|' 
1 Id* llfi; &a Ci* 3lt^l The unnccflssaiY UlUug f^t anotlitr Trldlti rusbt- 
jug iMi iittempt tcj com iiilt a foJoay, or soi^io gthcr isiii.iivf oi ftctr^a 
Miss-'ii^i or, if in t\m iHOSCCUtlcHi of a aGslETii bo mi>rt3 VY^a Jntetnl&d 
tbiii £^ CTn?rG i:ivil tTCRna.^, or au usaaUU tMO. battery— i;!! Ga. 200^ 1 
Maae. 31 ^ 102 ItL Wi iiti 14-458", a Cuslu m\"l tHiacii, (i: or au ^tttemnt 
to coflMiilti a mtSilciUQauorTT^J Mo. 4U: '^H N. IL I^e aa M«. a^ 
.WTjiTG t^o weapon u&ed UnotlUttiy to till or umim— 1 Kivm. Ld. 14I> 
i Humpb, 4t9; 1 Iicd, 75 1 oi*, vvlwrfi tbo Act was ^ot likely to <iauii 
i^titi— iin MIcii. ICs S. C. 1 Am. Cf* L. 276. Udleis tile uiilavtful oofef 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





isfiij." ::::'...'.;:•.,! . - .i;! li;]- iii- r i . i :::Lt clone "irlthoul design drtQtonC 
to kiJl— M IiiU. Iji; id (>a/215~;in(l Itj wlili^h t&ero can be no iiJdf<rs 
RU<t abPttor;^-^B5 lii^l. .^gs. As where the killing is done tnteotlotiaurt 
Iji iJGt blood, but wlLlioitt maJlce— 2 Curt. 1;^ 2 ifuiimb. I8U Jiurr. & T, 
2: 7 Tei* Ct. A pp. 350; 46 Qa. Ijd; U Ohio St. 4T : StS Psk St. I ; 47 UL 37G{ 
aiVLi'ili le Arfe.ftiiJ*: SO Iml. 1^7; 6ti JU- 1?«; Jl iJ.5U; 37 iil.4:]2i 4 J 
let 3Mi 5() UK 1^; «'J1 i± 4'^; &i id, Hi; J 23 Mass. 422; aucl the use of a 
Eupfirtor weapon 1:* no cv jh1cth:;o of malic Q*-3i CaL Sinj or, where It ts 
VolnntarUy cquimltted— 17 Ala. ^61 i 3s ItL £S5. In New Yoiki it must 
h$XG been con nnUted without a deslsrn tof^t"**]!; deaths eicept In aid- 
Inaf asuleide, or tiJliug an ualiorii chiid-rT N. Y. 36*, On ft mutual dis- 
£|gn to flgbt, \vb£:ro no ^dvantu^O is taken and death en^tica, 1^ La vol,' 
tmtary mausLiugbtcr— ^4 Cnl. n-'ia id. iHi^; 0^ Id. iiT}; & Ired. 4:^; 1i$ 
N.C. 4m: t'i niHH, 23; M Ala. 2ii^; 4 Tox. Cj;, At>p. mi. In a iiuddea 
mutual combati whero neither take i^ai I vautago of tho other^aud duath 
ensues, It tsmanslaughter— 1 l^i. Ct, App. bi; Id. (jJJ* 

Killing !n heatof passiom^Jorcduco murder to mjuishLu^liter, a 
proTocatlon must bo establisbfld apparcptly sufflclent to rendpr tho 
paaston liTe$UtlhlH>— 6 Cal* m; 14 Ga. 17; 30 id. 7i. If not done In tho 
li^t oC iiaastun it cannot bfiredufofl to nianslaivrhter— *i Cul. 17L II 
la enongli that tli<& jiaeBlona aro heuted by tho Of'ts or conduct of de- 
ceased, and this tn;ivl>e c-finsed by wordST^f natumUy eak:ulated t<> 
produce iL— ^4 ^TLsh.SR:^; 23 Al^44; &.H an fk&^nlt atid battery can^ln^ 
pfiiiilfind Uloodsbc^d—aT^x. Ct. APP,<>&1 i i Hawk. F. C. tb. 13, g 3i): or 
an attack itiet^ith d[^pri;>t>0i'tloii<i't9 violence— 4 Dev. &'i; or kll^ 
Ins In reslatlng au uidawful arrest— 11 Mo. 138; id. 4ui; 4M:S3-3H; M 
Ab. 'lil; 12 C^^Rh. 24«; 611 UL 1 II; orln an attempt to gain ono'Ji liberty 
from an unlavitui arrest-^ Tt^x. Ct. Anp, S49. Whipping one'ft child 
wonltilMjBufBcl^nt, if accused was suddenly aroui^oa so aatol>e Lne4* 
pable of eoo> reflection— '^S Tex. fcfl^; see 67 Oa. 47"^. The law require* 
two tlilEijr*! first, thi!?mRhonlrl lie provocation; and second, the blow 
niiijjt hn ^''V.^'srVr r-ir-'-d m t:\r- v^-i^x^^'^x nrlfilnj;? therefrom— T Car. A K 

hil. Sk.*^ li'-^i., ■- .."---w ] . , L.,., • :L.i2CSLAUOUTBR. 

:. !nri>Vp6a^oti.— Noiitotocatloii caitjpstlfy orciciiso homicide, but 
;&fk^redw;dittomanBlaiaght^-r)2Ney.8CHi; Hid. 8:^: when from tha 


AI^TSO. Tl^jtroivocftti _ 

pabldinan— A2,AUt.348.i &9id.4l^; nnd injury done to husliand, 

iLnj- * ^«K* — *-*.-«;* / "*-'-•■*" reduce klJUog to 

Seneral thoi>rov* 
pcriion killed 
— J5 Qa.244; and It ma^es tio^dflr^^eh^e wliiither It couldl^e prevented 
<dP ddt^ Ate. «F J 21 MMS. te2M Mldh. feT, See Deaty *3 Crim . L aw , 
title MAV8M.l^nGHTKR4 

[re«,-NettJl^r Words W mlrbWh, how^yttf gHistV 

isiures or actibtiSt,«td atfi^llate proVbbai|o/i: b{ 

pnai homiciflci^ftanslaugtitit^ W. m;t 

HttomanBlwgbtfir-r|2Nev,*>ii; llld.sS: when from tha 
>d, or the JiaiUraoCtha attftck, au intention to kill la man* 
, (S. G.)459: (COSb. Jd5; I Parker Cr, II. 1.^ ; 1 Ired. SW : IB 
idjtro vocation mtistlie sty^has would etlr tlio resentment of 
ovix«iu«enian— A2,Aia.348.i &9ia.fl3; nnd Injury done tr » ■ -* 
, Child; parent, ma&ter. or servant; isit^nmeicnt to re duo 
dattghll^r— 8 Jficb. 160; » Gr^tt.694; S^ Ga. 49«. 1 u gener? 
oh must bO one th^ Xfirolyes some a-^^^uiEC by the nei 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ iM iioMicwtt. 02 

Tex. Ct, App. M ; T la, IM ; 10 'Wis. ?lSi 3 Waak. Q«t3. »l5; ..^ _^ 

socliproTOciitlijn u mopaei^^S Oa. f»i Id. mi telAWi «DetV»e; 1 
ya. (^. m\ ^a AIo. at ; but if on th^ Ijiscaut be Strikes with'tti tofltm- 
meniucit imt^iy to c^use. il^^mh. and d&Ath GD5>tte8,itiS]]iaa8Uulgliter— 
2i»U|>. Cau. Q, B. Ui^ tia wbero worcl^ at euiitumely are foUowea tnr 
tQUtnal blDw^p ftiid deatli ensues, It la miiaiLaugbtibK-4 Cmrt. 1; 4l>alL 
m : 3D I awu, 1 BS ; tiS N. C . itiu. go wtacra tbo v^trds were iMScomplailed 
liy mjory done to defendant'a proprrty* It Yin$ held tafBtchct^w Ark. 
£4id; i^ IM. 'i44 . Insultini; vrorus and {conduct Uy » female relaUve are 
Btri tufflcieut* vaii^m ib^j kkiun^ wm i^^Ufon that proTOcation, and 
1 Immeaint^ly therfeupgn— 5 Tei. Ct» App.t. 

CooMng^ time,— If fiujQfiii'tit tim^ ^Uj*^ between tbe^rauMtMaadtiM 
fofug^out CO fii^iitio aiiuwtbo biuod to taai, tiieklUing'mU'1>e-imtraer 
androtmiwi&iauf?t]terw:^4Ca].lT; 2ij ld.4j65! is3lod.648? as where boim 
lief ore the ti^M urmti^emeala wero >nado tot tt—4 Parker Cr. B* 614; 7 
!4. Y. 386; a Urate. 505: 4 De?. A B. 4@1 : 17 Mo. M4: 25 Ga.9<r7; 1 leilnlf 
6131 (} Cut. <& P. t9T. A iuddrn bent of ^cviBlon will ntrfrexcti8e> |f vbo 
kliUpg t>ti doue after a sufflcLent time ima rtopsed for rea&oti to re- 
fluiiieiitasway-4!) Oa, 41*2 : II** Y. 596. Wbat constitute iufficlent cool* 
injr tlnm is a qucstlijn of law— G!» N. C, 2inr B. C. 1 Orfeen OJ lU «11. 
Wbere tbere haa i>eera pnfflciexit cooling time, the kiUli^.ts m!tf(Je^-4i 

Thread against life.—Here threats agathiit life. Or to do gr^ hod- 

Id. 244; 6 Tex. Ct. Am>. 576. Tttey must be foUoiy^ed by words or overt 
acts at the time of tne killln£f->i7 Cal.^SU: 9 Heisk.S7«: 20 lowa,80»} 
24Ala.67; 47Mi9s.818; 6La.Ati.654; 14 Id. 570; Id. 827: orsomeiieili- 
OQ^tration made to carry out the threatened purpose, manifesting a 
present intention to carry It out— 17 Gal. SIS; 45 id. '4lwi 47 Hiss. 8l8; 
U Ala. 67: 3 Heisk. 876; S. 0. 1 Oreen O. B. 255r 27 TeiTtSB; tfld. 4Sli 
id; 625: Slid.43|0; 21 Tex. 454; 2Head»217; 44a&8.T62: iaT4x.4f2; S 
Yerg. 45». . ^ . ' 
In preventing ti«8pas«.^To kill a mer^ tree^asser is a^ least maa- 
* ighter. and* « not done in hot blood, ii is mnrder— 17 Ala. Wg; n 
^L26idw»}24id.«7;591d.l:,68Ga.35; 2 Cranch C. 0. S»; Hred. 
h Iowa, 144; 4 Jonos, (N. C.> l8; 4 Hass. mt 20 lowa^fi^; 8Jone». 
Cinn. 223; 23 tflss. 822; 4 FarkerCr. 9.S6ii 
d9. U the weapon, and manner of uaingit» 
^man8laughtei^2ii^».^l; 5dAla.l; 23id. 
8 Smedes « M. 40U U tovf&, ;38; Cro. Cfur. 
— — ^_- .». k — ._^; ismanr 

greventthe Ulegai remotal of his prqpfsrty, ot his exclusion from Its 
se-8Ci.84l; IHilEsSB; S.a4Id,484{ TMet).5M; SPick. 
"" end. 369; 77 III. 25: tout this right e]5teiids only top 

WUiuiuu-Jaw 1 (uo uvea uuii vuu»iu ua .oauct iv<v— vi/ a.a<*. li a *. js\x, ivi. 

The owner or property may resist with as much force as necessary to 
^^"1 Illegal r"" " — " " .— ^— -.^ 

«»w-^^--. J4l; 14 Co , .,^-,, , —rv <» — — f , — 

133; !M Wend. 369; 77 HI. 25: tout this right e]5teiids only topreycntloo 
-43Cal.447; 23Aia.28; 18 Mich. 314; lXew.C.C.9. \ 

Inrolantary manslaughter Is the accidental takh« e| life <tn the 
prosecution of some unlawful act not felonious, or in the. i 
-erforioaace of soma lawful act-*l Cold. 62; 23 Iawa» 1544 6 \ 

perforioaace of soma lawful act-*l Cold. 62; 23 Iawa» 1544 6 llassrjm; 
\ Qou 2. }ncas6 pt accident, as in sports productive of <ranke|^ Car. 
)k Pr844: 6 id. M: as kTylng anantagqnisf with a chaiujebl5w^I2 C^ 
CCe^: or by riding an unruly hotse In adrowdi-i Cqld. 62; <<r %xm- 
ing'a stone, at flriiig into asti^et^WhaTt on Horn. S 158; or on ^hooi 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

kUUagft8erTantimd«nfi<9Dre0t}OB-7^aiw6M. r- 

By :-L>::i-LnSE,^T\'Iieii^:. ., . ; i, -::^.;.t.ftnd It reflulta Id death, 
it i^ iu;Mi:i;^Lij:iiler; a.sin pt.:i:£iiii:iiii;,' v.i.J i^jast^ to go at Jiirf^a — 7 Ala* 
ItiS; or In L-Jiiposijii^ poison— J4J tox C. O. 48(i: S Car. * P. 35tji or Jii a 
polkJcaJ meeting In adriuikrcn qHarrcl— 17 Ga. 174; or In frfglitfrnlng 
jld lui&nt— 12 Cox €. C. f^(tf or In the Imrnodoralecorrcctlob ol a chUd^ 
63 N* C. 1 ; or by fflving a cbll^ pplrltuoua liquors— 3 Car. & P. 311 : 1 UL 
244. 6o, where nn Aft resulting ^n df^ath Js done recUflUly or Dcedr 
lesalFi. U l9 n)an!i3ai]g];:iteri fi3 by admfjUsterJug' laudanum toAU Infant 
—11 Ilunipli* 150; or In tne uho of dangerous machiJiery-^Wliart on 
Eom. i IWi or daOfferous ageijciea-l J*'ost» ^ F, 519: Id. oJl; iO Coi C. 
C. 46d{ or In purgniinp; anothiir with A nLstol In &port--d9 Ga, 31 : 41 Id. 
A«6; or In Hrliiu: £k gun recklessly and lieedlcs^^ly —IT Iowa, 138; Mt a 
careful use or a dangeroua arilcla Is not iieoea$art]]r ani^wfal— 11 
Hutnpti, 130: 2Lca,(Tenn,)2J9; 2 Humph. ibT. lu tlia use of a revolver, 
a person Is held only to tlio core of a icasouable man — IT Iowa> 647 ; 8, 
C. 2 Am. Cr, E. 32«i. 

By negligence of omlsflton.^An act ot omlaalon^ aa weU a* ab act 
of coDimlB4lon, may imliiect a person to Indictment for manslanahter 
— Bcc 4 Saivy. 517 j u Biiafi, CdS : I Cos C. C. 119; 8^ C. 1 Load. C. G. (iOi aa 
leavlpH an engino In cJiarge of zm Inronipetent person— 4 Cox C. G^ 4J9; 

B, C iXead. C. C. *jO| 3 Car. & K* 3tt8| Dears* & B. 248j 80 of neglect to 
ventlUte a mine— 3 Car, ^4 K. 368; or to place a sti^o at tho mouth of a 
iliafC— Dears. A B, 248; or neglecting to AlgnaL a railroad tralii-J Coi 

C, 0. 191; orkayiiig rails on a track— 4 Foat. -ft F, JM^lj 1 Oox C\ C* 352i 
3 Id. 191; or from (^rossnegllpfence of araUroatlcompafiy— lOSMaas. 7j 
or of an ofUcer of a sieaml^oiit'— 5 McLean^ 24'Ji 3 Blatcbf . 1^28 ; 2 FMt. ft 
F. I&3; or by ijumfng of a steamer wiillo racing— 1 Parker Cr. R. 659, 
So If death cnflues from Uf^Klect or omission of a plain personal dntf'^ 
1 Car. & K. mHi 2 Id. 371 ; imt not If It bo a discretionary duty— 17 Q. B. 
34. In tiie neglect or oml^sinin of a dut^j If there t>e malice, UL la inur^. 
der-S Iowa, 477j 3-i N. J, L. les, 

Negleot to provide food, etc.— Where death ensues from neglect 
or omission of dutliis owed by persona, It Is manslaughter-^ Iowa, 477: 
12 K. J. 1*. 1613; 1 Car. & K. eOU: 2 id. 371; Wbart.ou Horn. HIT 3 as iieg- 
t&Ctof parents, guardians, anil others, to provide food and shelter for 
thoae tinder their care- 3 Fost« (N» IL) Jd5 ; but the cxititenee of a poal- 
tlvoduty Is essential^!) Cbx C, C. 12J; and means and ability to pro* 
Tidfl must ho shown— 5 Cox C. C. 37^; 7 Car. A P. 271; b Cox 0. V. 
27£; Id. 339] 10 UL M7j ici. f^« So wherE> a husband neglects to provlda 
tooil, cte„ for hl3 wife— 3 Joncfli <N- C) 42 1 ; 1 Car. & K. tiOO: or a master 
for hU Bervant-13 Week. K, «HJ j 1 Up. Can. L. J. N, S. Itii; b Cox C C. 
2T9; a Car. *% p. mj 10 Coi C, C. 63; 5 id,279j 3 Id. M3; or of a parent 
for hU child-KuM. Jfc R. O, C. 20; 9 Cox C. C. 123; 2 Car. & H, ej64 ; 6 1(L 
153; 2 Carnp. CM. Keepers of aimabousea ate responsible for death 
C^tLsed by their nejcleot— 2 Stranger, £82 ; 2 };:ast P. C. 8il ; S Q. B« 959; 
Leigh & C.3!:!4; 2 Ciir. & K, 34J. AecE'pUnff ii^^uardlanship of another 
majcea one responslhlo for death resnhlng from negligence- 7 Oar. A^ 
P. 277; Ij Cox C. C. 14i>; 2 Den, c, C. 325: id, 277- And in all casea of nejt 
lect to provide food, etc,, if the negleet to provido was wlDful anci 
lirofla.and death ensues J t l9 murder— 10 Cox C. C. £47; Id^fiti^^ 4 lid. 
4lUk See Desty's Crlra. Law, i 7 a. 

Negligence of medical practitioner.— Killing cansed by 

responslhlo for death resnhlng from neglle 
»x d C. 14i>; 2 Den, C, C. 325: id, 277. And In a 
jvide food, etc,, if the negleet to provido 'w 
death ensues, it l9 murder— 10 Cox C. C. £4' 
lesty's Crlni. Law, i 7 a. 
Negligence of medical practitioner.— Killing cansed by groat 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

•S§>93-6 woioiQiDii. 


the State prison not 0xc#ediag ten yeans. • - 

).94. To make the killing ieither murder or manslaiigli t» 
t!t, it ia r€|^rii9lJt^,t^t>tlij8 'pariy die MWn a yw awl a 
da^ after tfa^ stroke^c^ed or t^e canse of d«(ath admin- 
lateifedr in the compatation of vfhieh the whole of tb# 
d|iy,pu Whtcli the 4dt was done shall he rao^oned theilrst: 
Within a 7^b4» and a dav-M( Cal. 207; Id. 2M; 1 Dot. Wr'M'Mo: 12^ 
41T«x.4B«i •See|In»t.'M,' .; 

195* Homieide ^ excusable in the following casej^: 
:• 1. . iV^^u committied \>y aecddent and n^sfortune, inlaw 
fully correcting a chil<X or seryant, or in doinjg^ any otl^r 
lawfi4!iact by I9,w£^t mean^, with usual a«d ordinary caiin 
tiop^ai^dtrithbjit any unlawful intent. ', / . ,. . i 

2. When oconmitted by iaocident and sc^fertune^ ia the| 
heat of pasi^oxi, upon aujr sjii^en and sufficient ppovooaN 
tiotij. or t^ji B, auddeu combat, when x^o undde ailra^t^ga 
is ta^n^ noi ^y dangerous weapon used/ atid ^lieti th^ 
killing, is nbi ^oite ina cruel or unusual manner. 

•jK>BsiDle'ror ae8tn>u;cid6&fuy r^salnug tberei 

Ai. ■.;•.,■.; ■.;: ,u,..-.. ;% ■ ,.:.. ;.. V.'.-. - - ; ^ ., .: ...".:.: leaaits 

Ironi ftll gul It— S* Mitsa . &4 i ^ 14 Gray , ba*. TIi c aecidtn t a] ink liiir of 11 » 
mDi^liavQ UeGni in doiLg ^omr' la^wftil ai t— :i^^ lowji. liH; 5 Cn>ib. IMi 33 
Conn. T5; lt^C?a. Jt>3; 51 Tj^.m: I L*?T7.aC, 161; mlJaulflwfiiJjEmust 
houesttf atid (tffii* jftif* liflvo bei^n LfUevptJ ttj bo lnni>nci:it-3t> Ga. 383; 
Deikib resulting from thruwlu^ lumber fro!ii i\ bnilitLn^, 1.1 iv^ mutlOQ 
b«liie; used^lij mls&aventarooiiJy— Kf Ijtj^r, 4'j; g. C. I hi'Ml CU C, M. 
So of d^atlis resulting from nttilBtic st^^rt-''^ lli*^ rnlua nf ttio f^Oio 
Ijelng fairly foUowcd— -Addli. 'J70. Lf a iibyslclati bmia fd^ i-x^rtialv!^ 
Iii3 iKJ^t sfefll to^ol'e El patients ptTfomis im aperatioi] tinder \\lilch th« 
p&Uent fllei. It JJ nilsatlve'jiturf <>uiy— ,3 Car, * F. i^'^M \ i?vt ii tturugh lia 
Mtawltll ffPMSignOm*i(i«— e U^%s, 1J4; a Mo, 5tili hut flefi ?iFa. atECL 

196. Homicide is Justifiable yhe^joonmiitted by pub- 
lic officers, and those acting by their odnunand in their 
4id-and asfeiatiiHCe; ^ijiei^— •'■. . " ".l',', / .i' '!';',"i\ "■ ■ ' 

1. In obiediende taany judgm<ent 6f a ^tap^^.i^QOtf^l^ 

or» y .■•'■.,.■•• '' '-: ,' •-'•>;>'. ;:• ' 

2. When necessarily committed In overcomini; a^iial: 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

95 >HOMicn>i& "§ i97 

^h^MistiMMM fo-tft^' ^xc^tttksn 'of t&ttLe l6gill' prbc688, or in 
'i^^fSSa&^kt^of iiny d&iet legal doty; ' br/ ' ' ■ 

'%iat«^beet^ r^bcfiiea 'dr iHtte* ^cA'ped} 6t when ' lietfeiidftray 
i6dlalai«led ituarteiMii^ persoiis eft^^d -trfth felotiy/and 
^Ikb lire fleeing from justice'br resliit±D^ BiS[oh;dTre8t. 

the warrant benMMJeisinf Qima^l HtgbcMfld; 1 JIUL(6. 0.) aS7iMAJA 

■e$ia jc^mYlnamgtstxMMw'^omf>eh uw groima et- oraen iMm blr bh- 
9eiior«VAtcliareIaw£ttl-*;irW9o4ii»4ao. - , r 
' i9i«6<t. 2. Offloers bf the law^w^en their aathorltf to arrest or im- 
vrisdn n tMttted; may «M f<Arore afa^iMM force, even fl tteAth Ahotild be 
the consequence-l Hu^es,660;l|OliiOi8t.299i iWinst. 144sl am (A. 
G.) 327; 50 Ala; 117; btitnotiehen the retefstaiioe is over andthe neces- 
Mtsiuk cieased-^aee 60 AJa. 117. £veh In 49uaOf « omilrrest^ If the 
Uyeiof^ttwarregtiMr pir^ aM> put In Jeopwdj-l mvu (8- O) 427. . Bi& 
cepi Jn o«0ce .of iloty ui twoof Is not aatborized to kill a party, aocnBod 
of » mtodemeanor. If ha fly from Amst-vS Boost 066; U Tex. 128{ U 


3ox O. C. 449; 8 Q. .B.969; but if he can be taten-SwAoat^ncr 

Cox O. C. 449 ; 8 Q. B. 969 ; but if he can be tatenwllJiOtitlnch sereillr, 
l|^lsetl^lMtiiiusImi^tsr<-7'Gar. ft P. im id. IM; 8 Abb. U. 8. 280: 44 
Tex^B4A; so, Of a lawlnl arrest nnlawfoUy esFecuted-see 52 N. H. 492: 
84Conn.iI2; lYdnti218; , :'/ T * ^ 

jSubdi tOn an aqr^at— An officer isjii$tlfted jb kiimik one^aecnsed 
Of mony If hereslSits and flees-1 Jl&ma, 45p;2Den.C.X5. 85; bu^ ne- 
ces^ty alone win justify thQ Ullin^, and the authority to a^6t^tifi|[ 
have been taQvn-44 Ala. 41. The slayef mu^MOw4f0l<uAy com. 
mltted.and the dbjectavoyed* and a refusal to 6Ubmnr-2 Sey. 58. 
Kiiilnirby officers in rotits.rfots,tuidtmlawfoias8embUe$,tf necessary 
to arrest off endears, is justtflabIe-6 Mich. MO. Sq6 27 QU. i^a. ^^^^ 

197. Homidde is also jnstiflatile when committed \>j 
aoQ^ persoil in either, of the following eases r 

!• trhen resisting axiy attempt to mui^er any penon, 
or to commit a feloiiy, or to do 6ome great bodily iiijtiry; 
ttp<m.«ny person; ot^ 

% "VVhen committed In defense of hahitatLon, property, 
or person^; against one who manifestly intends ot ^n^eav- 
ors, by Tiolenoe ot ti^tpti^e, t& oot^mlt d felony* or ^gainst 
one.w^ manifeitl}i:ini»nds and endeavors, in a Tio^nt, : 
riotomi, or tumiJiUup\ia ifiannex^ to carter tile habitatioii ot 
aaibtbe£f or the jpiarpose of ■ offering riolienee to any person . 

thpreiw .Qjc, ..; ;■ '.,;,, '*,"".,''■. 

> 3vi/Wheti ooiiimitt«d In the Utwfnft defense<o£ midi l^er 

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i X97 BOitjcmm> 90 

flox^ or of a wife or Uiji^^ukiid, parent^ ^14M« ina^t^ij :mi/h 
tress, or servant of sucb pezsoD* wliea tliere is r^^sppiable 
ground to apprehend ^ ijesign to oo^iuait a felony/ or to 
do some great bcilllj injury, and ipifumn^ 4aiige9 o< 
such design being accomplislied; but} auoh pcnrson, c^, t2i# 
person in wboae behalf the defense was made, if he waa 
the assai l ant or engaged in mortal combat, mustf; really 
and in good faith have endeavored to decline auy further 
struggle before the homicide was conmiitted; or, 

4. When necessarily committed in attempting, by law« 
f ul ways and means, to apprehend any person for any 
felony committed, or in lawfully suppressing any riot, or 
in lawfully keeping and prefservingthe peace. 

^libd. L In prevention of a folony.— The tating of Ufo is jUAtUlft- 
ble wlicn t^ouo La present ttics comnji-^sJon of alelony^-a Wa&b. C. 0* 
Alfi; s«e 1 HawkSt^H. A7>1 i i Dfy. m: 17 Ala. ^t; U 14. 15; 9 Iowa, L«gi 
Ttmcli. C. C.471; 8MicU. imt i^H.Y.tlii & Siiwy* *i'SJ, HieromuBtlioa 
tFcU-jirouDiiecl beli^r thatsi felony Id about to UcfionimltLed— 1 Hawki, 
UTi IJonea, [S. C) IM>; t* Mitii. (SU; 2S iiratt, mi WlikJl C4iu Ijo nfo- 
veotedo&iy by the kllUn^r cF Ui& au^posea ft^^ou— b Mieh. 1501 U AJib. 
4S7 J 25 lU- 15; Cto. Car* sad. 

^u&^. ;^. Defffnao of hablmtion.^Tbe qeq ot fat&l means of defenaa 
must t^a ueceasmy to protect tiio lJ£o of ilefeuEJaat or of JUh f aojuyi, or 
ta protect from girat hiydUy iiarDi— ^5 Vt, 3Wdi B. 0, 1 Grten y. K. UMi. 
T^Mii^ of Ufa li Jii^tifial>]C' oniy wLnn. U\^ catiy Is lundo In a violeut. 
riot^infl, or tiunalfuoua iniumcr, for tlm piifpoaB of Oder Id tj violence to 
■ome perioii tUerein.or of commluiJiK afdlony by vIoieoco^-liKJal* 
*4I: S. C* I tfrecn C, H. IS7 ; anxl siuy Itiuiato of me iiausR iniiy be Juatl- 
fied-^3 CaL 447i S. C. I tirocu C. B. 41*7 ; 4 1I.IS5. 301 ; 4 Hill, 4^7 j 4 taon. 
119; 8 MlciJ, I5y; '^l Ind. 2:1; 'i'i Oi. 4TS; Cro. Car. 544; 5 Coke. Wj IL 
Mori, 242'. To Justify fibootlng a biir^glar tlicrc inust ha tlrcaifl&tincea 
ca-lcul-uc^cl to aroiist tlie f car of a rfasonnblo maii, or IsulJiatiijgti daii'- 

fer 50 uirgciit as tu oituse tbe iTt'^taiitaiicous uao t>f a dtiiUly wtjancm— 
J Cal. 447: S. C. 1 Qrccn C. B. 437; 23 Ga. 47ti. Where sevenU persons 
In a threaiening maimer assemble before a man's bouse, he must first 
warn them off, out if tbey advance and actually strike him, he will be 
Justified In taking Ufe— 14 Up. Can. Q. B. 434. So if two persons come 

warn them off, out if they advance and actually strike him, he will be 
Justified In taking Ufe— 14 Up. Can. Q. B. 434. So if two persons come 
in the night-time and actually do Tlolence, he wlU be Justified---^ 111^ 

Subd. S. Defense of family.— Self-defense will justlft a person In 
defending those with whom he is associated, and in kiUlngif he be- 
lieves life Is in dangeiv-49 Iowa. 328. The danger must be indent to 
satii^ a reasonable mind that his life, or that of his wife or children, 
was in peril— 23 111. 17. The rule of self-defense extends to husband 
and wife, narent and child, brother and sisterj mfuiter and servant— 18 
Ga. 704: ITAla. 587; 8 Mich. 150; 35 Ind. 492: 56 Id. 123; 80 Miss. £19: 19 
Ohio St. 387 : 1 Wis. 185. The rule applies to kilUng to prevent taking 
away defendant's chUdren— 17 Ala. 587. 

8uM, 4. Arrest by private person.— If no flBlony has been com- 

Self-defense.— Killing isalwaysjustifiable if done in deflsnse of life 
-4|f^270;8B«eT. wKonr«T.9i orpaansMsiittwithtfilfliiioas 

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»7 Hp}Dpp>%, §1 ise-fg 

Intent^l OWo St. 60: Horr & T. 2: Thach. C- C. 171; 6 Ga. 8»,' 9 Mlcli. 
150. A man baa a rJgnt to defend liluiiself ogaLrist a sudtlen and unex- 
pected assault, but ho Is not thereforo Justified lu Blaying lib a^ssAf l^uit 
— e Pac. €. L. J. ^94: 60 Ala. 441 ; Jie baa no rijiht to alajf h\3 assiaSltrnt 
unless ft be absolutely necessary, Id- If am lei do can bo Justified on the 
ground of necessity itlaite— 1 Coxe. {N.J.) 4i4; 25 Tci 174 ; U Biisb, 341; 
23 Iowa, 164; 3 Wash. V. €. SlSj I M&t, 4AI; 4 Dev. & B. i^l; n IIL 221; 
aud the necessity muat bo apparent:, rurtualt and }mmJQent--<t3 Ala. SWI; 
14 Bust, 341; id.3ta; WPa. St. 1; aufl absobite-!KJ 111. i-3l; 72 Ga. 234; 
^ith no poHSlble or probable mean^ of ^iscuplni;^ the necessity to kiU to 
save llfo* or save from great hodUy Injury— .^jfJ Pa. St. 1; 3a Id. Stjfl. It 
must be an Imperious necessity— a caL 3lhj ; 17 Ala. Mi; IS 111. 17 : TJllL 
4^; or sucb apparent necessity as would Impress a reasouabliat pru< 
dent man tijat It cxisted--ai* Ala. L 

The danger.— To Justify kilting, the defendant must bave been in 
real or apparent danger— 10 Budb, 41^6; 8. C I H\in« Cr^ R. 2HJ; Ixninl- 
nent and Inxmedjate— 33 Ala. 3^0; Horr tt T. 2, 37 Ml.«is, K7; 3 Wash. C. 
C.dl5; Vd Oa. TOi: Id. 12U9; H 8awT- ^'0; ^^ Mlasi. £3; e^3tinf|f at tbetimo 
of gti'iklnir tbo fatal blow— ll N. Y. Ijeo. It Is not iieces^sary that tb« 
clanger should in fact exist; actual and real danger to the defendant's ' 
roiuprebenjslonasa reasonable man, Is suillclent— al Cal. Ytli 44 id, <i6j 
10 Bush, 4ye[ 9. a 1 Am. Cr. H. *j«3; 41 111. a7t{; 9Nev. lUti; Id.aS; Id. I JO: 
23 Ala. 17: ISH. Mon. 4!J; « Uurt. Ij 13 Itrm. 4H; 77 III. 4^; a belief of 
limnlnent danger Is BUjaclent— 84 Pa. St. L^S; 2 Am. Cr. Tl. 284, Hla 
guilt must depend on the clrcumstani-en as they api>eaTe4 tobtni at tba 
time— 77 111. 25; and If Le bad reasonable ground for apnrebcnsloo« 
even tliongb appearances were false , tbe killing will b^ jL;is.tlflablfiH-> 
44 Cal, |j&; 46 Barb. ^23; 4 Parker Cr. R. 35; 3 Hel^k. 370; S. C. i Green C. 
K. 2^ 8e«47 Mo. 4)04; M Id. 3&7; a Mich. 150; IS Id. ^14; 35 Id, 405: 84 
Pa BL m: B, C. 2 Am* Cr. R. 2s4 ; 10 Bu^sh, 455; S. C. i Am. Cr. B. 293: 2 
Wrli}bt,26S| 32 Conn, 75, Seo Desty's Cr. Law, S 31 b. A8 to dnty to 
avoid daiiB^er, s^Ueaty'B Crlm. Law, DauTRif(E of RsriLKiiTi 1 31 c. 

198. A liare fear of tbe commission of any of the of- 
fenses mentibiied in subdfvisions'two and three of the pre- 
ceding section, to prevent which homicide may he law- 
fully icommitted, U not sufbcient'to justify it. But the 
circumstances mttt^ t)e stiffiei^lit to e^citia the fears of a 
reasonable person, and the party killing must have acted 
under the influence of such fears alone. 

Fear-— A bare fear, Rjoundfid on thr??ats, is not a Jastlflcatton for 
bomlcide, and iiervous fears are no escnsc— 37 Miss. S21: 44 Id. 731: 
Ilorr & T. ^1 44 Uhis. 1^ ; d Bush. 451 i S- C. 1 Green C. R, ei3; 10 Minn. 
2^3; 31 Ga. 167; aa Id. 71^; 2 N. V. 193. Tha criminal law roqulrea of 
men ma&tery over their feara as well aa over their passions— 24 Ind. 
liVL The fear, to excuse, must not only be well tfroundedt but niu»t be 
honestly entertained— 2 Head, 217; L'4 lud. lAl ; the fear of a rensonablo 
man wltb, a reasonable cause tberefor— 30 Cal. 312; 43 Id. 45D; 25 Uh 
lU; 57ld, l^; 22 Id. 76; 181d.7(kS; 2N.Y. P'S; 25 Tex. 174: 3 Helslc.37lj; 
IIrcd.4C18; 2 Barb, ICij; I IIIU, 420: 20 Iowa, 109; 8 Micb. 150; 'ifiMmji, 
31*2 ; 5 Yerg. 45!** "Wealvness of mtcKli. fear;, and excitement of defendaut 
produced i>y the violence of dRreasf=:d, will not alone Justify— B Cal, 
i&Oi 17 Cal. 316; see 43 id. 450. Seo Uestj's Crhn, Law, litlo Homicide. 

199. The homicide appearing to be justifiable or ex- 
cusable, the person indicted must, upon his trial, be fully 
acquitted and discharged. 

PBir. Gods.— o. 

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S20S. Hayhem defined. 
8 204. Mayhem, bow 

203. Every petsoo who unlawfully and maliciously 
deprives a human being of a member of his body, or dis- 
ables, disfigured, or renders it useless, or |CUt^ ot disables 
the tongue, or puts out an eye, or ^l^t^ the niose, ear, or 
lip, is guilty of mayhem. [Approved March dOth, in ef- 
feci July Ut, 1874.] 

Ofl%?nsc nnfltsr atatnto.— The stalntos^ off^tiie eoyers ftU moUclouB 
dlsalilm;? of tJm pi-rson— 3 Coiui. J]2: :25 Ata. 313; 11 Buj9b,W3; BO Mo. 
141; 6(^N. V.Mis^i ti3 lil.^OTj iiS Ohio St, SOSj 4 Oreft. 324; 6 StTff. A R* 
2M. It ^QnalfiiA In tleprlvins a liumaii belii^ at a limb tir mtriytrtr pf 
hLa body, anii rctnlerukg blm dcfectlTC In bodily vlpof, whatevet 
ni{)aii<i or irifllnuiicut wny Ue uictl — i Arfr. &»; mm UlrfflKureiueut of 
person Is Buffliieiit— lO AUi. fiZ%x niallr'loiTsly antl rieslffnetlly in pitrsur 
*nce cjI » purpoafi formed Uuriuj? the confll^:£— U AJa, 4yT; 4!) Uh Id; ii«. 
ptjttlnlfQul; flu f^ye-7 HDiopb, Iflh s AJb. X*. J. 140; or, biting off part 
of hik car— 1 iLcd. I'Jl } 7 hi. ^!^. As tQ commim^law uSense— ice l>G€Cy 'b 

Cflm. Law, Ut]fl MATHEiT, 

204. Mayhem is punishable by Imprisonment ii^ the 
State prison not exceeding fourteen years. , 

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xnwAVVwa. :^i||iItQi|8 


S207. KidnM>pimnilaini)<L 

tfOBi PoliltbiMlitof kUMpplVff. ; 

207. Every person who forcibly steals, takes, or ar^ 
'Hm'BAfft(iabii ill tMs Bliatie; bad'dtitlM hhn iifti^ian- 
bih^ 66tttttt^ ^ttei 6r e«rattt5^, ^^h» idWOtbl>r'tak«s^»r 
arri^kiiy^^tersoii/^th'a^etost^ io lake faii&Qutr4)tf 'this 
State, without having established' &> V^Haifia'^acodrdlttir <o 
IHe la^^ of ^iie H^^fted St»te6; ;br of th"i#. fet^j-^dx who 
lilres^ persuades, entices* decoys, or seduoes by lalaie 
proi9i8es,;m^reiure8ei>tiiiiQB9i or ;]ce» any^pe^p ,io 
go.oatof tjl^^^Sftate, ortabe taken o^.viemoved tSiiCfr^fttn^ 
for* the'ifarpdi^e'a^d with the intent to 43eii> stick person 
intosiiaTeiy oar ^nvolcuitary aeryltude, Qri.c^herWlSe V> 

. e^]^!(o^ him for his own use, or to the use of ahothet, 
wtthfanut the free will and consent ot such peisiiaded per- 

. Boa, is gBnty <)f JcidHfippitog. 

SidnAppijBK dellned.-^It is tlie laiUwfttl rentevia^flteaUBflr.or.c&r- 
ryinga|v' * ~ ~ ' — "*^ ~ '^ ' ^ " "" *" " 

-^ ^ ^ ^ f » person from Ws own BtAte* or connfiry^ afrftUurt lits will 
-Hsfee 2 ^iafi. CIL^bed. STS-i; 4 BI. Ootni9I9j B«av.XS^pf^tJfi«Mf8 
Law I»e.i Belirs Die. Tmnsportatioii tonfoi^fgrn eountrv Is^bt heo- 
essary— 8 N.-R. bS». Thi <)flenM Da complete MWowgrb tlvo sbfp bd not 


under an earlier statute, the 

i^^ft i«iik»fta mtd Motlyep coiinty, 

father from tne legal custody of its votj^h.mQsi M \leeinea to ^e 

cmia{ agMttSt tfi€ wlif <tf its ratngr» is aa* MM MiH; tnotign lioui iZie caiild 
.ju)iaiMimq|(^«r«p|iaent-^.AUen»&l8. . •;., ,,. . , 

200; Kdfiapf ing la pnpisha^^e. J^j .impriiiOTiTn^ ,JA 

the State prison not less ^hajg^ opct nor. .nj&ori^.jt^^x^ ^ten 

:v/"7: ;. ;. /. . . /: :,■:', ., .' ,: ; 

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^^1tVLf*12 - BOSBBBTw 1^ 



S21L Robberj^ 

S 212. • "Wliat Um mar b« ■& «ltttieii!t iarobberr. 

S 21S. Punishment of robbery. 

211. Bobbery is t4l«felozlio1l»MdI^;«^pe)fB99^aJ^ 
ertyin the possewlon ol another^ Irom ]i^ pei^sib^ ^ ^- 

, mediate piseAence, and agaiaetbis will, acco^p^iibedby 

means of force or fear. 

Reqolaitea of ofi'ense.^The property taken »bould l>e1ong to a per* 
eon otber tli»n the derendant— 21 Cal. 344 ; wbere title Is ^ona Jfd^ 
clamied hy the defendant tbe t^ase faUs-^ Ark. 126 ; 3 Ca^r. A P. 409. 
The tailing niust be from the iicisoji, or in the pre,seace of tlie party 
robbed-S^Vash. O, O. ^09; 4 Bftiii. 37^: 1 Ohio Et.i'^i; 11 Humpb, 16j ; 
3 Cold. S.50: S9 Ga. 563; 8 Car. & P. 4^; 2 E?Wftr. C. 'm. U foicu kt used, 
fear Is not an essential lns[red(?iit— 4 Binn, 379 f 7 Ired. 239; 7 Haas. 
242; 55 N. E. 16J; 73 N. U. iS3i 3^ iRd. 44iO; fi E, L 60. Bo. to koodC » 
man down, and, while ini^en^ible, to t^ke IiIr property ft-om him, Is 
i-qhbery— I Leacbj 3^0. TUere muBt be a taking, and carrying away— 
1 Leach. 362. 

The taking*— The gooda nmst be taken animo furaTidi, as In larceny 
—12 Ga. 2fl3; 3 Hun, 114: 4 Ohio ftt. 5^9; 41 Iowa, 2iM; Tl N. C. .'Mi. It iti- 
eludes larceny, and mmfer the liidtcliiieiit tho deftudajitniaybe found 

Sillty of larreny— ,rf3 Cal. 53. The taking must be against the will of 
le owner— PhlU. (N. C.) 140;; Fost. 121-8; and* 'if without ' 
or " a»;aln!;t" the will of the owner, Is coiivertihle with "without his 
conaeot*'* as^ where the owner waa insensible at the tJme— 3 Car, * P. 
392; 1 Leach, S-JO; or, when ho was helpleswi— 4 Binn. 313; but. If With- 
out lorccj or intent to use force* it is not robbery— J5 Ind. 4W3. 

212. The fear mentioned in tbe ^t section niay be 

1. Tbefearof an unlawful injury to the petsott or prop- 
erty of the persbn robbe^d, or of any^ relative of his, or 
member of his family; or, 

. 2. Tbe f eax of an immediate and unlawful injiiry to the 
person or property of any one in the company of the per- 
son robbed at the time of the h>bbery. [ApproVedlfarch 
30th; in effect July l8t,18W.] . 

Threats and fear.— If tbe goods be taken eitber by violence^pot- 
ting in fear, it is safficient-48 Mo. 581 ; 59 id. 818: 8 Smedes * M. 401. 
Feur of bodily hurt is enougb— 1 Leacb^SZO. Wben fear is aUegea 

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10^ BOBBSU; flitW 

In tbe Indictment It must be nroTed-« Bosh. 486, and this wm be snflU 
clent 'Without actual f orce-l^vall. 100: 68 Mo. 581. Any threat cil- 
cnlated to produce terror Is 8ufflcleot~12 Ga. 293: 2 East P. 0. 7S4: as 
threatening to take and destroy one's child— 2 East P. O. 734; or 
threattnlng to destroy one's house~2 East P. C. 731 ; or threatening to 
charge one with an unnatural crlme~12 Ga. 293; 7 Humph. 45: 1 Leach, 
139; Id. 198: Buss. A B. 146; ^oody OwjQ^JU: even where the feuls 
only as to loss of character— 1 Ptofcer Cr. R. 199; 1 Leach, 278: Buss. A 

213. Bobbery is punishable by impxisonme^t In the , 
State prison not less tbmi one year. 

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.^ftl&-17 attbmHs ¥o lOLL. tta 


S 216. AdminUtertiig poison. 

S217. AssMiltwltiiiiiteMto'^mndtmifrdeh'* • 

216. Every person who, with intent to kill, adminis- 
ters, or causes or procures to be administered, to another, 
any poison or other noxious or destructive substance or 
liquid, but by which death is not caused, is punishable 
by imprisonment in the State prison not less than ten 

Administering poison.— Poison means any substance which by Its 
own inherent qualities is capable of destroying life. " Noxious or de- 
structive substance or liquid/' includes substances which act on the 
system mechanically, so as to destroy life— 53 Cal. 147. Where defend- 
ant was charged with administering a large quantity of a certain 
deadly poison called red oxide of mercury, is sufficient charge under 
section— 64 Cal. 64. 

217. Every person who assaults another, with intent 
to commit murder, is punishable by imprisonment in the 
State prison not less than one nor more than fourteen 

Assault with intent to murder.— Every Ingredient of murder ex> 
cept death, must be present-6'2 Ga. 88 : 8. 0. 1 Am. Cr. B. 246. It is the 
Intent unlawfully and maliciously to kill which constitutes the offense— 
49 Miss. 17; 8. C. 1 Am. Cr. B. 249; 25 Mo. 338: the intent is an essential 
ingredient— IS Cal. 636; 87 6a. 31: 83 Ala. 413: and must be a specific 
felonious iDtent^-63 Ala. 29; 49 Miss. 17; 8. O. I Am.Cr.B.249: 8Helsk. 
420; 8. C. 1 Green C. B. 696; existing at the time of the assault— 8 Tex. 
C t App. 316 : Id. 470. Malice is an essential ingredient, but not malice 
in fact— 18 Cal. 636; 45 Ala. 43; 61 6a. 40'i. If A., intending to muider 
B., shoots C, supposing 0. to be B., and wounds C, he is guilty of as- 
sault with intent to murde]>-38 Cal. 141. An assault with intent to 
murder is a felony, and is so made by statute— 12 Ala. 458; 3 Colo. 68; 
15 Fla. 635; 6 Baxt. (Tenn.) 580: see 4 Parker Cr. B. 187. It includes an 
aggravated as8ault-60 Ala. 441: 4 Tex. Ct. App. 140; 6 Mich. 287; 5 
Parker Cr. B. 102; or assault with a deadly weapon, with intent to do 
bodily harm— 49 Cal. 226; S. C. 1 Am. Cr. B. 839; 5 Cal. 134; 80 id. 217; or 
an assault and battery, or a common a3sault-61 Iowa.72: 60 Ala.441; 29 
Mo. 419; 18 Ala. 482; 28 Id. 693: 60 id. 391: 83 Mich. 800; 8. C. 1 Am. Cr. 
B. 244; 2 AUen, (N. B.) 14; 24 Up. Can. 0. P. 106; and a party charged 
with this offense may be convicted of a lesser offense— 44 Cal. 94; 69 
Ala. 1 ; 68Ina. 293; 2 Tex. Ct. App. 84; 3 id. 138: as, of an assault with a 
deadly weapon, and the verdict be for a mlsdeEQeanor only— 6 GaL 
134: 6 id. 662: 80 id. 218; 40 id. 427; 44 id. 681; 49 id. 829; S Nev. 812; see 
46 6^282. 8eei»os<,i245. 

Oonspiraoy to kill— see 52 CaL 9SL. 

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./ ;, CBA^ZUvi ^[ '. 

f m Assfttiilwitli intent io«<»mttitt nip^ 

.$ 221. Otbef aissaUits. ' .' .' , . 

1(222. Administering 8tnpefyi^tfrttg3« .1 

2^^ fvery person "^^ho Assatilts aQotJier^'i^^tlk lutent] 
to commit rape^ the infamous crime against nature, may- 
hem, robbery, or grand larceny, is punishat^le by impris^ 
onment in tlie Stat.e. prison not.I^ss than one nor.nxQr'e 
than fourteen year§. . \ . 

Assault to coznmit rapo!— An assault' lmplles.for(e and te'slstancei' 
so there can be no assault on a consentlaiif f<^mhIeM7- t^al. 450: 11 JXe^. 

^x C. C. li?r]2l<l.%a. tbem 9inst be actual attempt with forcer 
and against the consent of the femaJe— 30 Ala. M; 2f2 "wis. 580; but the 
charge may be sustained when the person assailed was Incapable of 
giving consent, as from Infancy— 76 K. C. 209; Law B. 2 C. C. iO; see 11 
KevTSsS; or from idiocy or mania— 26 Up. Can. Q. B. 323; or where ac- 

Siilescence was procured by fraud— 3 Ark. 860; 53 Ala. 453; 29 Ark. 
6: 82 id. 704: if Ga. 22.'»: 60 Barb. 144; 14 Gray. 415; 47 Iowa. 151: 4 
Leigh. 648; 23 Mich. 356; 12 Ohio St. 466; 22 Wis. 680; 45 id. 86; Law R. 
1 C?0. 156; id. 2 C. C. 10: 8 Car. A P. 286; 1 Car. A K, 415: 4 Fost. A F. 
967; see 2 Cox C. C. 443. See Desty's Crlm. Law. title Kapb. In 
case of yonng girls it is sui&cient if their persons were indecently in- 
terfered with without their assent— 18 Hun. 330; 13 id. 418: imil.851; 
and even resistance is no defense when the defendant is a school- 
master, and the_person assailed is his pupil— Buss. A B. 130; 6 Cox 0. 
C.64; 9 Car. A P. 722; or where a medical practitioner unnecessarily 
•trips a female patient— 1 Moody C. C. 19. 

Liability of parties.- All persons present, aiding and assisting, are 
principiiJjH-24 Mich. 1; but they must aid and assist— 45 Cal. 293; and 
either a boy under fourteen, or a husband, may be liable as aiding and 
abetting— id.; 24 Mich. 1; 2 AUen, 163; 12 Mod. 340; 8 Car. A P. 736: see 
74 Mass. 489. A person cannot be convicted on the uncorroborated tes- 
timony of the wonian-51 Cal. 871; 8. C. 2 Am. Cr. B. 590; 46 Cal. 640; 6 
id. 221 ; 44 Iowa, 82. But see 29 Conn. 889. An indictment chMglng this 
offense need not strictly follow the language of the statute; words 
conveying the same meaning may be employed— 53 Cal. 629; it need 
not allege that the force and violence was against her resistance. If 
there is no resistance, or resistance of an equivocal cbaracter, the con- 
viction will be set aside-47 Cal. 450. 

Assatdt with intent to rob.— Whether the intent was to rob, is in the 
province of the jury to determine— 48 CaL 82. 
Assault with intent to maim.— An intent to maim is necessary-^] 

Ala. SSL 

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221. Every penon vrho is guilty of an assault, with 
intent to commit any felony, except an assault with in- 
tent to commit murder, the punishment for which assault 
is not prescribed by the preceding section, is punishable 
by imprisonment in the State prison not exceeding fiye 
yearsi or in a county j%il not exeeediog ione year> or by 
line not exceedl^.fiyA hnndred doUazs, or by both. 

Asaanlt with intent to commit felonf.—The perpetntlon of sa 
assault, with baea^% to Apmvai » telQuw, i»« Mony--2 d]ackf . ft; 69 Me. 
181. Bat see 4 Hass. 439; and a person maybe injqicted tor an assault 
and battery with Intent to commit a relmiT— 8 Blackf ;-576: 23 Ind. IM; 
27 id. 10; 68 id. 30i; 19 N. B. tMi It i^d. mi 29 Id. 80; M Id. 543; 17 Up. 
Can. O. P. 139. There is no material difference between an assault with 
latQAt and anassaplt with an attempt to commit a crime— U Cku Ms 32 
lQd.22&. fleel4Ahu411. ^^ 

222. Every person guilty of administering to another 
any chloroform, ether, laudanuifi, or other narcotic, an* 
aesthetic, or inioxicating agent, with intent' thereby to 
enable or assist, himself or any other person to commit a 
felony, is guilty of felony. 

Administering draga, with intent to inflnenee the tiswtoM, li an 
a88aalt-114Masa:i08r6lfieh.lO. Me l WheeL C. 0. 4S», ^ 

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WH . mnotujo OKAULOMM. - jyaMtB 

S S2a. , Fnnlnhmynib lor fighting a duel, wW death t 

S 227. Punishment for fighting a duel, although death does nei tnrae* 

S2^ PenooaJBghttey doel|iyatc,dli^aUt|iwl ftomhojidlw oflce< ete. 

I 22?. Poetii^ for not fighting;. ' 

' $290. Duties of ol&6er8 to prevent dne^ 

Sttt ZMiTihgth6lStatAWl«&lDtetitid«Ta««hMriagaliiAdiielliig. 

San. WStM«*inrt¥ilB«a. . 

- 22S.' A dtiel is atiy coimliat withr deadly^teponfl, f otigM 

between twty or more persons, b'jr'prerions ^Hgteeai^tit or 

upon a preyioos quarrel. 

DmL d4lbsad^Aa agfeettent tal^t with Jm^M J^^Ma act- 
uaOy flghtlQg in piirsnance o^ the same, is a dnel— 1 Blacu . S77 ; aSlroh. 
mTv mtaSEM} 4 ¥««.;l4t; S Sd.;SS8l Tl»r«r«wamM 4»f the ottease 

duelwmoai fatal resnl^is a specific off ens6-l4 C&Lttif S^ Leii 

226. Every person ih^dltj o£ iighting any duel, from 
which death ensues within a year and « dayt M JBUniBh- 

, able by.imprxsonment i^ th» ^^ate.piispn not less thiui 

.one Jinff more than seven shears. 

. Whaxx death. euinieB^r-In case of deliherate^doeUng. H death ensnes, 
' It is mtirder-4 Dev. A B. 491t 4* Miss. 782: and cbnsent wfU not coccuse 
' -II Ga. 4^1 j. 17 Wend. f&|. • In spe^Oal oftense-l4 CaL 

227. Every person wlio fights a duel, or who sends or 
accepts a challenge to £ght ^ duel, is punishable by im- 
prisonment in the State prison or in a county jail not ex- 
ceeding one year. [Approved March SOth, In effect Jiily 

2(28. A^Z citjbsen of this Bt^te who ^hall fight a duel 

. with, deadly weapon^i. or sen^ fk accept. ^^ challenge to 

flg;ht a duel writ^ deadly weapons^, ^ther within this State 

or out of itr or whoaha^. act as secpnd, or ioiowingly aJid 

d by Google 

or assiat in any manner those thns offending, shall not be 
allowed to hold any office of profit, or to enjoy the ri^^ht 
of suffrage, and shall be declared so disqualified in the 
ji^dgment upon ooiu^ctipjii, fin effect April 6th, 1880.] 

Disqualifications.— AWtixtHrlii^l^lMyyides that the offender sbaU 

be incapable of holding: any office of hoaor, trust, or profit, la conati- 

tutlonal--20Jotans.4Mrr^»a4Co#elt,<«lfL «i4UBiuhT7»; see Ooust. 

Cal. art. xz, S 2* 

Ohallenginji and acceptio^ challen^esTf ee De^t7^0i1ni;ikw^S9^1i^ 

Remediea bV'aetlon for ^urieii' ahsiiHr fttimHaeftng^aieis -CfT. 

' 229. Every peritoti trtio posts 6r pnblitAfe* another for 
not fighting a dael, or for not sending or acc^tin^ a clial- 
lenga tp jgght % An^w^who ^sfk9,any ceproacM iU( or con- 
temptuous language, verbal, writte&y or .|niBted, .to er 

^eoncerm^g ai^D^er, iojt not sending or puH^pti|ig.,ji «iial- 

. lGQg^,tt^^}^if^ d^i,.c^ with inteiv^ t^pfovalcfs a. do^I» is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. . . , 

28a Every jnUge, justibe 6t tbe pease, sHeiiff, or 'oUier 
officer iboiind to preserve the publiapeaoe, who haa knowl- 
edge of the ifitentioii pn the pdrf of ^y persona to :di^t a 
duel, and wbo dtoeA. not exert his ofl^ial auth.ority to ar- 
rest the party and prevent the duel, is punishable by &ae 
not exceieding ope thousand daliaoSi ' 

23X. Every person ^ho leaves* this Statfe with Intent 
to evad^ 'any 'of the prtfviflioin§ of tMs ishapte^r, and to 
commit any act out of this 6t&t4 sxlcfh lis is proMbfli^d by 
this chapter, and .who does any dc^/^l^hough out of this 
State, which woaM be punishable bjr hucfa proi^sidns if 
committed within this State, i^ punishable in th^ sarnie 

'manner as h^ woulft fraVe feeeii in base sup^ stct had been 
committed witliin thid Statk ; "' • . 

232. No pej»qn shall be excused from testifying or an- 
swering any question upon any investigation or trial fpr 
a violatioii pf either of the provisions of this chapter^ up- 
on the ground that ^is testimony' might tfehdto convict 
hinr of A ctiv^G' i^ut xio evidence; giveti tipt^n any* exam- 
ination of 'a* i?ets6n so testifying shall be reicelfed against 

^tiirni1n'aiiyc1^iMin6;li)rbsecutl6tatrjnrttb6Mlh^^^ '^ ''"' 

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1#P^ vlMMMmttwamxnaxm;K §§ aSftTu 


1286. False ImpTttmUbtfBtilfliBid. * i^ 
S 237. FaiM lii^rlsoiinMiitvkowittiiilBhfd. 

236. False impriapomeiit is, the uQ^ftTr^- violation of 

the personal liberty of another. 

False Imprisoninflnt l5 any unlaw fn] rfl$tmlnt of onc'a liberty by 
^onji'i unci jiii err^y vt t^vc^, wlthotit isnlr.^ or bars^ tu any lotalJly 
TTh:iteyer— 7 XImia[>]i. li: bl, N. C S-ii! bqt there mtist tiB a detEsntlou of 
ttiepersoij, ana uiiliivf Eiiltii^aa vt tlie aett^iitlou— 13 Fla. CT"! s iS* C. I Grppii 
O. B, 72:3; ttua tiiB«iLtloii wUl bu< preanitzicd tuiiawful-^ Tex. Cu 
JLpp. 60- It lit net iiocesciary to be toucncil oi* lutiititl/ arre.stfid— Bsild- 
601 J a detention thronffh tarpats l3 Eyillclrrit— J Tei. Ct. App. \mi m 
to fit-op a per^out by tlireat^it from procesdiaij^ oq a hli^liwa^'— 3 mi&edr 
GS ; €tttii prove lit ;i man from movmir &s ho Ecca proppr—7 Otitnpli. 13; 
3 Tex. i.t, Am*> ^Oii !(!■ 10^; OI(L iS2i di tofOitlblF actiklii aperaciioa 
tlie 8 tPMt^l^ Alkali. 

237. ytoeitoprisoatne^t is punishable l37fi»e. not ejj- 

oeedin^: !fiY<^ thousand dolleu:^, or by imprisonment in the* 

county jail not mote than one year^ of both. 

_.^tuiishment--^al8elinpTls6ffnieitt Is ,a,ti^asah-3' HcIjWO* Wj 9 
^ar. 4 VCJ3L 260; ^KH. 491 : fi Wend. miiH iM KOt asMtSt. ot'aii mamt 
«^Da«tery-nJUa.MO; «^dit]ssi:ti]fl(leiieSwxr-2S0«a:iM. 

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§.aia AMuma-Am munamx : im 



S M. AamMbfh&wvfiiaUbit^ 

S242. Battery defined. 

SfiW. Bfttteiy,howpiUittli«d^ " I ' - 

1244. Assaults with ^MUtieisheiiiloaL 

1 246.. Aavnlts wMb deadly VMPons. 

2f0. An attoult is an unlawful attempt, eonpled with 
a present ability, t6 commit a violent injury on the per- 
son of another. 

Assaalt deflntid-— An aisaidt fa an nnfawful attempt, coupled with ' 
a pre«eot ability h to ci:>mniit a violent Injury on the person of auotlier ' 
—5 Wash. C C. 435; b'l Ala. 351 : an app^ircnt attempt t>y violence to do 
corporal hurt toanother—l inil,3.'jl ; 1 I red, I'di; 3 iQ, laS: 110 Mass. 407: ' 
114 mas. 323; b Tei. Ct. App.^oaj 1 aaeea.«)e; 2 Wask C, CV43A; U 
Tei. iTCi 1 Car, A K. 530; a miMilffeatation by acta of a present purpoae 
to douDlawful violence on auotiier— 17 Up. Can. C. P* l39; an attempt , 
to commit a batterv— j4 Tex. 43 ; fi. C. 1 A in. Cr, B» 46 ; for wliere tUere 
in not on app^Lrentiy rcTil Approach In i^ Infurv', tbere la no afi^t^ult— 4t , 
A) a. 354 s eAJleo, astfj 33 Mlaa. 511; PliiU. (N. t5j iii; 34 Tex. 266. It ts 
enouj^li If tbe adaptation of the ineacia to the end is apparent so as 
Impress alarm on persons of ordluar? reason-^3 Ala. 3bl; 45 id. 43; 
lad. 220: Bl N. C. GIS; 41 Tei. 408; 23 Ga, 31J5; 5 Cusli. Sft-'S; 20 Ga. 611: ^ 
K. C. 334. If apparent, leading another to suppose that ho will do what 
he apparently aitemptSt It la sudlclcut— 11 Vt, 23lj; 4 Car^ & P. 34a; as 
offering to Btrlko> and rushing at one— 27 OaL e:i3 f 1 li-pcL 125; 1 1 Vt. i3«; 
ua N. C. 13; 6.^ lii.63->i 1 1 Nev, 284; 4 Car.& P. 34'j; oraiisiimlncra thirat. 
enlng attitude, and the effect ia to terrify— 45 A1^4:S; 2 Humph. 457: 10 
Iowa, 13yj UO Mass. 4(J7; PhlU. (N. C.) lu;^; 32 Te3t..5^a; 4L Id. loi; 9 Car. 
^K 4S3; as, p olutlng a gun or pistol nt another— 2 Humph. 4:^7; li}Iowa, 
ll'S; Hired. «T&; 8 1ud, 5;i4; 6AJlen,&07; UO Mass, 407; whether loaded 
or not— 2 Humph- 4i7; M Ala, 413. Thero maybe an assault without 

fi'ersoual lnjurv—l» Iowa, 617 j as where ho falls to commit tho Injury 
utended— 23 Tei. iH\ as shootkis nt another— ja Ga. 3!?5} 2f> Id 723 j U 
id. 4'24 ; 49 Id. 3lW; raisijii^ h btkk near euou^b to fitrSke— 35 Ala. 3ii3' al- 
though the attack ua3 frustrated or Intertepted— 27 t';); 20 Kim. 
311 ;t IrecL 121 ; W N. C, 5:32; 4 €ar. A P. 34 J. It may be tommltted en 
on" or more by the same act— PbUl. (N. C.) 134; 34 lex. M; but It luiist 
he done on a ji^r«art and not on an animal near sucli pcirson-^lS Cal. ^36. 

Instances of assaults— sea Desty's Crira. Law, title Assattlt. 
Where there was no Intent to injure, there can be no conviction— 8 
CaL 647: 2 Wash. C. 0. 4S5. 

Xntent- There most be an intent to strike— 27 CaL 633; 9 Ala. 79: S4 
id. 863; 6 Tex. Ct. App. 465; and an attempt to do so— 27 CaL 633; 9 
Ala. 79: 18 id. 647; 84 id. 863. The crimlnaTact and intent most con^ 
cor, but if It is apparent that he will act it is snlllcian^ though ha be 

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109 AMJktWr Amo BA>ITBBTi §§241-2 

SreTeoted^ QjL mi 19 Ai1c< 190; 9 Rampli. 497; S Irad. Id6t 11 id. 
t5: 9AlaL 79; nikd. fSO; U Yt. 296; »&Beed,W: 4 Car. A P.948t by 

43: or by the intervention of another— 27 Oal. 9S9% 9 Allen, 174; 96 Ind. 
280; 4i]ya.43; II Vt.2d9i 17 Up. Can. C. P.. 139; which act if iw>t px«. 
vented weald prodao^ a battery— 19 Ala. 14; 1 Homph. 994; 1 Ireo* 129; 
Id. 979: » N.Y.625; 23l^ex. 97^ »idTl7; 1 Seiy.>&,347; 1 Sneed^. 
^99. flee Deety'aCrim. Law, tiUeABfiAULT. 

What not an asaault— Mwo Tvurds will not constitute an aft3ault--l 
Buy, a4i; ii N. y. >Vi^i su Wis. Hdta *a Tei. 517i tout ilief niiiy be re- 
CBivetl in evhJence to ^Liow the lut^nt— t^ K.C.33I; aee 1 Serg* A; R. 
d4€i aod IC liitfy iictruiiipjiiiy an w.i showing an Intent not to commit 
vliUeilO«k Ui^ act y uot au iLSi^uit;; wa a tlireACeniog actuci^ompanica 
IVTtbs wotJ"lf "-^ AltLUpTSf I Ire J. VMi 1 Berg, * B- 547; I feixeetl, 
&S&T ^i Ga. 237; 3 Ired. I8ti; 1 l.J. 375; U Cur. & l^ trJSi I Mod. 3. Mua- 
acfiii^wciirddaiiia thraat^i'alnif (^i^sturcia mitst bE^ oocoinpaiilC'U trltJuaa 
ftbtlicy to iiifllit tlie injuiy thpeiiteued-:^? DU.Blt; IJS hli^H.&Jl; 4 Enf, 
42; «^ Ala. I; ai Tox, 5^:^; ^ T»ix. Ci. Apti. 2-11; S U- iiihli; IS AU.^7^ 1» 
IcE. 7!^; 34 Id. 'iii: U Tc:£. 4 J ; 5. C. i Am. Cr. It, 4b. 

241. An assault is punishable by fine not exceeding 

five bundxed dollars, or by imprisonment in the county 

Jail not e^eeding three months. 

Jiidgment.«-The party may be impiiaoned for the Hufi, but not for 

^49. A battery is any willful and unlawful use of 
force or vid^nce uxK>n the person of another. 

L battery Is an unlawful touching of the person 
►*- _,' *"^y substance put in motion by him— 43 Ind. 
At«^ «» iJp. Can. Q. B. 619: an unlawful and unjustifiable use of vio* 
leuce. however slight— 1 Gray, 61: S. C. 1 Lead. 0. C. 295; 2 Met. 24; 6 
Tex. Ct. App.495} if done without consent of the person— Law Bep. 1 
C. O. 243; id. 12: 26 Up. Can. Q. B. 820. It is the slightest unlawful 
touching, willfully or in ange]>-Bald. 671; 43 Ind. 146; 17 Tex. 515; 15 
~~an,2fla. **r ...--'>- J'- . . — ...^ . 1. . 

Battery defined.— A t 
t>y an aggressor, or by ] 
146; 23 Up. Can. 5. B. 6 

Teac. Ct.^App.465} jl done^withoutjsonsen^of theperson--LawBe^. 1 

l)\#ViViiin», WllilUllj wx &s« nuKWA jJtaM.\iLt wti,, 'su AAAVt. ji-sv, m, AOJk. i/iw, iv 

Hon* 293. ** Person " inclaae9 wearing apnarel. or a cane held in the 
hand, or a house in which the person resides— 1 Hill, (S. C.) 46. 

A^- ' ' ■ ■■ "" -■ - . ■ ■■■■■ •- ^tijy agree* 

mv::[. - v -. > -: -'-.', ., ■ , ■ i— ■ ■ .l. :•.■■■! ■■ ■ - .. ir^i^—l^Atk- 

Ciri; iM Itid. i:i; III) M;ii-i5- jLJi-i; S.C.I Auu Cf. H.iJ; I'hJiL iN. C.> 2317; 7 
Omy,3i4j bnc see 14 Oblo St- 4il7; GlJanii, 35toi 1 Hlil {S. G.) 3sa; tbere 
uiEiist bo Intitutf but lliEffe ij,cea not bo jnutUAL Llow^— 4d Qa, 
Hi; can?lC9Sily flrlnET a pLstulia^l: anotber niid hlttliig hlm-a Aicii, 6ffT; 
M lodi.^i Drtli[-£^:iEeiimM anQihajr, jLnd pcittiu^ Ida opt: u hand ou bLoi, 
andpuililn^ hlni b;ifk— tkj N. U. 3^'2i gr fj^^clivj another froiii mrcst— 33 
Iiid, ^31; U Iii. 47; fl liuL 5^7; or ibfi ULrer ol a convict infUctli;! pcr- 
£Q]ii[d f^'^tl^t^iiUL'tit^'^l Aliiii [IJ; Of tbe ijerforummji^ of guxuid Intor" 
CPur^ \ik a brut^ maunc^r— AS Lid. 3&5; or rlainff overasotHyr wiiU ^ 
liorse— ■'! Stfob. 137: or flHvln^ a htnsQ aj^aliiac a carrlatej thereby 
caiuinfflujiuj— IWbee^L 0. C. ;ibA; I Serg. i^ K. ;^7; orrurrjbly rtimov- 
lug a pQr&ou iirom where lio liiis a right lube-rji Mii3ij.2:b4; or pustir 
Inxaperftou fl^;ain£it anotheT--43 Ind, 14iS; or gprlnkUn^ pabit from a 
window upon a paa9ei"'by—l WJn?eL C. C {>J; or Btabbliitf atkoLbcir— IS 
Gil 117^ au W. Jill ai irl, 411; '^^ Id.S*^; or RtrlUlusj th& lanc In a per- 
son's 1] and, or piuUng hia coat In u nids nml ijjRultlnLr uiiuiut^i'— I Ij;^!. 
114 i 1 iHUijtS.C.Ha; ll>Bnio, 153;4"&Oj:^..'j34; ortafcini^aiiaae^lntEiaj* 
person Aguiiist hi^ !eotL9t.'i]C^iT Ala. b-iu; cr rC'&l^cEng fiit o^u^r ha.vm^ 
a prlBouer iu ciLiiitotJy— 5 Mtt^SJi;; li (jray, ?M\ or lucUlna uDotbtr ta 
strike iux<)i£Lcer— '/JlJjai^. 43£j; orfalso ImpiriaoiixaGnt and riotnmi acts 
Pbn. Codb.— lO. 

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-*17 AIa.fi40; 10 Mian, toa; or l>Eliifflng if^, aa ultaj— 78 H.Q.43; or 
«tteiD|n|mr to retake money, fittmoiileatiy «otten» n^.&ilH»Ba)Dt» 

Wl)Bt uof assatdt and battm-H-TOiere one, i» doing « Uvfttl act, 
accidentally Intores anot&er—rfiirange. IdO: o^ wbere cMlnluresaB* 
other in frlenffly athletic sport— Tfif. H. 640; or snatctal^ frsm a 

{>erson's hand— 12 Cush. 270} or arresting A man apptfCRClylHtozlelkted; 
t la noiaa aaaault and l»attery--U Qcay, 65; 123 llii8». 4^: - 
Enforcing discipUiM.— The master of a vessel may diastlse a sea* 
man moderately-'i Ware, 83: Id. 506; 2 Story, 120; 2 8am. '584; see 4 
Mason, 505; 7 Ben. 353. An officer on duty may correct In moderation 
—75 N. C. 249; 43 Tex. 93; 1 Tex. Ct. App. <S64; as the superintendent of 
a poor-hous6-l>S Ind. 516; .8. C. 2 Am Or. R. 176; 34 Cpnn. 132. 

Parcntfin.: :■:: 1. .. rr.--r.v y ...i ::.:/.'!.-:.:• :.i ■ ■ ulldi Imaoder. 
atiou^-'i Huiupk. 'l^i IJI £Lii,$. iiti; 1 Lruvr^i. Jil ; M Oa^'^bJ ; 'J HcfbJ. 4^ ;' 
S;jm.3Dg; mbL i&li 13 Ia\V£k< 4Sd; fieo ^ T^x. CL App. 13:3. Bo oa ta 
gu&rdlans--4'l Tex. 167 ; or p^rs^Jiia in ior6 pareniiM-^iiA 2i, U. 322; tk^ Id. 
Ti so na to tcaeki TS-2 Uov. .& B. aiilj 4 iJiK J.^Oj 1 Id- H^J; 1 City H. 
BfiCSa; 4 Griiv^Siij- (i3 :N. C. ili22j 63 ItL aU; 45 toTB, 24^^ 5 lUU J. 
7U; 4y liarb, i^il ; ii7 Vt, Ta&i 3 lliatl, 44^, A iiiu>ittf wlitj Ejtiiuila In fefo 
parcftii^m^y rhaatlscj liJa apprentire moderately— Addis. ^|; t Pjk. tit. 
iOil: 1 A-sani. 'MJi <i Tps* Ct. App^ lil-il 1 WUtiiL <J. Li. 165. A teat^her is 
fitijty of jiasault ana biittLM-y iti tuicesalvely clirtstjisinff a piipil-4 Qrajv 
Siif H Low. C;iE». J ar. li'.i; ll tuii£.L4>t' has no rlgkiL to wnip a liiied servaDi 
_1 A&liiu. ^tl^T; 1^ Utimi. ^7; a Tex. i;t. App. li^; H ChlE. UI6. 

243. A battery is punishable by fine of not exceeding 
one thousand dollars, or by imprisonment in the county 
jail not exceeding six months, or by both. [Approved 
l^ebruary 26th, 1881.] 

Punishment.— An assault without a deadly weapon Is a mlsdemean* 
or only-45 CaL 283; 6 id. 563. 

244. Every person who willfully and maliciously 
places or throws, or causes to be placed or thrown, upon 
the person of another, any vitriol, corrosive acid, or caus- 
tic chemical of any nature, with the intent to injure the 
flesh or disfigure the body of such person, is punishable 
by imprisonment in the State prison not less than one 
nor more than fourteen years. 

245. Every person who commits an assault upon the 
person of another with a deadly weapon or instrument, or 
by any means or force likely to produce great bodily in- 
jury, is punishable by imprisonment in the State prison, 
or in a county jail, not exceeding two years, or by fine 
not exceeding five thousand dollars, or by both. [Ap- 
proved March 80th, in effect July 1st, 1874 J 

d by Google 

51X1 ASSAULT jam ^BATTBBY. ^- '$^2^9 

Aftsm^itt wiUi deAdly weapon,— An asdtiTilt with tntent not to do 
murder, Imt ales.^'^r btuJlly hjiim* U not a feloTiy, unless report la had 
to mcaiis of a dendlf nattire— tJ t^l. 25kJ ; (j JuJ. ^:^; 4 J ill. 3-10- " To do 
bodily biiriD oaa peraoii,** and " to Inflict on the petsou of anottier a 
bodily bijufy " are of thts earne Irupurt — M t'al. i\i, dLstlnj^uIshlaff il iti 
260. It ^sadist luce ofteufte from an as&avilt to do murdBr, but la tieo- 
essadl^lQcluded bi that charge in t^e lodltitmeiit— 4^ Cal. Ii4; fi Id. LJ^; 
40W. tJ6. Se"^ SilCal.'JH. The Iridlctiuftit sSiouttl charj^^o tliO ofTc^iise 
in tlioIanguaKra at tbe statute, atnL ^heuld allege iha.1 the ^'eapou vtaa 
deadJv, or aucb facta as iiec-cssaiily show that It was deadty— 2ii Cal. 
679. An averment that defehdaut was armed with a deadly weapon, 
and mado ah asssault, 1^ hot an averhKiiic that tUa assault wia made 
with a deadly weapori—fiJ Cal. 451. Tlif> name of tho wcapoh l3 hot a 
necessary b^gredient, its nature alone la Ihiportjwit-m Cal. f'4* Bo© 8 
Cab 5tj2, Wbero defendant was convicted and wa» eenteneed to tua- 

grUonment la tbe county jaM^ no appeal Ilea from tba Judgmcut-n&S 
al, 42S, 

Offenas gsDeraU^.— The danger to Ufa must l>e a real dang«r—3 
Curt- 24L A deadly weapon la one calculated to proflnco death, or 
great tiodlly bann— fi Tex. Ct. App. 14»; 3 id. 13; as a liowle-lLhire-^l 
Ga. 336; a pistol used as a bludgeon— 41 ld+ 15"*; weights and Htone4^ 
as id. 74; 30 Id, 131*; a elmmpjigne bottle— ^"J bb 211 \ or one wbleb,1n 
the mauner used, I* capahlR or produribif? death or grvaL bodily bajftu 
1 Tei. Ct* Ap|>. 327; see 1 Id* WOj tt Jones, {K* C.j £Li5. Aii assault 

Tvlth a deadly weapon U ipto/aeto an agj^ravaited assaiilt^-2:3 Tex. aS2j 
Q Tex. Gt.. App. ^b To constitute p.t) assanlt with a |)[un It ts not nec«- 
eaaary that h bo raised to the aliaulder— ^7 Mo. 2-^; but there inu^t be 

an act indicative of an effort to siiooti or otherwise me the wei^poa— 13 
T«X, filfii S3 id.£74i T Tex. Ct. App. 77. 

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frM8-9 UBBU 


S2I8. Libel defined. 

SMS. Poolsbmeiitofllbel. 

i2M. MAUoe piemmed. 

S 251. Tratb may be giren In eTldence. jvrj to determine law an4 

S 252. FttbUoation defined^ 

5253. Liability of editort and pabUshen. 

5254. PubUsbln^atrae report of public ofiLcialproceediiig9 privileged. 
|2sa. Bktent of privilege* 

$256. Other privileged commtmiGatlona. 

S 257. Tbreateuing to publish libel. 0|f er to prevent publication, with 
intent to extort money. 

24^8b A libel is a malicious defamatidn, eicpressed 
either by writing, printing, or by signs or pictures, or the 
like, tending to blacken the memory of one who is dead, 
or to impeach the honesty, integrity, virtue, or reputation, 
or publish the natural or alleged defects of one who is 
alive, and thereby to expose him to public hatred, con- 
tempt, or ridicule. [Approved March 30th, in effect July 
1st, 1874.] 

Libel in general.— Libel is an offense under the law both of En- 

flaod and of the States of the Union-17 Mass. 836; 13 Met. 68; 9 N. H. 
I. It is a representation in writing or by pictures, calculated to lead 
to any act whicb,when done, is indTctable-4 Mass. 163; 4 McCord, 317; 
9 Johns. 214. Any publication which tends to excite people to the 
commiission of any crime is a libel— Stark. Slan. § 152. A malicious 
publication in printing, writing, signs, or pictures, tending to injure 
reputation, disgrace and degrade a person, and lower him in the es- 
teem of the world, or bring him into public hatred, contempt, or ridi* 
cule-« Har. (Del.) 475; 8 id. 406; 2 id. 417. Intent is an essential ele- 
ment-15 Pick. 337; 7 Cowen, 613; Peake Ad. Cas. 84; 2 Barn. « C. 257: 
and the party will be presumed to intend the consequences of his act 
-«ee 4 diri4; 15 PidL. 337; 22 How. St. TrL 237; 2^am. A G. 257; 9 

249. Every person who willfully, and with a malicious 
intent to injure another, publishes, or procures to be pub- 
lished, any libel, is punishable by fine not exceeding five 

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HB iiiBBi. SS 35Q-9 

Hbousttnd dollan, or imprittoiimeiit in the coniity jail iiot 
exceeding one year. 

250. An Injurious publication is presumed to have 
l)een malicious if no justi^ble motive for makiog it ia 


253L In all criminal proseentions for libel, the trath 
^ xnay be given in evidence to the jury, and if it appears to 
the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and 
was published with good motires and for justifiable ends» 
the IMtrty shall be acquitted. The jury have the right to 
determine the law and the fact. 

JiMtifloation.^T»eon8tttate a iiiBtlfleatlon, tbe answer most arer 
the truth of the mibUcaCIon-9 Cia,«6: 43 10. S79; 2 HiU,248; 9 Met. 
410: 16 Pick. 3S7:7 Irea. 180; hut if the Ubel assert the defamatorr 
matter only as the belief of the author, or as ntmor, or general v^ 
plcion. it cannot be justiflfid by proof that the author oeUeredie to he 
brae-41 CaL 380; 4 Oonn. 408; 8 Wend. 106; U Price, 236t 1 Holt, ftS: 
6 Blnff. dlA. Bi^ proof that he bellered ft to be true may be admitted 
in mitigation of punlahment-0 Ala. 447; 4 ICan. A B. 6S; 4 Bam. i 
Aid. Z\i. 

252. To sustain a charge of publishing a libel, it is not 
needful that the words or things complained of should 
have been read or seen by another. It is enough that the 
accused knowingly parted with the immediate custody of 
the libel y under circumstances which exposed it to be 
read or seen by any other person than himself. 

PnblleMioti defined.— The offense Is committed hy sending the U- 

253.' Each author, editor, and proprietor of any book, 
newspaper, or serial publication, is chargeable with the 
publioation of any words contained in any part of such 
book, or number of such ncTfspaper or serial. 

^ UbOTtr of the press;— Erery citisen has the right of iuTestlgating 
the eoadttot of tnese who are intrusted with pululc business*-! Dall. 
IS»; belag respeoslble for the abuse of that linMrty— 8 Yeates^ <S20: 4 id. 
168; S Pl^b. Bepk 449. Thogoarsntee of freedom of speech applies to 
wamspokso erjpaMlShed hi regwd to Judicial conduct or cnaraeter 
— 79 ni. 4». ' fToa Const. CaU art. I, see. », ■. Kot only the liberty of the 
prsst musfc. po; p re e srved, but Uberty of wBittea as well as-onu dis* 
coarteiii.all iM«wlloBft!»h8r» owieis a 4«t7 ta spe^ 

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.'Vfritfte' tinder raob a (t«t78)(»»,>o AwllMt tfaaa totF4cm«iilii, M Is 

not Indietaoie rniless express malice is snown; otlierwise if iLgoes be- 
yond the line of duty— 2 Bosw. 537; 1 Denio, 41 ; K Otliy ;Ml ?1 How. 
202; 13 Md. 95; 9 N. H. 84; 12 Pick. 163; 9 PhUa. 694; Law B. 9 Q. P. 
'993: 1 ELAB. 229. The edltoc is answerable in law if the cbataiits 
of his paper aro libelous, unless tbe matf'er was.inserted by some one 
■withoSfi disorder and agaibst Mb wffl—irhach;c.C.M6< • 

254. No reporter, editor, or proprietor of any news- 
papec is liable to any prosecution for a fair and .true re*- 
port of ^ny judicial, legislative, or other public oMcial 
pt<ociBddln^ or of' any dtatemetit, speech, ■argamentf' or 
tfeb&te in- the donotad. of the Bame; except tipon^;prbal of 
knaliee til makings sdc^ report, which shall ti<)t b^e implied 
fioittthd mere fact of^oft)iicati(jn. ' : . ; > 

• It^prts ofoffioial piDce«dI&ga.^Wiicce arfvottof'diidtctal pro* 
ceedings, though accurate, is accompanied- by cqinments acid insinua- 
tions to asperse a man's cliaracter, it is lib^lons^ Piek. 304; t'Jdhns 
^; Be»2 Pick. US? I Barn. jA Aid. 379. Oouja^elare protected while 
they keep within what Is material to the cMise» but not when they 
•Terstep this bqund-^ Smith J. P. 491 ; 2 Camp. 563 ; 5 J^sp. 123 ; 1 Barn. » 
▲Id- 379. Where upon a finsd trial of a cauae^he jndg^ makes an order 

Sa? i Te? n>.' Rep' M;' atbody & M* ^66/ 

255. Libelous remarks or comments connected, with 
matter ptiyilege<i1]fy tlie last section receive lio'privilego 
by reason of their being 80 C6nne6ted. ' ' ' 

. 4^6. A communication, ma4e to b, person ixitear^^ted ja 
the commimicatio^, by one. wiio waSi^lsa in|;eij€^ted, or 
who stood in such relation, to, the forii^er.i^. toja^o^d.a 
reasonable ground for si^pposing li^^ moitiye ^ni^cent, is 
not presumed to, be malicious, and p' a privileged com- 
munication. • .. . . ! •- 

PtMIogcd coHLiQuiiicatloni.— Privilege (I coTtiiuiuilcatiflns ar^vacrh 
|2i rebiit tfjo prima /ad ffiiif^iV^n^fi of inalJf'O, buttULsinriy l>r5 answerHiil 
by pro V fjijc :twi I ii^o hi Im t^^O Mfi9f . *TS; iJ Cmmj), M. A K . lJ5«t. Am. eami' 

Caa. iTtfj J WUfiPl. O. O.An«yt a y^fhiivt, ]5«; SCar. A P. 141. See 7? I 

21h ^-f^c 1 ri>. Can, L. J, 1.5U; ov \n(i'Tiiotyy-\Hmn Ui^t-Tmn'iofpum^W- 
floera in tbc (jr^lntiry eoilr^ of ttieiT <ti:ry— I^eiw R, 6 <J. If* T03; Id. 
*Ji & Hurl. & N. ti38; I Zi-v^ 22i3. So Lcfn$jidif (.'ommniiEcariotia ftfito ttie 
CkaraetBr^jf ra[irlldiite»ff>f ofiitsp Ai«nrlvilt)|fed— 3Car. A K ijfi* Moody 
AM. JK7I 5 Sccttt, a+in l-i^w R 1 Q i*- ^»; but fioo ij How, sllrj. B«t 
lib<^J:ou!i ^tatCDQLTLtJ laajle tti injairo on<» In d(1^9, or h. caq<ttcLLU« tort 
aCb-^K are nQt privlleyert-'ia Abb* Tr. 41 j i MJirn. Ji^t l:j n. Y* ITa, 
Oan]id&nitn.l conimiaikftCloJiSr br perswmfl oocBpfli^ff fltiuciaiy po* 
ttUozWfOd letton to ompldyer, tolnfonu of midpnuiid^cC emplcK^M^ 

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116 ' , . . iiBBL. § 257 


1 Camp. 288; or of a master in glrlng a correct character of a servaat 
npon Iiiqalry made of blm— 3 Man. & R. 101; 4 id. 338; 4 Burr. 2425: 
Boll N. P. 8: but otherwise, if false answers be glven-^ Bam. A 
AdoL 700. Other privileged communications, see Desty's Crim. Law, 
tiUe laBKL. 

257. Every person who threatens another to publish a 
libel concerning him, or any parent, husband, wife, or 
child of such person, q;i^ memW of his family, and every 
person who offers to pteventdhe ptiblication of any libel 
ux>oii another person, with intent tp ©xtort any.^o^A^.or 
other Valuable conaideration from any person, is guilty 'of 
a misdemeanor. 

. - I - *■ ■••■//■. 

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Of Crimes against the Person and against Pnblio 
Becency and Oood Morals. 

Chap. I. Rape, Abduction, Gabital Abusb of Ghzl- 

D&BN, AND SSDUCTION, §§ 261-7. 

II. Abandonment, and KBGLiBCT of Gbildrbn, 

IIL Abobtions, §§274-0. 

IV. CHnJ>8TEALINO, § 278. 

V. BxoAMY, Incest, and the Cbimb AOAnrsr 
Natube, §§ 281-7. 


OF THE Dead, §§ 290-7. 
Vn. Cbikbs against Beligion and Ck>NSaiEKCB, 
A2a> otheb Offenses against Good 
MoBALS, §§ 299-309. 
Vin. Indecent Ezposube, Obscene E xhibi t io ns, 
Books, and Pbints, and Bawdy and 
otheb disobdebly hoxtses, §§ 311-18. 

IX. LOTTEBIES, §§ 319-26. 

X. Gaming, §§ 330-6. 

XL Pawnbbokebs, §§ 338-43. | 

XTT. Otheb Injubies to Pbbsons, §§ 346-67. [ 

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117 B4FB Aim raDucnuMr. | Sn 


S 261. Rape defined. 

S 262. When physical ability must be prored*, 

S 263. Penetration sufficient. 

S 264. Punishment of rape. 

§ 265. Abduction of women. 

S 266. Seduction for purposes, of prostitution. 

S 267. Abduction. 

261. Kape is an act of sextlal intercourse ftccompHsbed 
with a female, not the wife of the perpetratox, under 
either of the following circumstanices : 

1. Where the female is under the age of ten years. 

2. Where she is incapable, through lunacy or any other 
unsoundness of mlndj whether temporary or permanent, 
of giving legal consent. 

3. Wliere she r^^ists, but her resistance is overcome by 
force or violence. ' 

4. Where she is prevented from resisting by threats 'Of 
Immediate and gresit bodily harm, acconipanied' by ap- 
parent power of execution; or by any intoxicating, nar- 
cotic, or anaesthetic substance, administered by or with 
the privity of the accused. 

5. Where she is, at the time, unconscious of the nature 
of the act, and this Is known to the accused. 

6. Where she submits, under a belief that the person 
committing the act is her husband, and this belief is in- 
duced by any artifice, pretense,- or :Concealmeht practiced 
by the accused, with, intent to induce such be|tef . 

ISoBtT.CiU; of airwoman above the age ot ten years, unlawfully, 
aftaiast h^ WUl-^i9rjM^j;«B8: 11 Oa. 22d; S9 Me. 22; 9 ISilcb. 160-17 
3i88<60»( X6Wls.li6H>«vifiMut her cavuMUt, aiuiilgaiiut her will; bm 

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8ynon7moiis-47 CaL 447; 105 Mass. 376; see 110 id. 405; 53 Mo. 66; 36 
Mlcb. 203; see BellG. 0.71; tliat ic was against her will may be in* 
f erred from the circumstances— 35 Creo. ittia. "Carnal knowledge" 
means sexual commerce— i)7 Mass. 59. A woman ceases to be a child 
when she reaches the age of puberty— 22 Ohio St. 102; S. C. 1 Green 

262. Ko conyiction for' rape can be had against one 

vbcxseas jiiij&eir (he age of fourteen years at xtl^ tim^ of 

the act alleged, unless lus p^ysijcal ability to accomplisli 

penetration is proved as an independent fact, and beyond 

a reasonable doubt. 

Fresnmptibn of Incapacity.— The presmnptlon is, that a boy under 
fourteen years is iucapubloof committing rape— 14 Olilo,222; Winst. 
800; 7 Jones, (N. C.)61; 11 Ga. 225; 8 Cat. & P. 39tt; 7 id. 682: 8 id. 786; 9 
Id. 118: but this presumption may l>e rebutted— 2 Parker Cr. R. 174; 14 
Ohio, 222. That tlie presumption is irrebuttable— see 4 Har. (Del.) 566 ; 
7 Jones. (N.-OO^l ; Winst. 800; 9 Cat. & P. 866. A boy under fourteen 
may be liable as an aider and abettor— 19 Mass. 380. 

SI63.: ^ Tl^Q essential guilt of rape consists in the oiU^Eage 

^ tl|0 j>erson and feelings of the female. Any sexual 

X>enetration, however slight, is sujScient to complete the 

crime. . , . 

Fen^ale under ten years.— It is xape whether the carnal knowledge 
was with her cohsent or not— 11 Ga.225; tt Tex. Ct. App. 525; 7 Id. 842. 

2?hiB law cpnclcisiveiy presumes that » chUd under ten years is in« 
apable of gKiug consent— 14 Ired. 224; 56 G*a. 36; S. C. 2 Am. Cr. B. 
58»; 11 Ga. 325; 26 Up. Can. Q. B. 320. So consent of & child of tendev 
years is no consent -29 Ark. 116: U Ga, 225; 4 Har (Del.) 566; 1 Hill, 
351; IMowa,66; 1 Leigh,^; &M{^h. 150; 76N;€.269; 12 Ohio 8t. 466; 
17 id. 615; 26 Up. Can. Q. B. 823; 9 Car. & P. 213: 10 Cox C. C. 144; 
id. 157. So force is not necessary in case of a child under ten years~ 
&SGA.3N; llld.a2& 

Oaxnal alm8e< of children.— Carnal knowledge Of « child, by her 
consent is not properly rape, although punished in the same manner 
—2 Va. Cas. 235; 47 Iff iss. m: 26 WIS. m. Force and resistance are not 
the ^sseiktial elements— 1 1 1« e y. 255: 4 Cent. L. J . 5u5 ; 55 Ala, 2(i4. Abuse 
is understood aslifnltcd to the genital organs fa flu attempt at carnal 
knowledge, falliug short of penetration~<68 Ala. 3ii». , 

JSubcL 2. Incfipacity to giye consent through idiocy or manla^26 
TJp.Can.Q.B.M. * ^^ 

Sfihd. 3. ForcrO and r&iistanfie.— Fof*ct, net mil or cioiiRtriicUve, U a 
iicc¥s>iiary, lu^r viiiQni-^i CtUtti-: 3^ AJ:v. L4i s^-s id. i^^a \i I'Iik biJ; 'i4> 
Jiarb. tU{ n^ ATk. tOJ; 1 Wlicpl. €. C. S.i- IE H iirtiiliMit to the jjlij-i^ 
3c(i chahwter ot ihe act— :l^ Ga, £i^. fck^o 1 1 H Mmi* ^^-j ; ai X, Y, aj5 s 3 
Coi €. Cm^ evco if Eslie Ci a. t'unimo^i j.trirMrcr, >.■,.■. t. j i miiiLress 
of the raviijiier-^sd Alti. :iF4; 4 Humph, bi; hjj,- . , i: ..-juj; a 
Cflj-. A p. 5h3. No jmrLir.ulur fluuoiijat ct torw ^^ :<■ i itma* 

Stili. eeo 52 Ind. 167; m N. Y. Ki. 'J'lui amrtiiiit of fu..-.: .ll.1 s\ -ai^UDCB 
dfii]»e(Bd.ciiitLiert^Utlvefi[rL''£igE.:i nf i[w iJurUes, 4nU tJikta'^'kt:Eiiu»tjm- 
CPd— 4S K. IL Uii U G*. 2^ ; 71 N. K\ iMi 2 Tti, Ct. A|»p. 34*; Id. fm, 
T^iBte nuist be on tliu mi t lif thu f auuilo the utsuQ^A^etisbiiKje-^ Mo. 
^i U Mlqh.1; fi*^a U0Mas3.4(t&; 4)iOx mil TetX^t. Afip. ^4b; tan- 
ttliihfj Is t^xhaustcU or cv(3q}yw^fvU*i^^> Kf^li hiir utmosb ifisJit- 

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1191^ XAJnt JklXD SBDUCXXOtf. ^ ^2^ 

aiitse tuomOaatb hmlighiB is saffielenMlO Maa&Jftti^g 6a. lUw 8«e 
52 lidf. mi -09 iV, 7. S74 Wliere tti» resistance wasvOi tucb d^uivocal 
ctutfacfcet fl> to suggest actual cousent or a not decided oppoaitiOD. a 
ct^iiViction caimoti^ sustained-47 Qal. 450. 

OonstractiTe' force. —The force may be constructive^-*? Ala. 463; S. 
C. 2 Am. Cr. B. 583 ; , 3(> Mich. 203 ; S. C. 2 Ain. Cr. Ift. 5S(j ; as, where the 
woman, by* means of drug^s, liquors, etc., is rendered Insensible— 105 
Mass. m; 7 Conn. 54; 8U Ala. 54. See 54 Me. 24; 12 Cox O. C. 311; 8. C. 

I Green C. B. ai7 ; but see 4 X<eigh, (j43 ; 50 Barb. 12d. 

Sti htL i. Pte ve ntin g re al stanc <^. — C r a'= ] n ^ iv?; Istance tmder fear o J 
deatt) {H'tfreat budilv huirtti, inniie-i tli-i^ <:ou..inniiuvtt^d act rape — ;} A^. 
W; 13 Ark. '3>Hi;-Il Kim. lu,i.; -^ bwiui, 3. 'I; 4 Fo.a. & F* 967. I'iio olTcuse 
may he coiiunlEtctKllioujirb tliu woaiuii ntLo^t yiEilded lo tho vloleiwre. 
If Jier eouiictit was forced by f of dcaib, orl^y durcsi-^J Jlicli. 31.3 j 
4 TTilLiu i>li. h'ii ; U Cmr. & T, 741 It U not titniessary that &ho havti a rea- 
sonable apt>i'tdierialoTi of deatli — Id Ala. 3J;jf It 1;S suflieleiit if blio con- 
ftidei-ed rtiiijjtziiRti tlnngerousH. or absioluhly usclcty— 3;J JUkli. Z^i 4 
Hum lib. 1!M ; y Cav. ^ V. 74S. TliG cir<niin!?t;in<^e3 calf ulatetl to plvo ef- 
feetio tho vloltnce or threats aro to batotisink^rf d oii tho (iui?Mion of 
diirpfws— 15 N. IT. W ; ^5 Ox i:y:j ; 71 N. C. 4J;5 j 2 Tei. t:t. Apii, 31ti. Slio 
must bo qiilto overn'^onto by ffar and tcn-or,^vlth as nintli t-esjstauco 
RH jiiK=.siiiEi" utnlrrtiie <;ircumstaiifcs— in Un. ("an. C. P, :!:■>. S"" :^ii Ala. 
m. ': V' ■" ': L^l KLin. i^!^; 'J S\v;iri. 2:4. It i^ :i qurs- •■ ' ■' litry 
to th''.'jiuiL:LL— LI Cu.r. it F. TiJi G toi U. C. tl; li> Up. ( : 

Administering drugs, with intent to Inflame the passions, is an as- 
sault— 114 Mass. 303; 5 Mich, 10; see 1 Wheel. C. C. 4C0; otherwise at 
common law-Mind. 128; 1 Cox CO. 282} 2 Car. i& K. 912. 

Sttbd. 5. Unconscions snbmission during sleep is no oonsent— 12 
Cox C. C. 311; S. C. 1 Green 0. B. 317; 35 Ga. 263; or, where she was 
intoxicated-54Me.24; 105 Mass. 37^^ 

Srdtd. 6. Artifice and fraud.— -Acquiescence by a married woman, 
mlstai^inflr defendant for her husband, is no defense— 50 Barb. 144; 
ftuss. A B. C. C. 487{ S. C. 2 Lead. C. C. 254; as, whcro tho act was 
stealthily committed, she being under such impression- 7 Conn. 64. 
Contra, 2 Swan, 894; 30 Ala. 64; 76 N. C. 1. Where carnal knowledge 
-was obtained under circumstances which induced tho woman to sup- 
pose the defendant was her husband, It is not rape, was held in 105 
Mass. 876; 1 Wheel. C. C. 378; 13 Ark. 360; 6 IDug. 3b^: 6 Cox C. C. 412: 
8 id. 223; 13 Up. Can. Q. B. IIG; 11 Cox C. C. 19 f; 8 Car. & P. 2G5; but 
the party would be liable for aii assault— 8 Car. & P. 265: id. 256: 7 
Jones, (N. C.) til. See 3 Car. & P. 396. 

Penetration.— Wlicn conimltted forcibly and against the consent of 
tho ft-nialf, proof of activil iionetmtlon la sitflicicnt — iQ Ala. S'i-^. TIio 
sUglUtfSt jP^Mietrali<JU isisuffkciJiit— Aduts. 14J: 3 lircv. tti^h 40 Aix3-j; 

II Gi*. 2U.i; Phill. tN. C) 2\>A; (ii K. C. 4Wi 11 Sri^. & R. IT- ; 1 Va. Cns. 
3if7; 43 Tex.lHJ: Id. &83; 1 Swlii. 95; 2 Uowa,3;J7; di»a|sprovlng Li Jones, 
(N. CJ i:0; 8€e 25 VVl7*.4ia; 1 Car. & K. 3D.1; U Oir, & l\ 31 j itL 113; and 
penetration inav bf lafrrrndfromclrfuuL'^tanc^'S— liG t:'aLrjL!2; ',:' i Iowa, 
3a7 i Pb 1 1 1 . i X , t; . i • ■ ; ; ! ^ i^ *> W i ^ . 4 1 :i. 1 1 J * no t nee csaary t hat tls u h ymta 
eboiiia be ru]HLi L < . t } t:ii - .t 1\ ii2\ ; S v\. (141 ; 9 bL 7j] t nor is cnifssloii 
ntCfssiu-y-Ad^lis. Ill: i^jLilJ. ^N. OtU; «W X. C. 7; <35 la.imi iiiAlA. 
J-iS; 1 Va. Ci*s, SU7; "JJ: Ohio St. W2, 

264. Bape is punishable by imprisonment in the State 

prison' not less than ^ye years. 

Pitnishment.— The punishment Is the same, whether tlie act l>e dooa 
on a female oyer ten years or under that age— 4 Gray, 7. 

Th«! affiniM is a^lQQy-T-7 Tex» Gt. App. 372. 

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§S 2Q3-6 BAFX A]fD sBsucncnr* ^30 

SrinclpaJs; bunbey must be actoaUy aiding anOinltUil^-SttL 90: 
I Mich. 1; see UUnsli, 18; 46 Kowa, 265} so a person aTanrttng i^* bas 
doing iio act to aid or assist. Is iiot eallty~45 CaL 891. A »enoa capnot 
be convicted on tbo uncorroborated tcstimonyof tbe troBian— 51 Cat. 
S7U 6. 0. 2 Am. Cr. 2^.680; 46 CaJ. 510; IdTKl; 44 loWa. 83; see 29 
Conn. 889; but her teslimooy may be corroborated byberown prior 
statements-fsee ^Vbart. Cr. i:v. § 273; 1 Wbart. C. L. 8tlx ed. 1 968. 

265. Every person "who takes any woman unlawfully, 
against her will, and by force, menace, or duress, compels 
her to marry him, or to marry any other person, or to bo 
defiled, is punishable by imprisonment in the State prison 
not less tluLn two nor more than fourteen years. 

Abduction for marriage.— Abduction for marriage by any sinister 
means, citUer by violence, deceit, conspiracy, or any corrupt or im- 

E roper practices for the purpose of marriage, is an offense at comxnoa 
iw-^ &taie Trl. 519; anu physical force or violence Is not essential— 
8 Iowa, 447: and consent extorted by threats, fraud, or otherwise, is no 
consent^20 111. Si5; see 24 Tex. 133. If the female be under fifteen 
years of age, and without parents or legal guardian, those who bave 
ner under their care are deemed to have the legal custody of her— 8 
Iowa, 447; Stat. 1871-2, 380. 

266. Every x>erson who inveigles or entices any un- 
married female, of previous chaste character, under the age 
of eighteen years, into any house of ill-fame or of assig- 
nation, or elsewhere, for the purpose of prostitution; or to 
have illicit carnal connection with any man; and every 
person who aids or assists in such inveiglement or entice- 
ment; and evety person who, by any false pretenses, false 
representation, or other fraudulent means, procures any 
female to have illicit carnal connection with any man, is 
punishable by imprisonment in the State prison not ex- 
ceeding five years, or by imprisonment in the county jail 
not exceeding one year, or by a fine not exceeding one 
thousand dollars, or by both such fine and imprison- 
ment. [Approved March 30th., in effect July 1st, 1874.1 

Abduction for purposes of prostitution.— The takinpf and detaining 
of an adult female, vrh^n not accomplished with violence, was not an 
offense at common law-^ Rand. 628 : S Barb. 603. Tho gist of the stat- 
utory offense Is the enticing and taking away— 90 111. 274: 8CoiC. 0. 
238. The intent must be to reduce the female to a condition of prosti- 
tution, or CQncablnagfr-90 111. 274; 8 Cox. C C. 238; orof placing her 
in a house of ill-fame, or elsewhere, to be a prostitute— 12 Met. 93. 
*' Purpose of prostitution" means Indiscriminate criminal intercoiirse 
wiUin)en-6 Parker Cr. B. 129; 8 Barb. 603 ; 8 Iowa, 447 ; 62 Ind. 526; & C. 

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oirense—O GaL 11; 90 IIL 274; see 54 He. 24. A pnrpoee of eoneobln- 
a$re or of marriage will not be implied where the man Is already mai^ 
x-ied— 6 Parker Cr. R. 129. Chaste character means jporsonal vlrtoe, 
ohaste np to the commencement of the acts of defendant-6 Barb. 
603; as distinguished fronLeood leDJ^b^-rp^Jnd. 426; 8. 0. 1 Am. Cr. B. 
28: 26 N. T. 2»3; 82 lowaTdS^ ft ld.ll3»V 1^ «0. The prosecution must 
allege and prove the chaste character of the female— 49 CaL 10; and 
fprimafaofi proof, by pipesumptioa^froiu other lac^isi;Bu2Bcient-49 

Seduction.*-To sedaoo^iemale, is not an Qff^nsQ.withbi section 266 
of the Fensu €Ode. This liection refers to one who wooores the grat- 
ification of the passion of lewdness in- anotheri<*4»iCbLI]S Indecent 
llbeitieswlfih femaies are acts classed aas<Mlclt»tlOW (M«tlBgal8blng 
seduction from rape-^ Cal. 62. 

AdulteiF.-^Proof of notoriety Is as materia} as proof of the fact of 
adultery— 46 Cai. 52. ' . 

Adwliory at common law.— Adultery la the lOlcIt coitimense of two 
person.-! Df Lhe dpposLtf) saiL, ouc of whom at Ics^tls mBniecl^^ Ala. 

DalL \Ii\ 53 ni. 95; S. U, 1 GrocD C. K. Wifr; h lowfti 364: 4'i Me- 253 j n 
liL'iiiU 2 Mi^t. l!iJ^ S.iJ.^J LeatL C. (J. i'!}; 21 Tick. fitHJ; aJPii. St. Wi 9 
W, 11. 615; I rin. f VVl^J EH : StJ liid. iltlCt: I ir^^r. [l>et.j fffiO; 4 Mlno. ftJiK 

, Tbo deflnitloD varies wJith ih^ loeal ^tutut^Ji— 7 Ootiiu 5131: ti N. U. 5ifi; 

' li» O^ Term. Kep. Itia; wiilcli foliuw tJie coiuinoa law— 2 BaU, 141); S 
Banrl. 6^7; itl. tii^; lii Vl ^hU ildJ wlileh folkf^w tba eccl^slastldil \xw* 
Sti« De^LY^di Crliu. Law, £ iid a. Tho living Locothor mufit I^q open find 
tiotorluua^iS C:ai-53; 5ii 111. 5^); B. C. 1 Groen C. It. «Mf 66 Ma H7{ 12 
Mi^. 3^ ; 1 Moot. 5^ j S. C, 2 ^m. Cr. K l0£^. OuQ act IsuQt^ullcienl— 
4(! CaL 53: li Ala. fiOS; 13 IH.d^ 53 jrl, aO{ E. C. I Oreoa 0- K.; ^Er AliU 
554; 56 Me. 147 j 11 Xex S^sj 1 i^iu. (WiBOfHL See J>»ty'e Grim. Iaw* 

See " Act to punish Seduetton/' 1873, Appendix, p. 7i6» and **AsX to 
punish Adultery/' 1672, Appendi;^^ p; 7U. 

267. Erery person who takes away any lemale under 
the age of eighteetl yeard from her fat^eif, mother, guard- 
ian, or other person having thelegalcharge of her person, 
without their coi^ent,^ for ,t^e purpose of prostitution, is 
punlshahle li^y ^prisoument in ^he State prison not ez-. 
ceeding five years, and a fine not exceeding one thousand 

Abdnctipna^'The child must he taken fcpm some person having 

presiuned'-see Bosc' Cr. Er. 264. A person 

who takes a female under age from the custody of her father, must 
take the c(psequences, if she proves under sgp*-2 Law B. C. C. 154; S. 
C. 1 Am. CrTBi^f; 10 Coi C. C. 402; 1 Car. & K^WiTSCoxO. C. 28j id. 
231 ; aad that he bona fide believed, or had reason to. belieye, she was 
over ^e ^no defense— 2 Cr. Cas. Bes. 154: S. C. 1 Am. Cr. B. 1. It is 
enough if sue be persuaded to le;ave her home, and the control of the 
parent continues down to the time of the taking-^ Cox C. Q. \vi\ 4 id. 
167; 8 id. 446; and though she quitted* the house on a propositibn 
eiM^ftib^g f ?om liM»e(f ,ivi|^ a statciment that she Intended to lefiye, 

'I>^.Ck)i>^.--M. ^ ^ ■ ' > . > . • 

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^270-1 ABAjoHnnmmf em cm^fi^fxK. 123 



I ^9. , Qqiittlng to proYlde chfld 'wiiSi necesndei. , 

Sm.I>e8c«PtIiig child. 

f 278. IKBpokiag of child for mendliBaat bnstaiess; 

270. EVery parent of ant child who TTillf uUy bmit8» 
without lawf ttl «z<m86« to perform ^ny duty imposed up- 
on him by law, to f orhish necessary food, clothings shel- 
ter, or medical attendance for such child^ is guilty of a 

Bntf gi" ppjontt,'-A father fi peirnQf^ respOBKtlile for A neglect ta . 
mipiJlj food and ciotliing to hla Chll<2— 23 K n. &65i 1 Den» C* O. 3&e-, S 
Car.A P.ell; i Coa C\ C.-J^rij » ItL27.'S: 10 Itl. fi^9: 3 Car. A K. liSj 
but LT a parent has ao meana to jsupptirt his clsllrL hlH omli^lon to do 
SO Unoi Jcn]trtatili:-^Q. B. tSOj lU Coi V.C.&mi li Iii. 16: 5 id. 33it. 
ThoflOnsctcQCioua error of JuflgittRiit in id^ttisrB of medicjil treattnent 
la not iianMi^blt* at ccJmmon iJiw— lU Coi O, C. 330: flu a con^clentli^li^ 
coQTlctloii that Qotl woulfl lipal a akk clilld, may u^ a d«^feuae on U€^f- 
llgcnco of parental duty— ly Qox C, tJ. fi30. A molticr fi not trimlnalTy 
liable for norlect to provide a mld^'lf^ forhnr dauKUtoroa cooflnc- 
metit wttb nl>ristard child— !> Ct>x 0. O. u;t; unless tliers^ be a l^it^U du- 
ty to supply ono— fox C^ C. l:;!:^: 3 AJcjn, IjiLlj mid sh^ niiifit bava 
tlken e£cliialv& ^Tiir^e— 5> Cnx c, fX VI 1. 1 1 Car. & i*. l^tT; 9 id. GU. 

See qivtt God% JS JW-W«,.«cts r^tli» to ejWmaoned cWJOren, Wi. 
Appendix, p. 726; 1878* tor protection of children, Appendix, p. 732: 
1879, menolattit DuslnfiBe, Aj^p6Ddla:,p.7;a. 

271. Every parent of any child under the age ot six 
years, and eve^ person to whom any such child has been 
confided for nurture or education, who deserts such child 
in any place whatever, with intent wholly to abandon it, 
is punishable by imprisonment in the State prison not ex- 
ceeding seven years, or in a county jail not exceeding one 

At common law.— To desert a helpless child -with Intent to kill Is 
marder-2 Camp. 640; Car. & H. 164: 2 Car. « K. 864; 6 Cox C. C. 140; 
and mandanghter. If death ensues simply from the negl^nce— 4 Cox 
C. 0.455; 2 Car. A K. 864; Dears. 4^3; 5 Cox C. C. 839; ibid. 6«7; id. 
569; 6 id. 140; 2 Camp. 640; and so ot death from nnjdstlflahle expos- 
ure to the weather-^ Car. & E. 784. 

272. Any person, whether as parent, relative, guard- 
ian, employer, or otherwise, having in his cfoe, custody, 

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*133 ABAKDOKMIB«i40^'4BHXIJ>RBN. ^^1^ 

or control, any child under the age of sixteen years, who 
shall sell, apprentice, give away, let out, or otherwise dis- 
pose of any such child to any person, under any name, ti- 
tle, or pretense, for the Yocation; use, occupation, calling, 
senrice, or purpose €it ^rtnq^i^^'pUying on musical Instru- 
ments, rope walking, danqi^iJ^egging, or peddling, in 
any public street or highway, or in any mendicant or 
w ndwliiH bdsiBBSS w4iAts6BTer) vsdtaliy '^eiMni<#llo lAialL 
take, receive; Mre, ^ixipicif, use,'6r hire ^h <iti»tdffy, any 
child fof Exif^ pu^^po9e8» px. ^l|her of t|iem» Is guilty af a 
ipoiSa^^sijai^9ii^ e^e^lj MaifOi 3d, X87a.]' :. 

!•. ,.■'■) :: ,' ' !?V'.- '/v ' / - ■ 

Jmkm.^ . •i^i.J^l : 

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g*a^ ABOKWKmu ia« 



S Vi, AdBilnMnriii^dnitVpQfcft. wtthrlnknl i» ] 

$ 27ft. .9ubii4tMQg tQ,i^ attoippt to pro<h]fi^ qiiscacrlagi^ 

274. Bviery^erton who jirovides, fetipplles, ot admin- 
isters to any pregrCant woman, or proctires any snoh wo- 
man to take any medicine, drug, or substance, or uses or 
employs any instrument or other means whatever, with 
intent thereby to procure the miscarriage of such woman, 
unless the same is necessary to preserve her life, is pun- 
ishable by imprisonment in the State prison not less than 
two nor more than five years. 

Abortion.— The offense may be committed at any time daring the 
period of Restatlon— 2 Ohio St. 31&; 49 Iowa, 260; and the moment the 
womb is instinct with embryo life gestation lias began— 15 Qrav, 187: 
9 Mass. 887: 13 Pa. St. 631 ; 6 Pa. L. J. 29; see 2 Zab. SS, The offense la 
committed when a person gives medicine to a woman to procure an 
abortion, whether the drug was likely to produce the abortion or not 
—22 Minn. 238: see 2 Ind. 6i7 ; and it is not necessary that he be pres* 
ent when the medicine is taken— 1 Dears, ft B. 127. 

Any unlawful use of any Instrument for the purpose of procuring 
an abortion, is criminal— 39 CaL 400; 13 Alien, 654; 108 Mass. 461; the 
Intent to commit an abortion must exist, when the means are used; 
76 IlL 217; S. C. 1 Am. Cr. R. 29; the death of the woman is not a 
necessary ingredient, that of the chUd being sufficient to make the 
offense a felony— 56 N. T. 95: it only increases the degree of the crime 
and the punishment— id. The evidence of the crime is usually drawn 
from the circumstances— 76 Dl. 217; S. C. 1 Am. Cr. B. 29; 40 Md. 
633; 121 BIass.81; 123 id. 242; 126 id. 40: 12 Cox C. C. 463; 8. O. 1 
Green C. R. 143; a person cannot be convicted on the uncorrobotated 
testimony of the woman alone— 39 CaL 398. 

MJicarriaEe.— Admin Isteirt MPT to ft prfrgnjiTit 'waman nny dniua, or 
employing wjiy meaiia to tJTOductJ a tnSatarrla^c, qiileafl ucceasary to 
preserve rife, la a criuiEnalaJrense — il linl, ^tUS; 2 Cam\K 7*5* TocotiBtl- 

Uvery by haiitt— 4 Car, £ P. 3B,l: Uut tliL-re muyt Uaflu Ckctual swjiUow- 
Ing at tliQ dni(?— Ryati & M. 114; canira, n MUm. ^SH. Prtrof oflhe 
claDdeBtioe manner oC adminl^terliiR wauld tend to provs ^he Intent 
— ^N. Y.€28; tbe fjvct thjit tb© Htih.staDcc* would not produce a ml> 
crtrziage Is nodefeniit* If he i?inp]oyea It wftli a criminal Intent— 41} Ind, 
Wi; 23 Mlun. 2'<^i aad au ^ttebipt is Uidlctabia tbougb the womatt 
wa^ not pregnant at tlie tlme^-31 Tt, m»| 3 OtLlO St lid; 11 Qi^t ^ 
Sea Desty^s Cctm. Law, f M o* 

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275. Every woman who solicits of any person any 

medicine, drag, or substance whatever, and takes the 

same, or who submits to any operation, or to the use of 

any means whatever, with intent thereby to procure a 

miscarriage, unless the same is necessary to preserve her 

life, is piunishable by imf^iaonment in the State prison 

not less than one nor more than five years. 

S«e Act of 1880, relatlnff to sate of poiiaoaikd taMtanee, Appendix, 

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8"S7i ' aaajD vtmSthta, 126 

fSa. D<<^ttfflimid pnntsljimyt of chU4 ayteftllny.j.^ , 

278. Einery person who maliciously, forcibly, or fraud- 
nlently takes or entices away any child under the age of 
twelve years, with intent to detain and conceal such 
child from its parent, guardian, or other person having 
the lawful charge of such child, Is punishable by impris- 
onment in the State prison not exceeding ten years, or by 
imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, 
and a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

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12t BidAMT AkD iifOBST. § 289L 



5*tte. Bxcepildiis. 

$ 283. Pmijtiimenfeof.b|gam]r. ! 

: ifTH' MairrlQg a linstMuid or wtfe o| anotbpr^ 

S'285,, Inceat' . . , , • .r : r u . , /' 

$'286.' Crime against nature. . ^ 

S 287. Penetratioti sufficient to complete the crime. 

281. Ev^ perspQ ^^ving, a liosbaiid or ,^if e living, 
who mames a^ otheir person, except in tfi^ cases specif 
fied in tlid ne^t eectidn^ is gailty of bigamy. 

Bigamy.— Blg^amy la an offcaso agpalnst socletr— 98 U. S. 1I3L Faztlel 
m^jryinif under tho Jcgal &g:o of coviscjit» and cobabitlDw together 
af ter attain I DgJes^lniCOtcannDt marry a£[Aln \rIitlo tlio Arse iiiJLLTln,g« 
exiata^^O Olllo, 1. Bach Tuarriago Is only voidable-^ Ala. im; Id. Ik: 
and If tho minor refiisea to consent on arriving' at legal mot and 
ceaat's to cohabit aftcfwarti, snrh mlnr>T may marry again— 1 5 Micli. 
193. A ju^rrlago contracted through fear ma,y, under so mo clrcitm- 
»tancc3» be void— 44 Ah\. '2i. A miurlftU'e In fftct In a foreign jiurladic- 
tlon ia^ninffl /arte evidence of a \"aiia marriage— M N. H. 4i56; S- C* 1 
Am* Cr. R. 34. But If lavallrA wheiNa contracted, It Is invalid borc^-ai. 
Vp. Can. Q. B. l&i* Yet, a marriage which tho law of tboplaccunay 
bold tnvalidj. may, neverthelf^St l>e deemed valid hero— 35 Wf3. 370; 21 
Gfatt. fe04>. So Ic may be held valid tlioii^h notswlemnliied by all or* 
flalued ratnlBter— 2A N.T. %^. It H a clvir eontmct, and does not re* 
quire tho intervention of a clergyman op a niagistrflts to malto it 
legal— 2 Cal, 5C3i see Civ. Codo, § ,'i3; and iio particular form Is re- 
qmlrGdJI— 5 Ual. 5KI. An aKreemcnt heforo ^itnessea^ and enbsequent 
coUatjltatlon. is aumclent— -25 K. Y* 3itO. 

Second mairiages.- The gist of the offence is tbo entering tpto a 
Told oiarrlage wliiie a valid ono exiBte— 25 N. Y. sac ; 34 Mich. 339; S. C. 
1 Am- 4Jr. H. 72 ; I Oar. i& K. 1-H ; it is an IndJsncDSuble diement— 05 Ala. 
lO&i m l?l 101 ; andmustbavc been contracted in the fetata where the In- 
(UclmenciiifoiiaLl- J Parker Cr.E. Iit5\ I Fklt. 13<j; ttld.43J; U 3 Mass. 
468; 44 Ala. 24; fj'J bl. 101 ; but l)y statute^ a continuance la a biga.mouB 
state is made Indictable wherever a second marrlago may have Uoen 
aolemniaed— lSVt.B70:;i: SHeadtMt; 13Minn.47l!: 4 Thomp, 
& a li; Srarfecr Cr. R.l&^i 6 Huu, 297; but eee ^^ Arlc, 29^i id. mt 
is Ala^ ICSt Tho offen-*3e U com]jleto wbt^n tha sccirad in^Trrlacre is 
complete, -without proof of cuhahitiition^naA Ala. lOHj bira.St. 42A; 3 
Ired, B^nj; alttioutjh such marriLiuo l'^ Luvalld by reason of sonaoH'iJ^l 
(Maahility of tb^ parUeg^-W Mich, a3:>i &. C. 1 im. t>/E, 72; 1 tar. A 
K. Ul ; liut see ID Cox C. C. 411; Id. 474; as a marriaire bcitweeii a negro 
and » white person— 34 Mich, 33l>; S. C. i Am. Cr. R. n. "When one 
goes throuk^h tho form of marriage, those alillngaiLd assisting are ae- 
tfseBOtim at tlie fac^l Car. <t £. 144 ; sco 34 Ga. 275« Ignorance of law . 

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jl 28ft-4 BKUJIT AMD niOXST. 128 

or tbe advlee of a maglstnte will not excuse from responsibility— M 
M. J. L. 125; 11 Blatclif. 200: id. 874; 27 Mich. 191; 2 MetTlSO; 9 Allen, 
4Sdim Mass. 117; 96 icL 6. Ignorance of law Is no defense when the 

€r. B. 169. 
282. The last section does not extend^ 

1. To any person by reason of any former marriage^ 
whose husband or wife by such marriage h^s been absent 
for five successive years, without being known to such 
person within that time to be living; nor, 

2. To any person by reason of any former marriage 

which has been pronounced void, annulled, or dissolved 

by the judgment of a competent court. 

JSuld,!. Absence.— If tl^- ^""*^' ' absentee beyond seas to 

beaUve, thDexceptloQiuttio. I i!!!i ',,•;; lollcvc—SS BOsa, 313; and 
*ee6Allen, Wl! Itfta. 196; 7 Qux iX €. 175, Bclnij In anotbor State of 
tbe Uaiou la equit alent to being beyunU seasr-O Wlicat* 641 ; 14 PeterSt 
141; lUPiek, filfl; 1 Kawle, 373. See 34 Ga. iOli b^i MtL ]&L In North 

C^ollnapaaabsencQof seven years, without knowledgo of hlsbtilng 
^ve. Is a defense— 2 Ired. 34t)^ Iii MassacbiiscLta, theTtigallty of tlio 
second marrlago while XUq spcraso is IIvIdb docs not dcpeud not' ' 
nor&nce of his uelng alive or on the Jionesl Ueltcf of bl3 death— 
473. In Pennsylvania . any falsa rumor circunjstantlnl as to place, 
and modo of death, lii appearance weU founded, of tho cfcatli 
other, absent for two years, U a defense— Whari;, ou Horn. 412. 

SuM* ?. DiTorc 0, —1 f a fi I V orco bo sueh as by the I tr /urt enU tl 
to mamr aupiin, he cannot i»e convicted of bljjamy— 43 Mb. 258i fi 
lITj 3 Clarfc & F. 567, To givo validity to a dlirorce* the comply 
at tea^t must ha demlcllea In th^ Estate whero it ts ^Tanted- ::a 

second marrlago while tho apoiaso i^ llvlue docs not clepi?ud ea the ig:* 
nor&nce of his uelng alive or on the honest l>eltcf of hl3 death— 7 Met, 
473. In Pennsylvania, any falsa rumor circunjstantlnl as to place, time, 
and modo of death, In appearance '^veU founded, of tho death of tha 
other, absent for two years, U a defense— Whart. ou Horn. 412. 

SuM* ?. DiTorc 0, —1 f a d I V orco boEuehasbytheltr/urtentJ ties <me 
^.^ ^_ _.^ „. . *-B.258ifiBarb, 

3 complaJnaat 
. . . _ J tTatited— -^a Mich, 
347: eee l^& Uaas. 34; S. C. 2 Am. Cr. E. 6li; IQ Mass. itiOj 13 Gray, 209; 
4 AJlen, 1S4; 1 Johns. 4^4; 15 Id. 121; 4S N. Y. 63^j 32 Ga. mi. So, if ft 
party go to a State merely to obtain a divorce^ It ia void— 23 Ala. 12* 
IQ Maisachusetta, tho guilty party cannot marry agiUn- 1?6 Blasa. 34 ; 
U* OiS Ain« Ct. B, G12j 1 Pick. m. tlo cannot marry a second Tvlfo a 
resident of the State-l Pick, lac ; S id, 45;i j 1 13 Uss^ 4oS, But ha m»y 
marry ottt of the State, unless he f^ae^ theru to makrry nnd ovatle the 
laws- 113 Mas9,4g8: tt Pick. 433; aeo 13 Ala, 57U: 17 Pa. St. 240: 1 Yerjj. 
UO: 1 Blsh. M;iT^ and Div. i 30t>; 2 Id. 701. If a decree Da obtained be- 
fore tho seeond [narriac:e,lt Isaffood defense; otherwise. If obtained 
after tbe marrxaife- .i Hill. 325. An. honest Uut erronooug beli&t that a 
divorce has been jranteu l3 no dofenae— ];3 Ijosh, 31^: S- 0. 2 Am. Gr. 
Urn l^i &5 Me. ^d. In IndlanSt it Is a ^ood defeujse— 4i:j Ind. 43U ; but see 
M iU, 263. If the defense U dlyorce* tho defendant tnust prove It— 7 
Allen 906. 

283. Bigamy 19 piuiishable by fine not ^^oeecUbg two 
thousand doUani, and by imprisonmelit in tbe State prison 
not exceeding three yeani. 

284. Evilrypenidn who knowingly and TTillfuUy mar- 
ries tho husband or wife oit another^ in; any case in which 
AD^b husband or wife would be punlsliafble ondto the pro^ 

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Tisions of this chapter, is punishable by fine not less than 
two thousand dollars, or by imprisonment in the State 
prison not exceeding three years. 

285. Persons bein^ within the degrees of C9nsangnin« 
ity within which martiages are declared by law to be in- 
cestuous Bn^ Toid> who intermarry with each other, jo^ 
who commit fornication or adultery with each other, are 
punishable by imprisoiixtient in the State prison not ^i^ 
ceeding ten years. 

incest— Tnrest U a stanitoiy off^Jtifie— H Cal* Wi l Moirls, 530; 2 
Met. lyrii U Otiio St. 323; 1 1 Oa. fi3. It la ft Joint o€etisa— 18 Inrt, M4: 6. 
C. \ Am. Cr. R. 354, And tha l/^x fori arbltr&tea sa to the r« 
— Wlvirt- Coiif. ^&f L. S 136. In Icvva, iiuermarrlace wltliln tliw proklb* 
Itecl dejfpees Is Incest, without carnal know] 1:1 apr(ii—S4 Iowa, MT. lo 
Ohlop emitsU tcminU was once eaaential—EJ Ohjo St. £41; B- O. I Or«ea 
C E. 6li2; but elsewhere it was lieki not mecBKiuiry— 34 lowAt Mt. A 
laaire solkltatlon la not indictaailo— *i:: III. 1^1 ; 8. C. 'i Am. Cr. R. 329; 54 
Pa. SC. 'iOiJ; 39 Maas. 476. In California^ the attempt must bo maui- 
featRdby acts-wblch wotM end In consummation, out for th« inter- 
vention of clrcumstanceflt l]idep«;:nclent of tlio wlU of tha party— 14 
Cal . i:i(9. But send ing f or at tn nt^Utrate 1^ not aa attempt to coutruct %a, 
laceattiaoB utarrlage— 14 Cal. I^ii. 

FioblbiteddeCTeeB,- Criminal Intercourse with adaqghter Is Incest 
—11 GEi,fi3; and xlio offonfise may l>o committed wlthft tiatmra] aavrell 
as a logltlinatQ daughter— 11 Ala. 2m \ S^i Irl. 2.>L It Is »ot ln<:es^t for a 
mail to cohabit with His smp-tlaurrhtcr— 4T Mtss, 27B; tho felatlon of 
BtejHtlanshtcr and stpp-fMJu'r rea?^es to exist on its tenaluatlcm by 
death or divorce— 2i Ohio 8t &41 1 S.C.I Green C. n. 661 Brother atid 
siit«r mean tUo oUaprlOff or the sainR parents t thPT do not iiecossarliy 
imply legltlraftcy of blrtb— 34 10 wa, 547, See Deaty "s Crlm. L»w, § t» a. 
Be« ClT» Code, I SD. 

280. Every person who is guilty of the infamous crime 
against nature, committed with matikind br with any ani- 
mal, is punishable by imprisonment in the State piric^on 
not leas than five years. '/ ... 

Orl m a gal nst n ature.— S offomy Is the carnal knowled]?© coihmftted 
agahi^t th'j 01 ikT 01: uaturo by nun wklii m^|j„ or by man >vit|i w<Mnaii 
hi an uiiikatuml maiinncr, or by man or woman with a beast— 5 Parker 
Cr. El. 2t>0. Cotiaent or non-consont Is luimaterlal— f:) Car, ^ P. 60«; I 
Coi C C. LlTOi tho party consenting ijRlnsati acconmllcff— IH Maw.4iL 
See I lose. Or. Ev, h44| nnlcsa committed on a child imder fouiteCnM 
Denlson, S*Ji : Law K>2 U. C. 12. It Is sexiiiiJ conaection per Ofmn^ 
R-JS3. A R. U. C 331 1 see I Va. Cas. 307, wtth rnrvnkiiid or beast, oat not 
vt'lth fuisvi— i Whart, O. L. Hih ed. >< 97^, Altemptd and assaults tO«ODk- 
mlL the ofTenae are indictable--^ Q. B. 1^; 1 Moody C. C. ;i4; LawB. 
2C, C. 13j 8 Car** P. 417. 

287, ;Any sexual penetration, however, rtight, is snf* 
ficient to complete the crime against nature. ' 

jient— ] 

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%ri^M0^2 Tioi.A.l»€rtef«b«0iUL 130 

V^OtiATlNd SEPt^tTUBiS AKI> >tfiB R^kAINS'oW %te 1>SAX>. 

1990; 9i4fi?ifia:iiiiifenstioo.orfftixK>Tia^dftMltxK^ . 

S 291. Unlawful removal of dead body from gri^Tq l^or ^iaaudcUOBU eUv 

.$2$|SU 'Wl^oiir^ cliarged with the duty of bniial 

I ^ I^imifllmMBt for omitting to bory. 

ISM. Wbo ttf« entitled to onstody of ft l^y. 

$,29S. Aii^8tbi9orattacli|iigadea<:^1?ody. 

f 888. DefaelogtomlM and monuments. 

1.297: Uidaiwfull^t^rmeiitft 

' 290. ^verx pcoBoa who mutilateB, diB^tors, or re- 
inoyeft fropi tlie plibce of sepulture the dead body of » 
human being without authority of Uw, is guilty of fel- 
ony. Bat the provisions of this section do not apply to 
any person who removes the dead body of a relative or 
friend for reinterment. 

Violation of iepnltttre.— It tea crime at eommon bar to wantonly or 
lUegiUiy matorb a corpfle--8 Pick, mt ifl id. 3(M; 10 Id. 87: 1 Leacb, 
497: Bubs. A E. 0. 0. 867; 7 Cox 0. 0. 214; or to remore oae-^r Owe O. 
0. 214.^ It is not necessary tbat all engaged should be actuaUy nresent. 
iwovided^tbey are near enougta to render 8s«l8tance-6BlaSicf. 110. 
^lewUe i^^^ pontrol OTer tbe body of ber busband after its bor- 

291. Every person who removes any part of the dead 
body of a hopj^an being from any grave gr other place 
wherie the same has been buried, or from any place where 
the same is deposited while awaiting burial, with intent 
to sell the same, or to dissect it. Mthout authority of law, 
or trom malice or wantotjness, is punishable by imprison- 
ment in the State prison not exceeding five years. 

fo?^«5S*???^iS;Slonli bS^iS %%"]§ Pifk"S?"r?fi^n*Sjf 

29Z Theda]^y*fb'arylngthebo^;f of adto^sedper- 
son devolves upon the persons hereinafter specified: 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1. If the decease ^w»8.!b masried.womaa,- the dulgrof 
lyiizlal devolTcdltiponrher hasbaiKL 

2. If tbfr dteeaded was nofti a maixied wdman, bnil; }elt' 
any kindradi tb^ diitjr of bturial deyolyes' tipon the pqibcmi 
or peamons in .the same degree nearest 6lMn to the de- 
oeaaed^ being df adnlttiage* and within thia Btate, and poa-) 
sessed of sufficient means to defray the necessary expensed; 

3. If the deceased left no husband nor kindred answer- 
ing the, foregoing description, th^ duty of hurial devolvea 
ufjon the porpnei; qonducting an inquest upon the body 
of the deceasedy if any such inquest is held; if there is 
none, then upon the persons charged with the support of 
the poor in the locality in which the death occurs. 

4. In case the' person upon whom the duty of burial 
is cast by the foregoing, provisions omits t6 make such 
burial within a reasonable time,, the duty devolves upon 
the person ne^t specified; and if all omit to act, it de- 
volves upon the tenant; or if there is no tenant, upon 
the owner of the premises, or master, or if there is no mas- 
ter upon the owner, of the vessel in which the death bo- 
curs or thebpdy is found. , . ... 

Dnty of bTixlal.-»At common law, It is a misdemeanor for one, whose 
daty it is to liave a deaci 'body bm'led, to refuse or neglect to bmy it 
—1 He. 236; if be have sufficient means to do so— d Cox C. O. 879; 2 
Denlson, 325; or to prevent the burial— Willes, 537; or to wlllftdly ob- 
struct and interrupt the burial service— 4 Barn. & C. 902; 2 Strange, 
C99; or to bury a body of one who ^i^<l a violent death before or with- 
out a oorouejr/s iim^est— 1 Balk. 377: 7. Mod, 10; or. to throw a dead 
body into aTireHMthoht the rites or b etiristlan burial— 1 Me. 226. A 
st^ate« whiioh ei|ipowexs boar^of health to rmiiiie burial-grounds 

and interments, includes the removal of dead oodies— 13 Allen, 646. 
The statnte applies only to burlai-piaoes dedicated in the mode pf^t' 
ed out by statuto-9 Ind« 172. 

293. Every person np^n whom the duty of making 
burial of the remains of a deceased person is iniposed by 
law* who ottiits to perfocm that duty within a reasonable 
kime^ is gniity of a misdemeanor; and, in addition to the 
punishment prescribed tbteefor, is liable to pay to the 
person perfiorming^ the duty in his stead, treble the ex- 
penses incurred by the latter in making the boslal, to be 
recovered in a ci^il action. 

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§g 2M-7 YKfLAxma earmjamm. 133 

^ 294l< ' Tfa« penon ebarged' by law witbtbe duty Of bury- 
ing the body of a deceased petsoo is eQthtedto tkf cn*- 
todjr of such body for the purpose of bmying it; eJccept 
l^at in the case in whioh an inquest is nqn^red by law to 
be held upon a dead body by a coioner, suoh cozoner is 
entitled to its custody until such inqutet has been com- 

295. Every person who arrests or attaches any dead 
body of a human being, upon any debt or demand what- 
ever, or detains or claims to detain it for any debt or de- 
mand, or upon any pretended lien or charge, is guilty of 
a misdemeanor. 

296. Every person who willfully and maliciously de- 
faces, breaks, destroys, or removes any tomb, monument, 
or gravestone, erected to any deceased person, or any 
memento or memorial, or any ornamental plant, tree, or 
shrub, appertaining to the place of burial of a human be- 
ing, or who shall mark, deface, injure, destroy, or remove 
any fence, post, rail, or wall of any cemetery or grave- 
yard, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Violation of ■epnlcher.— It is an offense at common law to deface 
tombs, monuments, graves, burial-lots, eto.— 3 Coke Inst. 202; 2 Bisb. 
C. li. 6th ed. S 1188. If a place bas once acquired the character of a 
cemetery, it does not cease to have it \>j mere disuse— 7 Allen, 299. 
See Pol. Code, $S 3074-^082. 

297. Every person who shall bury or inter, or oause to 
be burled or interred, the dead body of any human being, 
or any human remains, in any place within the corporate 
limits of any city or town in this State, or within the cor- 
porate limits of the city and county of San Francisco, ez- 
eept in a cemetery, or place of burial, now existing under 
the laws of this State, and in which interments have been 
made, or that is now or may hereafter be established or 
organized by the board, of supervisors of the county, or 
city and county, in which such city or town, or city and 
county, is situate, shall be guilty of a misdraieai^or. [In 
effect March 30ch, 1874. ] 

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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

I 299-302 grucks aoa£KST 'bscio^k. XSi 



S299. Sunday amuaements, where llqaoTS are sold. Bepealed. 

§300. Keeping open places of business on Snnday. Repealed. 

S 301. Limitation on operation of preceding section. Bepealed. 

S 302. Disturbing religious meetings. 

S 303. Sale of liquors at theaters, and employing women to sell li- 
quors thereat. 

S 304. Selling liquors at camp-meeting. 

S 305. Limitation of preceding section. 

S 306. Females exhibited in public places. 

S307. Keeping or resorting to place where opium is used. 

S 309. Admission of minor to place of prostitution. 

299. Belating to Sunday exhibitions and amnsements, 
was repealed by act approved and in effect February 8th, 

300. Belating to transaction of business on Sunday, 
was repealed by act approved and in effect February 8th, 

301. Excepting certain business from the provisions 
of foregoing sections, was repealed by act approved and 
in effect February 8tb, 1883. 

302. Every person who willfully disturbs or disquiets 
any assemblage of people met for religious worship, by 
noise, profane discourse, rude or indecent behavior, or by 
any unnecessary noise, either within the place where such 
meeting is held, or so near it as to disturb the order and 
solemnity of the meeting, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Disturbing religiout worship is an indictable oifense— 2 Wheel. 0. 
0. 136; 6 Har. (Del.) 490; 3 Sneed, 313; 5 Tex. Ct. App. 470: although 
the meeting was only to transact business-^ Sneed, 518; 78 N. C. 448; 

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135 CBIV^ AOAJVtn BWOION. ^ ^ '^f^^ 

8. C, t Am. Cf. E, 133, So A iugdaf-erbooi u a rellsltwi* moetlng^-8 

- MaPKt.i'Etmh}2Sii tit a ftlnglng-^JiCKiJ for Instructluii m eMrr«d music 

^21} CiL liLi7i ^iiJu.3^i' Ttit;!rd uiuuiiLx) uq octuji lij^tuj: banco, tf DOlsc, 

-*r marie aii^1_tiide(!'eij t cotuJuct at df upiir the pliice inf Vii''0irsbjp---3i Ala. 

cHiip^l, or meetliinf-liuiii^e, coi^slJiuLoa vLe difetiiae — i Dcv, & D.^^i n^ a^ 
{UsturLiiice lo^da on. a ciiuip-gru'iuiil^^ Qr^Lt. tili: eonlm, ^'i iHo, biSi 
jmd iiee :2U A] Li. L. J. 124 ; but not wLoa tbe) cxcrel^es ur^ o\iiT—i Ir^d. 
,1H. It is miHl client If Uif^ (hstuibouc^ occur • rea^Guub^c< time before 
tiie dlaper^Iiij: of tho eoai^rtiKHiitLoii-^t^ Ala. '^2^^ h'i la, Z'Mi^Bnted^ 
313; 4d. Cil^. It deiiiciicLs <)u lUin^'tf aiid pra^tlt'e— S3 Ala. S9B; 10 my, 
lit»r A3 Mti. 125: L Ci'aw. (t H. 157; Ami la a qiif^iloaof fstcbfor tibojur^ 
—14 iiid. 4id; 1^ Id. Itil; ^H Ooim. 2^2. 8ei» Dest^'a CrUn^ L;iVf» S UJ l). 

3031 JCreTy p^idoh mtIio sells or furnishes atiy malt, 
TinoQS, or spMtuda^ Hqtiors to any person In tiie audito- 
ritun or 16bl>ie^ of any theater, melodeon, 'maseunia circn3, 
or caravan, or plac6 where any farce, comedy, tiage4y» 
"ballet, opera, or play is being performed, or any ezhilji- 
tl6n oi dancing, juggling, wax- work figures and the Uke 
is being given for public amusement, aud every persc^ 
who employs or procures, 'or causes to be employed pr 
procured, any feinale to sell or furnish any maU, yinQUs, 
or spirituous liquors at such place, is guilty of a misde- 

OonstitittloilJEd Ikw.— liegislfttlTd ejiactments or mimlcipal oirdl- 
Bfuicas " to pndiJii^Mi iiQiayamaaeiiMnts and tovmteint iaaxkorMtv,'* 
are not repugiXBnt to tbjs ConsUtutioa of the Umted States, or of, the 
State Of 4)ftfiUirtdA'^MXMLY(tt. 0toMOa.4Kfc ■ ' "^ *i . 

304^: JhMffyiietis£m^.irl9>cieQl»4nikeep»»^^o6tlirta^ 
staU, oir o^^^ oontxitBRce; Unntitatpvafiawe volf 'SfeltCbig ^ 
oth^^iM/dis|>o«i9gjof iany «ine^4ai).Bpiiritapi]S^i<intDMi- 
eating U4iigira»!orittKi7>4i4Q^ b£/wfaickiw&iie8,;s^iiituMn 
or iatcaeica^»g Uaaooi form •» .par^:<nr ^oT«eUing.ov>olJk«i- 
Wis9 d«iposi9g ^ ttmy .artiole^of ; mcirohaml'faih j <ar who ped- 
dUa x>x lMUr^fti|1wii%aliyaaQhidoizi]| or«irtiale, wtthlacne 
milo pificf^^^pm^ .Qr.iQ^dM^twgitoB vcOigiovift/wqrBiiMPi 
dujcii9K.^]4fkitiw9^ )»QldiA0 ^noti AKMtingvift .pimi^abloli^ 
Qi^iQt j^xlAaA,t,hftfii&lS€(.Qinrimai:!Mdiiii;aY« kondneflbd^d- 

lWf-\ ; ij ,h,:!j'(^.ii >.io ; t. ..i.J ; I { ':, ^ C-' - * •' " "• 

appl^. fff^ ^y.^|g^j^,caCTy^ng o^^jf^i^^ |)jB8ii«l; in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

the sale of Uquon or other artidesy wliich biudBMt wtm 
efttohliehedpriot to the appol&tiaeitt Qf the meeting se- 
lened to in eaoh section, 

306. Every peiBpn who caoees, pirocnreSj or employe 
any'tenale tor hire, 4rink, or gain, to^j^laj upon any mn- 
Bkfal InBtniJaent, or to dance, proxnenade^ ler otherwise ex- 
hibit herself, in any drinking saUion, danee-cellar, ball- 
room, public garden, public highway, common, park, or 
Street, or In any ship, steamboat, or railroad car, or in any 
place whatsoever, if in such place the^e is connected 
therewtth the sale or use, as a beverage, of any intoxicat- 
ing, spirituous, vinous, or malt liquors; or who shall al« 
Iprwthe same in any premises under his control, where 

^'Intoxicating, spirituous, vinous, or malt liquors are sold or 
nsed, when two or more persons are present, is puxnshable 

' by a fine not less than fifty nor more than five hundred dol- 
lars. Or by Imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding 
three months, or by both; and every f emiede so playing 
upon any musical instrument, or dancing* promenading, 
or exhibiting herself, as herein aforesaid, is punishable by 
a fine not exceeding one hundred jdoUars, or by . imprison- 
ment in the pOBnty Jail not exeeeding eae moHith, or by 
both. [ApprovedHarchd9feh,]j874,] , 

§307* Every person who><qMns or imiiiitKtaii, to be re- 
sorted to by other persons., any plaee whete ophim, or 
any of its piepasattons, is sold or glTen aiway, to be 
. MBOked at encb plaee, and any pecson who at such place 
eeUs or gives amaj any opium, or ite said pftparationB, to 
be there smoked or otherwise used, asid ovevy person who 
visits or resorts to any snch place forthe pnrpese of «nok« 
i^ opium, or ite said pveparations, is guilfiyof a misde* 
meaner, and upoa^convlction thereof shall be ^ixiiAed by 
aftoie not exceeding five hundred'd^flleM, (^im^dnment 
in the county jail not exceeding six months, or byboth 
,«wsl)^(ftn# and. imprisonment.; IlaefDietJienhAthinU.] 

"^ 309i iLhy prbptietdr. keep^, 'manag^,' odntf jiotbr, or 

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pezBon baTing the control of any honae of prostitution, or 
any house or room resorted to for the purpose of prostitu- 
tion, who shall admit or keep any minor of either sex 
therein, or any parent or guairdian of any such minor 
who shall admit or keep such minor, or sanction, or con- 
niye.«ai ^h» 94^^^<^n or keepi^ig .thereof. ififf>t^ o^ jM» ftoy, 
such houset or jrooaa« shall be guilty .of a j^^devoAanor. 
[In effect Aprill2th, 1880.] 

■ t n: 

J : . ' Ti 

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nokiBkkT nxt^^BCtiAy ob^osha lElHiBi'iioini^ 'Bdo^fil jlhd 

S 911. Indecent exposures, exhibitions, and pictures. 

S 912. Seizore of Indecent articles authorized. 

S 913. Their character to be summarily determined. 

S 914. Their destruction. 

S 9U. Keeping or residing In a house of Ul-f ame. 

S 316. Keeping disorderly houses. 

S 917. Advertising to produce miscarriage. 

S 918; Enticing to place of gambling or prostttatlMi. 

311. Every person who willfully and lewdly, either : 

1. Exposes his person or the private parts thereof, in 
any public place, or in any place where there are present 
other persons to be offended or annoyed thereby; or, 

2. Procures, counsels, or assists any person so to ex- 
pose himself, or to take part in any model artist exhibi- 
tion, or to make any other exhibition of himself to public 
view, or to the view of any number of persons, such as is 
offensive to decency, or is adapted to excite to vicious or 
lewd thoughts or acts; or, 

3. Writes, composes, stereotypes, prints, publishes, 
sells, distributes, keeps for sale, or exhibits any obscene 
or indecent writing, paper, or book; or designs, copies, 
draws, engraves, paints, or otherwise prepares any ob- 
scene or indecent picture or print; or molds, cuts, casts, 
or otherwise makes any obscene or indecent figure; or, 

4. Writes, composes, or publishes any notice or adver> 
tisement of any such writing, paper, book, picture, print, 
or figure; or, 

5. Sings any lewd or obscene song, ballad, or other 
words, in any public place, or in any place where there 
are persons present to be annoyed thereby, is guilty of a 

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lA' jXBBamBrt'Wao&vKK, sea §S.i3XML9':: 

mttdeittMmor. . [ApproredMaioltdQIib^ilnvff^b^ J«i}yl|rt» 
1871.] • ' •• 

does dot depend on tbe-dHiiiber of ponoai ^0 wbqi) Uw .ejvuMiire if . 

made— 18 Vt 674. 

Subd. 1. Ezposture of penon.— The Indecent ezposnre of ofae^s 

IiOoxC.C. ti U Walft^ It It «w{h M intentU>ni4 MDMUM ofthe 
naked l)ody in a public niade as is calculated to suoclr the leeUng!) of 
clMMtllty OF to tfoMUpt the mofltl»^ Day» Mtt; 33 M<k teOi'M St. Tri. 
Aopb^Sis^ L 3id. 168; 1 JCeJ^. 620: or sacbns te^ds to scandalize, or to ex- 
cttnUiSirlbus desires^ lnd.'S28; The exposure mUftt «o« liie a(»k 
dental-ft 3«;b. ao^ Mid the e«aeoc0pf,tbef>flexuie la tto(»Jt be.ln> 
pabUc pbu:e-4d Tex. 846} id. 938; 3 cir^t di, C. ^48; 8 Car. S^:i3ortelffli 
ftC.^I l4wrBJO.d289|juid.iii sight of others^ aOAck. 

pnbUe pia0eH»Oimd' 87ft; or • p^hliCBathtiW iite]^TC«yT^2 Mo^- MO; 11- , 
Cox^. C. 659; 2 Catnp. 89; or a aearbeach Visible froite inhabited houMt 

Subd. t. Obscene pnblioations.— Any immodest or ImniQral pnbUo ! 
catipim<ai4iQg to corrupt the n^hd^and to desmty tfl^l&vi^idfde* 
c«icy^mJSpiW.iiud^Ood dr^MW^pUuMuMilflr^w.a mfMhnleaMflwn 

St' 4122 ragSTitf obscetie bo6ks--lI Bfotehfw 8464 B Serk.. A: S. (ill U . 
ICass. ia^iYBmmo.TSSi 18€exO. C. II&; 4 Fost. A F. 78: orprUits*- 
2 8eivr*fi.91; 1 £]. ift B. 439: 4 F^.A P. 73; or pampmb^I^aw A. 1 
8 Q. fi: 36pri3!(3t»fe»*-89 IlL 441 j 8 Day* lOJt-l Swan, 4i| 27 Vt. Cil9; ec 
wrltings-^l HiK. 690; 9 Phlla^ 468{ 4 Fdsi A F. 73. It has Veen deeided . 
that theezhlbition of t>1»c^ne prints need not be In piililic^SSQnr*^^ 
R-. 91. inie etreulatien of o^seuive b6oks, through the mall, Jb promb' . 
ited by Congress-11 Blatchf . 346< See R^.4BtaC'F.fl. »Sai78*: .. , . 

"jg^id. 9. Obsoene et>n|t^.-^Two ptirsiMit may be ^oitiK^ faidibied tvt 
tfiiging an obscene song in pubUe-^ Burr. .880. - . 1- 

31^.. ^Kyecy person who i^ M^%caize^ ht Muif^itLei^ t6 
Bjfme^t^ns person for a vidlaUon ^f subdiv^sloti ^fee of the 
last.8e!^Mo^^ is equally authorized and enjoined toaeis^ - 
any obscene* or indeeeni. .wiuUngy i^api^f » bobi;, pidt^ttf . 
P?i»lkAir figjEure' Cfljw^d i,p j?p3^8sipn pf i^n^eyij^^ooiitrioi 
of tfaft-peis^yn jio affttaied, ^n4 to A^iveif ttie '^»J^f t.o tli'e 
magiatoa^ bafq^re whom Uie j^t9on,49 arrested 13 repaired/] .....: .'....■.•••'..'. ."v ,.,!•. . ..\ ',.-*,,, 

di^/ ^e izmgfsti^tifir td'^hottf amy bMcwtobrlitdkoMUl 
wriil'firg, 'pap^i-b60l^/t)ietiii«, pAtlt^oittl^^lB^dBlinBT^l 
purvaant to 1^^ itjii^gAti^ nbc^chnii - fniMty uyda^e/enokif > 
inatlbil^t^iBLcibuiiedi or, If^ i/he «taiftifiatioii!i» delayed 1 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

g§-QX4«16:: ncDEGBHT BXPosvB^ xsa 140 

or' prei^htdd, inrhhoriit tuWaiUhg wuih :0X^uxiiDAti«ii«>Jd«r 
terminethe character of such writing, paper, book^fpi^ 
ti;afe,'prtii»roxf flgrarai and if he And* it tohexAtMuom or 
inddoenl, iiia must deliv^;c OQ^ co^py t9;the <Iisi(rict at- 
tqrii,e5f ol the po&nty' in whic^ thd act^ed i9 liable to liv- 
di^tment'ortilal, and must at onoe destroy all the other 
copiep.,, ..-.,.. , ....... .,".;' : ' ', ,. 

314* TTpQu the conyl^tion; Of the a6ctisedp sli^h district 
attorney intmt ckuse any writing, paper, book, pietore, 
print, or figure, in respect whereof the accused staada 
convicted, and which remains in the po^i^ssion or under 
the control pf suc^ district attorney, to>e destroyed. 

315. Every pei^son who k^eps a hou^e of ill-fame in 
this 3taite, resetted to for the purposes of prostitution or 
lewdness, or who willfully resides in such house, is guilty 
of a miBdomeahor. 

HaTi99 of HI -fame.— A bouse of Ill-faniQ Is aboiL^c ol prostitution— 
Leiw ft, J U. U. 21; k€pt for tlie resort an<k tlio uuUiwfiil caminercfl of 
Ie«4 people* of bclh sexes— 33 Conn. if2\ h Ir^d. iM; O ficJ^ BQ* It. 
moat ue the resort of otbenvomen than Its keeper, when tlie keeper 
Is A woman- 1"J Alien, 111; 17 Uann. 4<i7 ; 31 Id, 57 -^ 4W N. JL CI. Tlie gist 
of the olletise h, lliat It Jh Kept for lewtj purposes, aitil resorted to for 
lewilness^Li4 Me. b2:i; S. C I Aija. Cr. K. ^1; and Lf iewdnesa fs c^jried 
ou privately, 1 1 Ls sufacfecit— ^7 Oik. S'iU. Thero uced Lo no outward in- 
dficeury^ll Tex. i'-fH; B. C 1 Am. Cr. K. £50^ nor dlBorder— Law R. 1 
C. C. 21 . See Desty'3 Crlin. Law. S lOB a. 

LiaMHtr of pa^tle^^— The oen^iUr La designed fur terpen, wbo mar 
he prosecuted ijy Juaintmenl-lli Ala. 17t: M Id. 377: 111 Mass- 4-7 j 124 
ld.V!«: 7Gniy. 323; I Met. 151; 17 Pick. SO: 11 Mo. 27; 4 Denlo, l*9j 4 
CmiCb Q. tl 3i|li 17 €tinn. A^li 6 B. Mon* 21; 6 nuu..'SL^4; 10 ld-13Jj 3 
tted. 603 ; HJMod. &3; LtiW R. [ C. C> 21. Every oiie lu iiny w^y co»- 
cetiied lu the kt^epLiig la liable either oa principal oraldlu^ and assbt' 
lLt£— IL Dush.filO: 1 Allen,!. A Inisbancl ntid wife maybe Jointly or 
«e¥e»lly convicted— 97 Mass. 325; i Met- 151; 114 Mass, mi 11 Mo, Hi < 
Jl Busb»610. In certain States the owner of tUo kotiso rented lorthli 
purpose la liable— se« ]ie»ty'» Crlin, Law, S 10<^ b> 

3l6h EV^ry person who keej(» toy ditordOidy ItoiM^ 

or aiiy bou9d foi^ the porpose of assifiiii^tioii^rpraslita- 

tion, ot cihy housd of public r^abrt; by which ihift pMuee, 

comfort, or decency of the immediate neighborhodd Is 

haibitiiAUy distKirb<dd>70C;W^Q ke^parany ixm i^ f^ ^^r 

de^ly manner; and eirerypersoii whp Letn an^ i^^rUnent. 

or'tenemetitti.kno^ineimftt it ia to be lu^ for tho pivr-. 

p^ae.of as^gnation or prostitiition, U guilty of a ^niade^ 

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S41 Xin>BOXZrT X^EPOSURB. ETC. "^ iSlT^lB 

tneanor. [Approved March 30th, in effect July Ist, 


DisordetlT house.— A disorderly house la od€ kept In such & way as 
to tlisturtJ, annoy, or scaniJaliAB the public peneraMj% or ttie nelghljors 
iLTia pjisaera-by— 8 lucJ. 4^i 10 Me.MiP: l-XfMiLss, zm; UMo.irJ; 5!1 N. 
H- 34J; ,,f Sen?. A R. 2\]Si *2 Intl. 3271 5 Hur. ^DeL) 5t)S; or for tbo pur. 
poso of pubilc resort for tlik^ves, tlniukLirda, or other Idle aatl vlcloiu 
peojile^ON. J.L. J0ii3ilkl.4S3; 2 Tei^Ct. App. S:*; Id. iBi?: id-ltri; and 
tliG offense of keeping need not bo tucri cama^Sti N. J. L. ifri ; 13 Vt.70; 
91 Maas, 'li5i £i lowa/iS.j. Ittd suRlfjienC If the di^toider be froqucnt, 
and St is not necessary tliataJl p^ri^Dua resiltling near orpa-^lng ft, are 
annoyed— J: Allem. 'MK Tb6 ai:ts iiuvjt but sticli ai tend to anney i;ood 
citizens, and do lu fact HnDoy Aui^h a^ %r6 present— JIQJ Mae^). 29; ij 
€:uali. aO; hy unuHuai noist-a— 3ii G:i. 2S\^ 4 Variter Cr. ft, -m, Ihe 
keeper lu liable if the liouue be kept lu ii disorderly majiiier— &!3 latL ft; 
ana that the (1l£ieori.l was exclufilvely wlihlin, aud waa not heard out- 
Bldio, la Iniiuatcrial, if It dlaiurb'^ thoso who havo a right to &ci:ess— 2 
Dov, & B. ilii 25 lowri, 2rjj ; 5 C. €. JOJ ; Law R. 1 C. C. 2L The 
kccpei- of a ilppUiisr-houso Ls iLuble if it bo Kept In » disorderly wan- 
ner— Ij Blackf . 474 : a l J. 'ivb; but the houau inniit he kept by liliii, or he 
. nrnst liohl h]nist;if oKt aa cr act aa keyper— 1 Crancb C. C. 2<J3i iJ, 24&| 
a id, 3!>4i 1<1, ;iti.S; id. 347; 4 id. 607; liush. L. 'i52; a BUwkf, 21)5; Id. 2150: 
6 Id. 474; e B. %icn. 21; 4 Har. (Del.) £73: 1 Salk. 4^ Andn llcenao Will 
not protect hliu-4 Cranch C. €. 007; Q Har. (DelJAOSi 4H Ut<L 334J: 41{t 
2i>t. See Desty'a Crim. Law, ^S lOfi a, b. 

317. Every per^n who willfully writes, copiposea, or 
pdhlishes any notice Or advertisement of any medidb^e 
or means for producing or facilitating s^ miscarriage or 
abortion, or for the prevention of conception, or who of- 
fers his services hy any notice* advertisement^ or othej?- 
wise, to assist in the accomplishment of any such pur- 
pose, is guilty of a felony. [Approved Maioh30tb^ In 
effect July Istj 1874.] 

31& Whoever, through invitation or device^ prevails 
upon any person to visit any ropm, huilding, oi^ other 
places kept for the purpose of gambling or prostitution, 
is guilty of a misdemeanor; and, upon cpnviction thereof, 
shall be confined in the county jail not exceeding six 
months, or fined not exceeding five hundred dollars, or 
be inmishe»4 by l>^th 9tioh finei and imprisbi^eikt. [In ef- 
fect AprU 16th, 1880.] 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

5§^aX9-aO xx>TTSBiin. 1^ 



S 919. Lottery defined. 

f S2Q. Punl8|uneiit for drawing lottery. 

$ a2L PtiniBlimem for selllog lottery tlelcets. 

St23. Aiding lotteM^ 

I S3^ IfOttery offices. Adrertlfllng lottery oHlcee. ' 

S 124. Insvrtog lottery tickets. Pnbllslking ofTers to tesitfe. 

1 S2S. Property offered for disposal In lottery forfeited. 

S S20. Letting bnilding for lottery purposes. 

319. A lottery is any scheme f(X the disposal or dis- 
tribution of property by Gliance; among persons ;^bo fa^ve 
paid or promised to pay any valuable consideration for the 
chance of obtaining such property or a portion o^ H, or 
for any share or any interest in such property, upon any 
agre^m^nt, understanding, or expectation that it is io bo 
distributed dr disposed! of t)y lot or chance, whether 
calllBd a lottery, raffle, or gift entterfirise, or by whatever 
name the eame may be known. 

ItfOitcTT defined. A lr>ttery li aacliome for tlia dlstribtitton of prlx«^a 
hy lut or^-biince-^O Itl. 4b5j W kh luU; 12 Tci.&J9; 7 Hobt. ik*; 4y Al». 
fjiii Deatly^ 4<j! ; 8. Ch 1 Grccu Cp R. 3J.^, Wlicn. a paciinhirv I'Otialder- 
atluu 13 puUL ana Lt i3 H^immln^d iiYlolor cUnncLs atiuoi'^rDg^tiYKQiua 
■clieiBa, ^That iho party who pays U to liavR for Iti or to liaire notninff, 
II y Q lottery- 11 N. U. 3J3; k N, V. 4:J4r 31 K, J* HI; fieo4 ZdJj* li&. 
iTUi^ dlstclniUton is tu 1)6 by iliaiH-'o, It In a lottery— 4J TeX.iliW,' MILL 
JflSi miil Umay bo ejUlttl " wift ciit€rnrt*Oi" " book. iRk-,'* "lAnrt diatri- 
hacioiif" "art a^.^of latlou/'^Qr nuv other usmc— IJ Tex. sfiO. S^jii^t 
'ehbBrpflsP iiia l otter v^ lirjwfver .irtf uUvtbi? s* hi^Tno may bo ^eVls^eO— 
-^DeftOy^iul: Abb, U. k :iTV; 4y 111, 4t^i a Hc:ls*t.4'»i lfl Mae^as-Jj ^JJ^ 
^iStf: aVroflto, S-JS^ J Zab. 4t>5; AJN.Y. 4-nlj a Bncpa. 5*/T; fi Rand, 
Jijk, NqliUuiljt^ar&iipeefisary to be drawn to constituto a lottwy~4:i 
Tei» ,fi^; 4 S{ TL'. & It. IW; 1 2ab. 4ii5. l^jlica aro forft'lttd to llje 
-itatbaa Bocni ds rtrawn— nS Cal. S9. Spo, f or lostancea of lotted lea. Des^ 
ty'H Grim. Law^ i luj U* 

320. Every person who contrives, prepares, sets up, 
proposes, or draws any lottery, is guilty of a misde- 

Setting up batiness.— In Massachusetts tbere are three offenses, 
" setting up^' a lottery business is one of them~13 Ala. M4. The im>> 

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143 LOTtEBUfiS. 9$^^21-^ 

motion 6f' (I lotteryp ana aiding In snch promottttt, kre but dtterent 

321j Jgiverj iieismi wbo sella, glves^ orte any mannei 
wluKtereriiiniishes iov traqafei^- to or fonaniy^tfaerpdt^ 
son. sngr ticket, chance, shaare, or interest, or • anj paper, 
ceitificBte, 07 instrument paiporting: or understood to be 
or to represent any ticket, ishance^ sbare, ^r interest ia, or 
deQMQding upon the event of a^y lottery, Ib guilty of a 

SeiUng Ucket3 an offense— 13 Allen, 534; R Mo^ Oftfl. A117 person wha 
soils a Jpittcrv tlc:ket I3 '" concerned ki tiarri ixig on *' tfae trngtctcsa^ bat A 
resale of fitiVket '.»7a third person la not a violflrtlon of the BtBtutB— 
3S Ala. E^ Til a prultlbldon Iridudca nil tickets iktiJ iilJ lDttQrlii3»^U 
Ila3li,6?iH}j ntid Belling cr oiTmlng for sale la a misidcmeaiior—Sli Oa. 
616* The fifile of a numbfir of tickets I3 bnt one offenae*-^ B;utt, fTenn.) 
6H, A. tlcKt^t purporting t;o fntitts ttie hqlijiT to wliat^vor |irlag j^bould 
bo dra^nrj l>y acorreapondlntf naroljer, in a schnmo called a prize con- 
cert, la n, 1f)it4?iT ticket—^ Mass. &33. I'ba jjf^oeral law punikhiii!? for 
sale oF lotifiry tloketa Id not repealea by a Espucial act autLorlilQ^r ^ lot- 
tery— lu Cal. 419. 

322. Kvery^ person who aids or asaists, either by print- 
in|g, writin|j, advieitising, jpubUshing, or otherwise, in set- 
ting; up, inanaging, or drawing any lottery,, or in selling 
or di^osing of any ticket^ chance, or share therein, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Publication.— It Is a misdemeanor to pnbllsb an account of a lottery 
to be dittwn in another State or Territory— 8 Denio^ 212; 1 N. Y .180. 
In Connecticut, it is crtmlnal to puil^lisb any printed sell 
of procdrd lottety tickets, and the statoto applies to domestic as weU. 
as foroli^ lotte^es, but a " cautlo* notice ''^ Is not a violation of th^ 
statute— 28 Conn. 225. in Massachusetts, the printer of a newspaper 
containlnir an adv^tlsement <^ lottery tickets is liable^ and a t&O' 
board is an adyertisement— 5 Pick. 41; and it is no defense tliat it is a 
fScign lott6ry*-2 Met. 329. 

323. Every person who opens, sets up, or keeps, "by 
hlins^lf Or by any othet person, any office or other place 
for tile sfeile of, 0* for registering the number of any 
ticket in' any lottery, or ^ho by printing, writing, or 
othertirfse, adviettises or puhlisTies the setting up, open- 
ing, or using of any such office, is guilty of a rnlide- 

324. Every person who insures or receives any con- 
sideration for insuring for or against the drawing of any 
ticket in any lottery whatever, whether drawn or to be 

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^mwn '^vttJ^^4i])is StsMie or nqt^ Off^who r«(^iT69 ^iiy J9^i4»*'' 
able consideratton upon any agreement t6 repay any 
sum, ov^EYCtf ibe same, or any^^otbez property, if any 
lottery tioket or nnmber <^ any tiebet in anyrlottery sha!U 
prove fortunate or unfortunate^ or sbaU be jdrawn or not 
be dratTu, at any -particular time or in any particular 
order, or who promises or agrees to pay any sum ol 
money, or to deUver any ^ods, things in aotiouior prop*. 
erty, or to forbear to do anything for the benefit of BXij 
person, witii t>r witb6ut ioonslderation, upon aoiy eyent or 
contingency, dependent on the drawing of any ticket in 
any lottery, br who publishes any notice or proposal of 
any of the purposes oiore&sAd, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 
Insturing tickots.— A guaranty, binding tlie guarantor to paj the 
prize, U a Tottery ticket, though not in the form of one— 5 Band. 71S. 

325. All moneys and property offered for sale or dia< 
tribution in violation of any of the provisions of thia 
chapter are forfeited to the State, and may be recovered 
by information filed, or by an action brought by the at^ 
tomey-general, or b^ any district attorney, in the name 
of the State. Upon the filing Of the information or com- 
plaint, the clerk of the court, or if the suit be in a jus-' 
tice's court, the justice, must issue an attachment 
against the property mentioned in the complaint or in- 
formation, which attachment has the same force and 
effect against such property, and is issued in the same 
manner, as attachments issued from the district courts in 
civil cases.. 

326. Every person who lets, or permits to be used, 

any building or vessel, or any portion thereof, knowing 

that it is to be used for settuig up, managing, or drawing 

any lottery, or for the purpose of selling or, disposing of 

lottery tickets, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Lottery offices.— In New York, it is not an indictable offense to keep 
a room for the sale of lottery tickets— 3 Denio, 101. 

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145 OAMoro. §330 


{ SS9. 0«mlMri>lrohlbit«di Penalty. 

I S31. PermitlHig gambling in houses owned op rented. 

I 9S2, 'Winning at play by fmudulentmeians. 

i 939. Witnesses n^glefcting or ref nsing to atle&d trial. 

5 3S4. Witness' privllegei 

$ 335. I>iities of district attorneys, slierifls, and others. 

I S36. Permitting minor to play in saloon. 

I 337. Pretending to give authority to eondnet games. 

330. Every person who deals, plays, or carries on, opens 
or causes to be opeqied, or who condncts ^Ithfer as owner 
or employei whether for hire or bot, any game of faro, 
monte, roulette, lansquen^i- rouge et noire, rondo, (an, 
fanr4an, siud-ftor8& poker j ^^ijenand a hixlf, twenty-eney or 
any banking or percentage game played with cards, dice, 
or any device, for money, checks, credit, or any other rep- 
resentative of value, is punishable by fine of not less than 
two hundred nor more than one thousand dollars, and shall 
be imprisoned in ihe county jail until such fine and costs 
of prosecution are palid, such imprisonment not to exceed 
one year ; and every person who plays or bets at or against 
any of said prohibited game or ^ames^ is guilty of a tnisde^ 
meanor. [ Apprdve^d March 14th, 1885.J 

gcatntofy offisns*.— The Bnbstance of tbe fitntutory offense la to deal 
abasia for nioaey— H Cal. m. Tlio Statute Iti relation ioeaml^^in& la 
cokstitntlonal-U CaL m^. It must Ijq f oastraca with the general net 
concemliifffTlmlnal tjroceecllin[?H, and wlifroa flno ta Imposed oncnji- 
vlction* (it^emJiuiit may bo Irainisoned to enforce Its pfiymeiit-7 Cal. 
2<WL A Ftittnto aut horl istn^jtUe KTiiiitmsf of aJlceuso to keep actiijibihiEf- 
feejusf^H Otfofds proTP<?tton anJely agalniit acrlmliifJ pTOsecutmu— 1 Cai* 
k4\ ■ It tloes not lr-i;MU2e t^uDblUiff cotjtri*ct3 which nrs vokL at comnjon 
law— 1 Cal. 4Jl: 1U\.^\\ SltJ.^iU; 4kL3;^;ti but notes KJvcn for a gam- 
in jj conaiderution are vftlbl In the bandH nf a bami fide Indorigce— if C^l- 
M J 4 Id, J-JL Tilts aeftLoD docs not iipi>ly to oiicj wbo merely bets at 
tbefifrimo: such a pei^sou is iiiOt accesaoo' to tbo crtnio of Ufamlug— 53 
Cal. iiO, TiieQffoiifiotaftinlstlHiuejmor puula^babl e Isy fine, aad J mpris- 
CEuaent till the flue is paW— 47 Cal. l-^d; a3 at eoinujoa law— 2 EL&ciLf. 
2SL Bee Deaty'a Crim. Law, S lul a- Aa to proiabitfcd games, sea id, 
S IDl b. 

Oflbnse at common law.— An agreement between two or .more 
penens to Mk tlisir tnoi^eT' vi property in a contest or chance of any 

Pnr. Cons.— 18. 

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eei : 1 id. ISO; 2 Id. iS: Id. 92. Slnsle acts eonstltiite the offenie-ll B. 

1. 417; II Mo. 455; 16 Ala. 888; 20 Id. 80: 1 Ohio St. 61: and conaeeiitl'rB 

-lines St one sitting constltnte one omnserrU Oa. 896; 20 Id. 165. Tbe 

l8t of the offense Is the «btauklii|[ oi.ptoaerty of another by the 

games at one sitting constltnte one omnserrU Oa. 896; 20 Id. 165. The 
gist of the offense Is the ^btalnint tiTfttAertj of another by the 
xrandident nse of cards or other devices— 76 111. 205; ao4 the pnuiclty 

oftheact-61Ala.23. Seel4 0ra7,8M;1^26. 

Betting.— Abet Is a wager, and the bet Is complete when the oflier 
to bet is complete, although the stak« be nfitttaer HMNier'woa*-7 Port. 

453. To consUtale » wttgMTi both partiea mnst bieur a rlsli«-4 Honipli. 
561. In Calif omla, one who bets at Csro Is not accessory to the crime 
of gamlng-^3 Cat* mj anaaee 22 Ala. 16. Aa to t)w statntes.of otiier 
States— see Desty's Grim. Law, S 101 c, et ieq. Wagers affecting third 
persons or the.pubUc PMCO* laorals* «vr pHhuojioUcy, at conunoa law 
are not recoverabTe-SctX asoa Si Id* 670; 87^d. U«: 43 id. 616; but 
they may be disaffinned More vm result is known* and tbe money in 
hands of a stakeholder be recovered— 37 CaL 670. See Desty's Grim. 
Law,SS70g.l01c. Betting at i»ces-^ee Id. S 101 d. 

331. Every peisoB >wbo knowingly pecmits any of the 
games mentioned Ia tbe preceding section to be played, 
conductedi or dealt in any ]^o\»e: owned or centedby such 
person* in wbple orsin part, is pnnisbaJ^le. as proyided in 
the preceding section^ . 

332. livery person who, by tbe game of '*tbree-caid 
monte ** so-called, or any other game, device, sleigbt of 
band, pretensions to fortune-telling, .l^j^k, or other means 
whatever, by use of cards or other implem^its or instru- 
ments, or while betting on ^ides or bands ol any such 
play or game, fraudulently obtains from another person 
money or property of any4escriptipn, aball be punished 
as in ca*fl of topipny of prcrperty of like value. [In ef- 
fect April 16th, 1880.} 

Gheatiag at gaitiea— as with ibUse dice,'ftc.4B a misdemeanor at 
coimnon law-^e 1 &nss Gr. 9th <^ 624. so |]^, a«onsp^^ to cheat 

. 333. Every person duly summoned. a9.. a ^tness for 
the prosecution, pn atxy proceedings had under tbis chap- 
ter, who neglects or refuses to attend, as reguired, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. . . 
See Code CIt. Proc part !▼, title 111, chap. IL 

334. Ko person, otherwise competent as a witness, is 
disqnaMed.from jtestifyini^ m siipb cpncdrnijagtbootfei^ie 
of gaming, ontiie groiind^^Mrtiinob'-testimMiy' ^ay ortB&- 

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a#7 ..i.jPfmmi^ji otgicaai^ 

Inate himself; but no proseoution can afterwards be had 
agaiost him for any offense concexninff which he testified. 

335. Every district attorney, sheriff, constable, or 
police officer must inform ^kf^aio^ and diligently pros- 
ecute persons whoihi^heyliave reasonable cause to be- 
lieve offenders agaiastr^be^pMivliions of this chapter, 
and evexy such officer refuaijoigjOS nw^^^lblllift 9«/it9 d^ is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. .... * \,. 

336, Every owner br lessee^ ^br It^et^er of iiny hou^e 
'used in'w&61e, 6r in part, as a saloon or drinklng-place, 

who knowingly paa»it8.Any ;p^rson>fimder twenty^one 
-yaaii ^vagoto piay At^any game «f ehaxtce therein^ !s 
guilty of a misdemeanor. ' fAppfbrv^d March 24th, 1874.] 
337. .: Every State* /oountyt otty, •city and oouoCtyytown, 
^r jbownship ql^oepri <^ otiher person who shall ask £sr,.rf- 
peive^ pr ix>ll^Qt any money, or other valuable considara- 
tipn,:«l^h^£o^ i4s.own or the pub^^ U8«« (or Apd.-^ifiirfa'kfae 
understanding that he will aid, exempt, or oth^swiaa as- 
, wisfttet^ persDUfrotai. arrest of 'conviction for a violatiool of 
si^lon-Uueee.h'todred and thirty x)f the Penal Oode ; or 
who shall issue, deliver, or cause to be given or delivered 
'toanyperton or persons,-' any ^licensfe, pennit,' or other 
lii4vilege, giviil^'or pretending to -^e' any authority or 
rl^hfr to any ]perSOnbr pehions to carry on, aynduttt, open, 
or taulM to 'be opiened, any g^me 6r gaiit^i^ which ai'e fot- 
bidd^du <«"pi«hiWte« by section' t!itee htrtidred and thirty 
of said €0do;< kbA any of ^dh officer 6i 8ffi'cet^ ^c^ho shall 
vote for th» paASa^ 6f any Ordftt^ce or by-laWj giving, 
granting, oi^preH^ndiiig^ ^ve;0^*grarit to ^ny persbii dr 
persons any authoility^r privilege tei^ Open, oarry ob, bofi- 
duct, or cause to be opened, carried on, or condVlcted, aiby 
ganxv^or'gailie^ pwhlbiti^ -by tihi^ Mec€f^n<:4^hree hirndred 
and thirty oe^ther Penai^Oetfo, is guilty of k feloAy. ■ [Ap. 
•piO<»d'lfea4a'»t!J,iaWiJ' '•■-' '«'• 

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;§IMaB^40 PAWimiKttXBS. US 


i aS9. ndUng to keep a register. 

SMO. Oiarglngiui^irftilJVteitf Interest. 

S 341. • BOHing Wore time of redemption hu expired* or .ivfUiont b»- 

ttcOk ■'■'•• • ' ' ■■ 

f MS. Befntiiv to OtBolDM yafttttnlan oe ««]e. 
1 141. Betvslng^to tiOvw m .effleor wMh MMiflMfiBVBt t» luvact 

. register of p1e(i)994 vrtielee. 

. 33a Svery pesibB '«^ho ca»i«B on the bnirineas of a 
pawabxoker, by ie<$elviiig goods in lAedge for Ioohb at 
any rake of Interest above the xate of ten per cent, per an- 
nnm, eKoept by atitho#ity of a lloense, is gailty ofa mla- 

Ooiaethasioiiai lBiir.--The' Code proTlsUm limlttng the mte of lo^ 
tereetlniteh may be clianred on loaoa. Is not repugnant to art LJ S of 
theiMiMg 4;<mslifoti>n^2g Cat 271. aiB%ibi,p^MtnSA9B^Otr7C9^^ 

. 339^. Eyery.pezvon ^ho ^jarrioa on tUotbiieiiieee of a 
.|>awnbxoker, wno fails at the time of the tvansaoftion to 
ei^te^ in a register kept by Mm ^om t^at purpose* ' in tfa«e 
;^aglish language* the date, daxatios^afoa^imti «iid rate 
of interest of eyery loanmadA^y/hiip^ or; nn aopwrato do- 
scrip^^ of t^0 property pledged, or ths^ name aa4 resi- 
denoe of the ple4gor, o^ tf> delayer to th(» fi^^d^ir a written 
copy of 900^ e^try, or to ke^ an a^ponntl^ ifrritingof all 
sales made by him, is, guilty ojfiaviisdenieaiioc. 
flee $ 6W;jiM<. 

34a Eyo^. pawnbroker -vrho ^an^ps QC>i^Qai^iM.iii|- 
. terest at the fate of mow than <t^Q pel^aeqk» per month, 
or who, by charging commissipisi. id^ff«p|l^^9age, or 
other charge, or by compounding, increases or attempts 
to increase such interest, is guilty of a misdemeanor. [In 
effect March 7th, 1881.1 

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310 ^ ^xA«QmiwnK' UpHaS9 

341. Brezy pawnbroker who sells any article pledged 
to him and tmredeemed, until it has remained in his pos- 
session six months after the last day fixed by contract for 
redemption, or who iptuk^s axur^i^alf without publishing 
in a newspaper prizitedf in' the city, town, or county, at 
least flye days Move MKditeaJiit.a ooikiiia 'containing a list 
of the articles to be sold, and. spef^fyii^g ,t^e tiu^e 8^4 
place of sale, is gtMl,ty, o/ .a misdemeanor, .... 

342. Every pawnbroker who wHlftfUy Yttfoses to dis* 
close to the pledgor orflis Ikgieffift'the natD^T)f the pur- 
chaser and tb9 pzlcereqejlye^ .t^ tiim for any lurt^cla 
received bj tta U^i JiUAg^ (M»d sobsoaiMntly sold* <tt wbo, 
after deducting from the proceed* of afeiy -Mde-tbo'ltmotoi^t 
of the loan and inteTeMrdtt<b fhis'tbon, waH four per C^nioq 
the losoi for expenses bf Sale, refuses, on demand^ to pay 
the balance to tlM^pladffPV P^ III* *iW^i ia^Ulty ^ff^ inia* 

3^. ''tS^titf paWbioker who f alttf, icefusetl, pr b^glects 
to produce for inspection hia p^i^%9Xi.oi( to exhibit all 
articles receji^r^. by <him>itt.piedgB) orhia aoeoflint ol 
BQlmyt6'mf'4mtifeheVX^'itkyMifsmt atMliotlidng him to* 
search for '|>^t8onal ]^r6p6tty,.br the ord^rof 'a comii^ittlDg 
magistrate directing such .oObser^tp inspect §s^ register^ 
or examine such articles or aottonnfe o^SHiilea^ l»giiil|y of « 


1.. .>i.i/...,r 

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|§£i#^^ OTHER amMmum -^B9fsmaaasB, 

V i 1... ' .M>it.: t. .4 .. ■ .=-.■ ir'— . 

S 349. yn^mftpagenient. of gt^Mp>j|ol|w».. , •. ,> i. : ; t .' - ' 
S SSO: CoonterfetUnflftnule-ixiarla.' ' ', \ 

$851. Sem]i{rgoK>dswM(^b6ar^imteTf6it'^^ 

$ 8S$. pepclng marks np^n wmkea prop«itx,Aa4 4e^rt|^7i^ ^^ o' 

S 857. Altering brands. ' '^^i ' 

S 358. Frauds in affairs of special iwrtaershlp. <^ ,; . 

S 859., Conto»ct^,(»rMlw«iteVW<*CWf»Wf,9K 
$ 380. ^mb^iaisb fetum ot recorid of mia^^e.' - ' ' /" 
S 861. '€MeiIt2r«al3Mnt''«>flQaaittoS,ete; ^ ^ ''> ' 

18631.- Be£aitng!tdisne<]r<4iaM^jvntlioeittbeM>^^ ^ 

S 361, . qpnceaUug pez^oip ^^i^e^ to beoe^ 9f^I)al)eas pfnpos^ ; , ^ . . . 
S ^65'. 't^eiepers and carriers ref^i^ing to re^eiVe guests. 

S'96*. CoterttftttWVitilbldSiaverstattips. ' ' ' "^ .i»-.'i ..i 

I 8831 vgdUiy^eillMtofl qtotclnnt^il';.' > • »- '- ^:>> "^ ^^ il -■)!■' •':■'-:..}'<..-'> ■ > 

346. Every physician who, in a state of ' intoxlicat^^ 

does any act as such physician to another person by 

which the life of such otiier person is endangered, is 

guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Intoxication.— Voluntary intoxication is no excuse for eilme-Hiee 
many cases collected in Desty's Crim. Law, S 26 a. Evidence of intox- 
ication is admissible as to tbe question of premeditation— 21 Cal. 547: 
27 id. 514; 43 id. 362; or to show a mental condition Incapable of 
forming a specific intent-29 Cal. 683: 84 Id. 217; 43 id. 852, in deter- 
mining the degree of the crime— 36 CaL 534. 

347. Every person who willfully mingles any poison 
with any food, drink, or medicine, with intent that the/ 
same shall be taken by any human being, to his injury, 

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101 . > jonmBmasauBmM* to /SEBSoan* > §§C3i8r 9 

audi ^^ pefttbir <v7l!io wiiif ally pt^isotid ftn^ %^dii^; #^X 
or xlefted^dir dl Wt^ri'is 'i>tniishiElble by" liia^i:ri£^xkieii« la 
the State prison for a term not less than oinenor mdre* 
lihfm ten years. 
. {BcU)lto«iealth.*-<MndBs agiiaddiimtblid keaMlMM ^«86 br wUduHie 

': AF. 292; 4 Up. Can. Q. BTidd/Afiy A«;^^oMsMonk^Ucha 

fense?— raiU. 479: 35 Iowa, 570: 8 nTH. 203; SBich. 438; S.'p. 1 Green 
OwB.An<>i6 Wcmd. »7; 4Up. (^oo. 1^ B* !]i58. See Des^ COm. Lbw,< 

$118a. ., , s. ., ,., . , - ..■••, 

tJnwholesoine proWsions.— Sellinff, exposing for sale, or glViogawajr 

fbed rendered imwheMsomebyadnmnare of no^ouianbaRuuiedlai^ 

Indictable offense-S Hawks, 878: 8 Fost. AJ^-J^iQl ezposlAg for sale, 

rious to healtIi-2 Ired. 40; 38 N. Y. 85; 8 Parker Cr. S. 622; 8. 0. WS. 
Y. 674. SeeDesty'8Crlm.Law,S119a. 

• ■ • '• •• V' I .;::.•..' '.->./;. ' • ' ,.. ;• 

^8, Every c»p;tain o;r^ ^tlier ^ p,er^on having ^arg|% of 
any 8t»a[nilj>pat ijfee^, fe the conveyance of .pa^^ei;i^erf,,pr 
of the boilers and engine^ thereof, whol, from ignorance 
or gross neglect^ or for the purpose of excelling any otber' 
boat in speed, creates, or allows to be created/ such an ^ 
undue quantity of steam as to burst or break' t^e boiler, 
or.aii^ai^pariiitjis'or machinery connected tihWe^ith, by 
t^hich l>iirStlng or brbalciiiig humaixhfid'isendkii^^rdd; is 
gDiHsnof »r^lait»t.«:.:[ApiWD^Mf»cl»ao^i «nr^«#ect<g^y 

leact doj^e oe laMai^Antbrm; 6B.Jtt6ii 

^ , i/cwj jix vutteti i3 4d. m^ t id. 499; 

. _B well as an act of commission, may be crim<f 

Inal— 2 Blatchf. 528; 5 McLesm, 242; 4 Coz C. C. 449; 3 Car. & K. 123J I ' 
Cox G. C. 352; 2 Car. & K. 368; 4 Fost. & F. 604; as the ofllcer of a 

■ 349^ ' ' "Sivetj^etg^neer ot other pritfeon ^kvtii^ clikrg^ '61 
asiy steatii-lboii^'r; i^t^at^-e'ngiiie, dr <bWiei ''^^aifotus fdr- 
gdnei^tis^^ 'bV Mi^f oy^l; Stisaib; Mseil in-:^^^ itiantif axitbty, 
raiiWay,''or it^Sf %ichd;^cdJL f'V^brks, ;who 'K^iHf nliy, or 
ftom tgi^oiffinc^; 6i'^o^ tLekXfiit:- '(irfektei, 6i/ Sk'kim i^ be' 

break Ue boiler, or'Shginb; 6r')ijfj&krai6tia(i6i?^l^^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

21 a^i^r. 0TKB8 m§vmmB WM^ vrntm oKS. 16A 

As to personal injuries, see av. Code, U 48, 1708, 1^18^;^4/^9^ 

f^ts, >r ^jrtKji^ree to l>e fbrfeied ot omoiekt^ltA^ Wiy 
ti:i5i^6^m^k usuciWj: afflxe*bjratiy pdrso^itoli^'gioool^ 
which hfts beon duly r^cor^ed in the offlo^ Qf-ttw^ Seo- 
ratary' of ^ifite^ witli inteot .to' pasB . off ttny < goods to 
which such forged or counterfeited trade-mark, la 
afiixedy or intended to be affixed, as the goods of stieli 
perabn, U guilty 6t a inisdemeiKPQi;* [Appvoved Hftroh 

See Trade-marks, Civ. Code, ^{ 6&3, 991 ; and Pol. Code, {{ 3196-31981 

^Ift; Every person who ^ells or ^eeps -foi* sale, any 
^bds Upon or to which any counte^rfeited trade-marlc 
has, been affixed, after such Ibfade-mark has lieen re- 
corded in the office of the Secretary of Siate, intending 
to represent such goods ias the genuine gooda of 
ajnother, ' knowing the same to be counterfeited, is 
guilty of Q, mi^demeflinor. [Approved, March iO", 18851} 

352. Ilie' phrases *^ f^n-ged tMde-ma^ <' and ** odob^ 

terfeited trade-mark," or their equivalents, as usedtin^tlila 

cHapeef,; iA41^0 ^y&tf alteratiim rajs- imiimmn ot- aciiy 

toade-ioark' ao resembHug the< CKiginai as to be likely to' 

deceivi). ' ^ ..'..'..".. ' • ' • 

' . ' » . . , i . ' ' . ■ * 

353. The phrase <*trade-inark,^' as tls^ l|i %}^ thi^ee 
preceding sections, includes every description of word*.. 
Iet(ti9r, ^vic0» e^i^ein,. stamp* iim>r|ntj, bxandi; pr^u#d 
ticket, iabe]L orVxapper, usually, a$;^ed ^y any mechanrc, 
manufacturer! (^og^fistto merchant, or tra^^mao^ tp de- 
note aify|;o9^s to^be ^oo^ imported;^ pi^njdfaclbiired^ 
duc^4> cowpunded, prji^d^d.'byniin, ojthj^r tlian any name, ; 
•«jfqr^ or/ ^^res^lon ^aj^ejally denptijdg ajpLf gopdi \q\ be 
of soxne ija?!ti9i4fMf class pr:.<lescriptipn^ *^ .,,;.;. , . . 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

103 OfttW itrjruBiatt M noBSOirs. ^'gS-tSilKS 

3M. • 'ISiwtt ^ffloA tifht' lKlt»« or ' trsespMiy «tfBki %otffo, 
-VttiM, 6iMi oicyrexs Itttoel, '<^4Mitt«r Ilk^if^lMM^et havhig 
to any way eoilii«et(id ^th'it tb^ duly iaifed «niAMiai4£ 
or iunti««f ttiiolb«r, fdr «he'imrtH>M«f 4iii|»Mittgf;^^)Qi 1^- 
t^t^i6 crec6lTB difdmfaiidi'df attj^ a^ticYtf otlx^ t^^^ that 
whidh sQoh. cask, bottl^, yess^l^ case, coyer^ labet ox other 
thing originally cbntalne^, or^^s ao^inected witb, by 
tho owner of sucb ttade-faarfi: of name, is guilty of a mis- 
demeanor. ' . ^. 

SOv>Sy MV, Hwf wSla 

395: ^Stery peiisdn ^o diefaces br ob^erates the 
marks upon wrecked property, or in any inanner disguises 
tVe ttppearsn^e tliireof, with int^rittb prevent the owner 
from discot-erihs^ lt» 'identify, or '-^ho destroys Or snp- 
prest^ any Invoice^ bill of lading, or othchr documeiit 
tendlBg to show the ownership, Is guilty of a misde- 

See FoL Oode,|S S40M41B. 

356L l&rtTj person who cots oat, alters, or diefaoes any 
mark made upon any Iog« lumber, or woOd, or puts a 
false mark theteon With iMent tapreWnt the 6wner from 
aiscoviMing its f diftitlly, is pffoSlty <of H liiisd^febNtatfior: * 

357. Every person who marks or brands,' altersj or 
delates tii»mark otf bnmdTof .ai&y hame^joamr boU, jack, 
jcBBiBk, mvJk% boil^oK-, litetor, icoevvv* oalf,'8tice|it4;ofert« hog, 
tisam^ qr pigv belongiag to .aiio|h«it,^^itU Intent tSaetfAny 
taoScal the^sinnekjor to prs^nti^sntSfidsCion tfaerieof by 
the true owner, is punishable by impvimnnieftl Hb the 
State prison for not less tiiota-dnenoir mfsmtfi^tf-dVeyeto. 
.Pfi^poi>cpda«»i^S7-sm*llfe^WK r V'i '•' ■" 

356.. Sveiy member t>l*ia..speclal'pa3titfialilp,> who 
eoiDBiits akiy frvofl 3a th« -sffalis of th* pMtneHftii|>, is 
•guilty oC'iamiMSUnsandr. . ' .v i^ * -. .r : . . 

d by Google 

§§ea€)CMb .<9!mt»,i$f4F^J9m» T^ummtsB. IM 

of not lea^iiif»\im»^ma4f^not aiar^iiMii ^4ift«l)POMM»d 
OoiteA^or jbg iioj«r|ioomQ»t(:i|i''t^«QO»^ jviiyir 99(b Ims 

360.^^ Every. ^eiiBQziai;t;jtio];ized to soleximize ^ny mar- 
riage, who willfully JDQakes a false.retiuzi'of any m^rriai^e 
or pretended marriage to tlie recorder, and every person 
who willfully makes a false record of any xoaifri^e.Te- 
tom, i^ i^iiA^l^bljd aa pro|iri4e4 ^,;^^.prei;ed^ '^^^j'l^^* 

See Civ, 0»de, H T3» 74, 7ft. ,,,".' . " ^ > r 

361. Every person guilty of anyJ|Muri^.9rael,,or.,w- 
kind treatment of, or any neglect of duty .^Tf^ards,,!^ 
Idiot, lanc^tici or ioBoue person, is guilty otf^n^i^dep^eanor. 

Public Jut/.— Wberev^t a purty owes the public a dnty. he is indict- 
mblo for l>rt!ac-tL of Lliab diiLy^3rr Alii. 129. so, estpoeliig netolidss t)er> 
Aon^ to phvbioal {l^ujucf r Uy (bo^ci luiv I ri|7 them iu charge, is mdictable 
— Rus^, -fc B- €. C, 20; 10 Cox C. C. fiiiu; Law B. 1 0. O. 811: Id. 221; 
Beurd. 4^3; 9 CoiE C^h th 123^ A gii^icjiiin, matter, D? keeper.di an asy- 
lum, Lj ItidlctabJe Iwr negligence -n Uf^e Injury results— 77 N, Q. 494; 
£u^. A; B. C. CJ. SO^ id. i^i i VOX <l C 4fl6r« tfl.44»;^ Mil. 8a« Icar. 
&r, 425. SeeDesty'^Crlffl. Luir, 5H7a, , . ,: 

^ll .. Every o^i£|er or persoa;^ to whoio-«l^ wril^of h«bei^ 
corpus^pay ^ diieptedr wi>o> <^ter ^^i^Q^. ^eiiep^ oeg- 
leots or refuses to obey the command thereof* is gaikby of 
a mi^i4ememor. - . , r . 

363. Bvtory penoo who, eithec sotely oat as taaalbn bi 
a court, inipvidiigly andimiawfiiliy.rsc^MMkiltft^impfeiaHif , 
or zestndna of his libertiy^ ior<the Bams hause, any pcoon 
who haa been disohazitod: npomii writ of habeas cdxpns, is 
guilty olaimdsdMiiean^. 

8ee^MN^OmMI»«iM^SS4^a.#.«l0.f . ; 

364. Every person haviiig in his •custody; oir Mulder 
his restHBdnlior po wer^ • aay pecson. loir who^e >v^ef iiC^rit 
lef habeas a»p«s.hasbeeiii issued, wJid^^th^tfae itttant to 
elude the service of such writ or toravolfetiififefftet^Jiearft- 
of, transfers such person to the custd4^'tof ' a^otfier^'^r 
piaeesliUftimderthe p«;«iffi««ir«omiioliQlia^llitr, lOei^n- 
9eato.oir,A)iaq0es tto plaoe of bls«oofiiiei]Mnj|iOf^tttstraiMb 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

l5d ' irMtk^tffts "TO "rUBMO^Br ' §§ 365>7 

ox remoTes him ^without the jurisdiction of the court or 
judge issuing the writ, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 
See HaiMM Corpxu, pott, SS 1473, et Mtq, 

365. Every person, and - eveny^affent or officer of any 
corporation, carrying on business as an innkeeper, or as a 

cause or excuse, to receive and entertain any guest^ or to 
receive and carry any i^assen^, i& gdflfy of di knisde- 
meanor. .. *,,*./'.. 

Neglect of dixtjr.— An Innkeeper, haTlng room in ids bouae* who re- 
f uses to receive a visitor who tenders a reasoiiable ptlcefor enterttiln- 
ment. is Indictable at celdmKwniHr^ Hta*. <»er.l m; 9 DeV. 4g%, 424 : 

baying received a guest he refuses to find f OQd and loaglog xor miur^l 
dawk. P. C. 714 ; but tlrer pei*son apt»iylng teuM be a tittyi^tMS Mod. 
445. See Civ. Code, SS 1B5M860. '- ; 

366. EV^dry pietsoU "^ho counteirfeits, or' Vho willfully 
uses the count^99rMte4fl#al or stamp oi fny person en- 
gaged in manufacturing or selling qniidDqilvery is guilty 
of a felony. 


367. Every pe^rsp^. .who TB^llfijlly. sells, or offers for 
sale as pure, any debased oradultoratiad qpiioksUTer^ is 
gnilty of a misdemeanor. 


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§ 9KI OKDOM AGAiirdT ttnuc nxAxaa.* VSS 

street, or highway, is a pdblio nttfdanee. [Approved 
March 30th, in effect July 1st, 1874.] ' 

Pnblio nuisance.— A public nuisance is one which sffectB, eqoaUy, 
the lights of tbe whole community or neighhorhood* Although the ex- 
tent ox the damage may be unequal— Civ. Code, f MBO. 

It is an act or omission which unlawfully annoys or Xnjnves the 
publto in oommon, aad not mer^eome liurtloulac peri«on^-«9 Mo. 
IWj S. C. I Green C. B. 653; 8 Up. Can. p.P. M5: i ld^,«3?ilxut 
Ic is not necessary tiiat all the community to aflecteci— 6 ttond. 726; 2 
Teio. 482; 1 Dev. A B. 106. By the statute, trhateyer laiaJurlOni to 
neauh, or is' indecent, or offensive to the senses, or an c — ^ "' 

the free nse r^ ^ * 

olf ends the sei 

M9; SCowen, _..^ . ^ ._ ,. 

13 Met. mi « 8. d. 438; 8. a 1 Green 0. ;B. mil Bunr. 333; 

ISSTlt u pubUe if It amiqys such part of the public as necessarily 
comeBtneontaotwithit-Jd. Wharetho statute does not corer aU 
cases of nuisance* the common-law riile is in f orce^^d Up. 821. 

Pnblio decency.— It is enough if the public nuisance shocks pnb- 

Ue moralIty-l» Hamph. m 1 Swan, 42; Id. 1% 8 Humph. 208; Id. 
229; 2 id. 414; lid. 996; 2,BaU.149; 2Y^..482s 19ra.8t.412; IMnrph. 
254^ 1 Der. 2b*7j; 4 Terd^ lb; FDav'm; &2Ind. 811; 126 Mass. 46? 4 Post. 

A F. 78; Law &. 1 Q. B. I>. 15; (Xnnb. 804. WhateTer openly ontnwes 
decency, and is injori^i^ tOi.or tends to soirnpl pubuo.«i0(a|8,.ls a 
misdemeanor— 3 J>ay "' 

fane 8wearing-43 CaL 480; 2 Bar. (Del.) 563; 9 Ired. 88; a Johns. 290; ll 
8ei». 6B. IS; 8Heisl(. 136; .1 Der,2^: 68 N. C.269; 3Sneed,134: 18 
PlcS.858: 19Pa.8t.412; 18wan,42; 70N.C. 67; lMurph.264: SOPlck. 
206: ortnejpublio utterance of obscene language— 1 8wan,42j or the 
public exlubitionof obscene pictures, prints, and writings— 17 Mass. 
836: 1 Hut. 590; B Phila. 458; aserff. ft B. 91t 4^^ost. 4b ¥. 78: or the 

ortnenublio utterance of obscene language— 1 8 wan, 42: or the 
.- ...^. - .. _ . a... -_ , J.- J .2., _ j^ Mass. 

^ ^^ ^, _ ^„ ^_^ ,. , ; or the 

f~ u6Uo exposuro of one's personlofthe person of another— 5 fiarb. 203; 
Dev. ft i). MB; 8 Humph. 203; 32 Mo. 660; 4 Hun, «36t 1 Deh. C, 0. 838; 
12 Cox 0. C. 1; 13 id. 116. 8o every public show which outrages de- 
cency, shocks numanlty, or is contrary to good morals» It indlo tah l o 
8 Dayi 108; 2 Duval. B9. 8ee Desty's CdnLXaw, i 109 a. 

Obstmcting highway.— All Injuries or obstructions to a highway 
and an acts which will rtoder It less commodious, are pubUo nni 
unoes-l Denio, 624; 2 Ind. 440; 8 id. 447: 26 Wis. 647; 6 Ired. 869; 
but the road must be pubUo-2 Pick. 44; 1 8trob. 110: 2 Kerr. 614; 
and the oftense must be to the pubho generally— 36 N. H. 808; 7 Mich 
432. 8ome Injury must be done, or some danger or annoyance to pass- 
ers thereon muss be created— Law B. 1 O. P. 881 s \ as placing obstruc- 
tions without authority— 107 Mass. 234. The obstruction of aoy road 
laid out by authority Is a nuisance— 1 McMull, 44: although It be 

Eed by an erroneous iudgment--2 Dev. ft B. 647. 8o, where a 
nray was discontinued, and a new road used by the pnblic— 2 
ph. 643. 4By thing done by an owner Inteiteringwith the right of 
way to a dedicated highway, is a nuisance— Law B. 5 1). B. 81. The oIk 
struction must iajononsly afleet somjs^bUo right— 7 Mildi. jltt;^ and 

it must be material and unlicensed— 36 Conn. 813: but a license is no 
defense for negligent obstroction— 8 Blaekf. 260: 6 Hai*; CDeL)608: 107 
Mass. IBB: i Pa.^t. 105; 60 Id. 867: 21 Alb. L. J. 86: 2 Gale ft D. 729; 1 
Bam. ft'Adol 444. See citations in Desty's Oriin. Law, SS 121 a, b. 

Danger to life or p rop er ly . — The keeping or mantctectDring of eX' 
piosives, or inflammahle snbetaDces, in such quantities and iriaces, 
or in such manner as to endanger life or property , isa nuisance— 34 Me. 
86; 74 Pa. 8t. 880; 107 Maasrii&; 66 Barb. 71; 1 Johtta 78; 1 8wan,218i 

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Gsms9. 4mmmf ww^l^c sMtJ^'m* 


7«6:^Cb,^; 2 SSj^eT Hi 
;• is .enuaQgereu— ^1 

. m» J54i>3 Ala. 428; C «^.. ^ , ^^, « - 

a crawdeattreet— Fetaers Q. C. 890; excavating area and leaving ,. 
— »^M.43J3; CJoro. B. 392; blasting, so Mto project stones on 
yaiy-Lejff Ji A 0. 48y:.fli:ftiectlng buflOings su&jecting passepf - 
danger-*! Cal. 142; 45lii3, ina se^ sTSu H. ft^tbing8^5vei^_^ 

?^£^vrSelW'?f^?l^^!5b)'^*^^ , 

Sighways, wbat are*~A tilgliway la a public ro^ia, um] n^ot a piivate 
way-^zo Ala. w. ' ▲ way of necessity d&ea not ijive ttJ xhQ public a per- 
maneot ea8ementK44N. LL tiiii; but^hero away ba^ alwa^^^ been used 
as awiblic lilgh\ray, tbc piiibiijc right will not bo deemgil to Lave been 
Jostoy abandoainait'-<aa K. H,0. '1 ho number of porsQiis uabiga way 
aad repairi^ it w^noc ni«Lko It n public way, If not common to ail 
personSr^B-TSgriB. Sep: mh A foot-wayp Lorse-way-, or cit* de tac, if 
common to aU people, 1» u highvrtiy— 'J l^jck. 44 1 I Mt Cord, mii a Rich. 
112} IBtrob. Il(r; 86 N. ii. Sii^^ m Mod. 3Si; or a tunipjUe— 31 Alb» L, J. 
«6; 2Pa. St. 114; 16 Pick, 175; or toU-roud— igVkt. i75; 2 Lewin,i9ai 
or aDyjpablie square or spaced cdlcxiE^tid lopubUc i^ii—3 Hill* (S. CJ 
149: 8 Pk St. 262; I41d. bilij JWatta.i;3; 24 Vt.44a; t>ra brld|fO-aa K. 
JI. 19ft; 3 Bam. A Adol. M; or a ferry— :^ DHL S^2: J Humpb. uti; & La» 
An. 6Ci; 24 Id. 642; 43 Me. 9; 1 Katt i^ McG. 3S7; 'I Va. Qas. 354: U 
'Wend, fias; aZab. ma 4 id. 718 ; or narii^ablo rivers, barbors. and tbe 
great lakes are highway.i- 10 II !k 351; 13Iiow, 5]S: 4Jone9f (N. C.) 107: 
is Me. 196; 2 motL ftl9j 1 Pa. &L 105: 1^ J^ic-b< 3ld. 

Dedication to pablio hbo.— PreBiunptlon of dedication dependa more 
on tbo owner's absent than on tJie leugUi of tlmo of non-user— *a Ala. 
&5;J, Formal atrceptEtnte by tba autboriti<^3 la not ncceasary— '^0 Ala. 
&ii 21 Dana. 417; 3 J Me. y; 7 Mass. 3Ttii IS Pick. 27o; 11 Scrg. & K. 345; 
6 port. 371.'; 2 W. Va. flS[). A rgaU npru to tbo piU4io without liinlt or 
restricttoit. and recoguiaedby the town in expenditure for reimirs, is 
a public bJgrbTray— J>y Me. atitj; but, merely rti pairing doea not ooasti- 
tute an ncc+ptancc^lJ He. 151. It may ba aeceptetl by Tote» or any 
act recogalzin^an oblltratlon to repair, or by tsvcncy years' user, or by 
fiubstltutiii^ It for an ancient bighway— 1(J N. H. 203^ It is EulQclent ff 
tbo public navo tbe right to pasa and repass thereon— 20 Ala-Saj 21 
Dana, 417 ; 34 Me. 9 f 7 M^. 378; !» Picfc. 275 j 11 Serg. & B. 34&; 6 Port. 
872; 3 W. Ya. 53?. 

Obttrnction of streets,— A nse of a pMllo street or sgd^re caionM be 
DbUined by prescription^SO Cai: 265; 6^ id. 437; 2 Pl^. 4lLimart^ 
4^: nor Is tbe public right lost by non-user— 2 HunmlL 543. ^o l^gUi 
of time legitimates a nuisance— I Bush, 189: 1 Demo, 624; 6 GraytiJSi 
2 Humph. 643: 4 Ind. 615; 2 Pick. 44; OWeSo. 315; Fwhart. 469^4 Wis! 
»7; 8 8.0.438; a a l^i^eenC. 1^.603: 4 Thl^inp^^adgJ; 8 Up. <^. 
O. P. 208; 3 Camp. 227; 4BIng. N. C. 183; 2137134; 4 Id.iaJ; 7 E&t, TO9. 

t« front "Qf 94ou«e forTep{UJ.'s-rT3Cam>23a: orfrontetensof adweUln 
so nuilt as to be an obstrudnon— 107 Mass. 234; or thoideifv^of gral 
tbronghrplpes, lecdvcd lo dMka standing in jifAgpiM^l J>en|Q,624;, of 
delivery wacons impeding travel— 6 Xlast, 427; TCamp. 227; or a team 
in front of anorse^iai' refusing to turn off the track— Uiarayv«D; or a 
gas copopsu^y obstructing the highway, is a nuisance->7 Up. Can. I^. J. 
W A ttWMi«ro«ehDMSt?4tt<i^lnflr tiM higbwaF lea^ csm^od&iS is 
»miisapoern35CoiUi.81^:12Cu8b.2&4; 14 Gray. ^. , , 

Obstrnotlng sidewalk.— dbstructing a sidewalk Is ato bffenSe-Il Tal 
flU^l8<lrlsl^t^^ttii,Ktt<iiile «f &mlt«<Ac^H^42iillr42ir} 4 ptel^t^a^mr 

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g§ 371-2 GBZMBS AQAINSt PUBmO HSAt/ZB. 160 

r. ^ &. 346} or ««16^ hf cdnsteblet-lS M.«ll: 
17; or by colleoti9ff crowds bjr ase of Tioleat 

<Hrezcittidlaiisiiage^ll3 Mass. 8; 1 Detiio, ^; 19 Fa. BU 412t 1 8waii» 
42: or b)r eznibicing offlgies at a ^iiiclow--6 Car. ^>P. iMi «r by 
«»ilbltljig a Btuflea paday, or any pubUo show or game— 4 Clark, 
<Pa.) nT% Car. ft P. €36: Law B. 6 Eq. 25: 4 Fost. ft F. 73: or by 
tbe use of a velocipede— 30 Up. Can. Q. B. 4h A temporary obstzuo- 
tion on receiving or delivering goods is allgwed~l Denio,4M; so teli^ 
graph poles are loot) a nuisaooeMr7 Mass. 656. 

Obstractibn by railrodds.— The unlawful obstruction of a highway 
by a railroad is a nuisancei and the company ti liable to Indictment— 4 
CFray, 23: 27 Vt. 103; as by leaving cars on a highwayr^S Zab. 360; 112 
Mass. 412; 73 Fa. St. 29; Or building a road across a highway wiihoot 
aathority— 4 Gtey, 22; 14 Id. 93; or, if authorl2ed. negligently or op- 
pressively ezereising lt» rights— 21 Alb. L. J. 86; or crossing, to the 
anxiety or danger crpasseis— 27 Fa. St. 339; but a train crossing higlt- 
ways, the company keeping closely within the ratnge of its charter. Is 
tiotindIctable-*101Mas£M; 8ee4Barn.ftAdoL30r SeeDet^sCrlBi. 

XXUW»010t 1 *»• Db. IVQl « UUU09, IX^. V/.l IVI i lO CWIUU. *IV, iV AU.«9t, • 

Mich. 619; 4 Ad. ft E. 384; « id. 143; 16 a B. 1022; or to divert part oC 
the water-2 Show. 80; as by a dam-5 Pick. 199; 6 Band. 726; 4 YfH. 
387; 35 Iowa, 670; or A whan^ if its effect Is to flU up the channel or di- 
vert the current—ThaCh. C. C. 211; 2 Stark. 611. See Desty's Grim. 
Law, §122 a. 

N::ir:iii_v:u !:i genetaL— ThofoUowtngr have been heldtinlftftticea at 
cc^LQjuQiiUw; cdiii^iiJufr-tKiusoa aiiLi puiMCLiii'cir (^tli«ir iiiii€l(j^fipottaH-30 
Mc. 65: 4 amitli B. D. 570; 6 UlU, in: Cliiitli. It. M. I; a DenTo, lOi; A 
I^ng, Tti«; 3 CratiGlJ a C. (ijli: a liJ/ai; 4 id. KH; UiL IM; I Va, Caa. 133: 
I Day, iMf ; ^ Cclo. m\ disorderly hoii^es^ti U. Mo a. L^l ; G BlackL 471; A 
Parker CT.B*S3tis B BlacJiX„2U5 ; Bind. 414; 13 IMtScSSU; £1 N. n, 343: 1 
Bdk. ZM \ n paliiic lolitlry'-^ Kev. Id I ; 14 IT p. Ciui^ Q. il. 4il3 ; 8 Up. Con. 
Q,^i Ifecping n inimk tlppUas-IiQu^o for proiulscuoua find naisy 
tttt^ugoud pramotUig ai-qokcuuess^i InJ, d21i 6 Criiucli C. 0.304; 1 
Mmtkf. 4:4; li B. Man. £; LawB. 1 C< C^ 21i couimoa dninJctinii€sa» ^ 
though ttiepart^ tfonot conHianc3y Iti tUAt t oDtUtloo— a* Vt. 023; hotisca 
of iU<4ftiue, tr open, jiotoriou.^ij anU aeauxlAiuus to itie imlitta (generally 
—3 Yflrfl.«a; 4 MoCora,4r3: i Si^r^. Jk. H. I'AH; ii hi*L 337j aiiy puhm 
pxhJbLUoa whlt^ib H ivc^ndaJou^— ;3 Dli>\ I0[]: adiUlorattQU of fool— 3 
UaolD & S. 11; 4 LjiujI'. li; 4 Mattlo dr S. :! I -I : carry lug ou offenalvn 
trades Id a ttilclkl^iiopuliaLed fommiinlty— 'JT Inf!r4:jft: nil iajarie^or 
gbstnifrtlona to i)%liwais-l Dciito, 4^4; i liitl. UO: 3 ItL 447} 2^1 Wis. 
547 J 5 ired. i'etJ ; to allow a ui^l'^^y to itecosue gfosaiy out of rt^iwJr— II 
Up, Can, C. P, 4Mj a ear. & p. 4eJ&. 

371. An act which affects an entire community or 
neighborhoodt or any considerable number of persons, as 
specified in the last section, is not less a nuisaiice because 
the extent of the annoyance or damage inflicted upon in- 
dividuals is unequal. [Approved March SOth, in efitect 
July 1st. 1874.] 

372. i^very person who maintains or commits any 
public nuisance^ the punishment lor which is not otheri* 
wise' procwrUwd, or who willfully omits , to. perforin b^^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

161' eitiiifw AOAnmT' FCTBsio sMMxatL |g:.373^ 

16^ atty-rolfUlAs to tb« lemora} of « public nidftafnod, it 

guilty of a misdemeanor. .!.,'. 

373.! pEivery person who estaj^iisibes or keeps, or papses. 
to be established pt kept, within the limits of any city, 
town, or Tillage, any pe»t-honse) hospital, or place for per- 
sons affected with contagious or infectious disecii^es, is 
guilty pf a misdemeanor. 

374. > • Bvery person who puts the carcass ol ttay dead 
animal, or the offal from any slaogbter-pen^ eorral* or 
batdher^op, into any riyer, . creek, pond* reserro^, 
stream, street, cOley, pablio highway, orjxw^i iu qommiPa 
use, or wfaoAttempfs 'to destroy the same by fi)c« within 
one-fourth of a milB of any cily, town, or yiUa^^. and. 
dTery person who puts the carcass of any dead animal, or 
{kHy o6al of any kind, in. or upoa the borders of f^y 
stream, pond, lake,, or reservoir, from which water is 
dMwn fovtb^Bupp^ of the inhabitants of any qity^ city 
atid ootttK^i or any town, in this State; so:that the draln^ 
a:g6 irom'%Mi oavcassior offal miay betaken up by or, in 
such stiream, pondi lake, or reseryoir» or whoaUows tho 
6MCass oi any dead animal, or any. offal .«! any kind* to 
temaSn in or upefu the bordess :Qf . any such stream, pond, 
Mboi or tesearvolr, within tho boundaries '^ me^ lands 
owned oroccuplM \ty him, ct who kee]BS.a]iy hoirse^, 
mules, cattle, Swine^- shaep» . or live«stock of. any kind, 
penned, corralled, or housed oU, over, or on the borders 
of any sui^ stneam. pond, lake,: or, reservoir, so that the 
waters tbeteof bUaU become polluted by reason thereof , 
is guilty vi « i9i0dem««Ji0r, and upon, conviction thereof 
shall be ^uuished aapresoziLbed, in sectipn three hundred 
and saveiity-iievimof tl)^ Co^i^. [Ji^ effect, March 23rd» 

375. Every person who makes or keeps gunpowder, 
iiitfc^ly««^fie; orothor hi^ly expksivo/suhfitia&ce, wtth* 
in any city or «owti, or who uaxriea' tte,sa]itft4h«QNgb tbci 
streets ttbereof , in any qtumlity or maanet suoh as. I» pro- 
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IdbiCad bj lair, or bgr vd^. ovdiiifkiMM ol siieli oily «r town, 

is gailty of a misdemeanor. 

Dani^erons explvBives.— TbQ keeping or roantifactnrlng of explo- 
rtresorinflAmmADte sobfltftiteeiuii soeta qnttdtltMiaifdiaMe^ oria sneh 
paQtoeodABgerlifa or .property, is » nalaance-M Barb. 72; 1 

JofinTro; S4 Me736; 107 Mass. ItojTTPa. St; 2»T!Swto, 2lf$ Thach. 
e. €. li; 3 East, 192; Dears. A B« »)»; «a lan»-ai»nt&Ues of jnuapow- 
aer kept in jpopulous places— 1 Johns. 78; tf Hmr292; 66 Barb. 7^; 12 
Mod^affi; 2 fiKnove, ll47. 

376. Every master of a vessel subject to quarantine or 
Visitation by tfae qaarantine officer, azriving in thA port 
6t San Francisco, wbo ref ases or omits— 

1. To proceed with and anobor bis vessel at tbe plaee 
assigned for qoaranttne, at tbe time of bis arrival; or, 

8. To submit his vessel, cargo, 'and passeageni to tbe 
Examination of the quarantine officer, and to furnish all 
necessary iiifoiination ta enable that officer to determine 
to what length of quavantineand other regnlationa they 
onght, r^s^tively, tx> be subject; .er, 

3. To remain with his vessel at the quarantine during 
tbe period assigned for her quarantine, and while at qipur- 
antine to comply with the tegnlatieas prescribed by law, 
and with such as any of tbe officers of health, by virtue of 
authority given them by law, afaall poresisribe in relation 
to his vessel; his cargo, himself, his passeogers, or- erew; 

—is pui^bsible by imprisonment inrtbe oounty jai^ not 
exceeding one year, or by fine v&t exte^ing two thousaad 
dollars, or bdth; [In effect March 9th, IS7a] 

See PoL eo4e, «S i00f409S» id. fiS aoUi 309, ^7:Mig^ 

377. EVery pet«6n Who^ willfully vtolates any of the 
laws of this State relating to the preservatiohof the pobUo 
health, is, unless a different punishmefit-'fidr snch vlolodoa 
is prescribed -by this Code, punishable 1»y ImprSjBonnient 
ik the county jsdl iio^Wc^^>diBQgr'one'yeari or by fine bot 
exceeding one thousand dollars, or botli. 

^•WB4- E^rsry penen charged wHh tbe.pedennanae of 
itti^iaii^itndBr.lMlavBiof' this .State seating to the 
pceseih^tion of the publio liealth,. who Willfuliy n^<. 

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lenM^r 76^10068 ^iierfg^^J^eiBaine,: la gol^^y of laiinMar 

See FoL Oode^ $S 29?8-^ ,.,,■■ 

379. Every peison, not the master o^ owne?, o^r not 
axuthorizei^ to :^t as pUpt uader.tlio law^ of this State, 
wiip pUcfts or offers to pilot any Vessel to; or from iny 
pjortipf this State for which there are commissioned or li- 
censed pilots, pT who pilots or offers to pilot any vessel to 
or from any port other, tham that for which lie is c(^mmis-: 
sion^ed or licensed, and for which there ^re pi^ots so com- 
missioned or U9ensed,' is guilty of a inisdemean'or, [^.p- 
proved March 30th, in effect July 1st, 1874 J' 

aee ?^oU C«a«> SS.2439-2447. 2457-2468, 24re-24dl, «ui(iaote: 

3601 IJyery apothecary, druggist, or person carrying 
on busifiess as a dealer in drags or medicines, or person 
employed as clerk or salesman hy such person, who, in 
cutting pp.ayy drqgs or medioines, ormakiug, up aay 
prescripUon^fu: filling ajjy order for drugs or medicines, 
willfully, negligently, or ignorantly omits to label the 
iiaQ^€i,,or puts an untru^ lahel, stan^p, or otjher designation 
of contend, upon any box, hottie, or .other, package con- 
taii^ing any dj^ugs or medicines, or substitutes, a different 
article for any article prescribed or ordered, or puts up a 
greater or less quantity of any article than that prescribed 
or ordered, or otherwise deviates from the termfi of the 
prescription or order whteh he undertakes to follow, in 
consequence (ft wbiph, human life or health iA endan- 
gered» is i^uilty of a misdemeanor, or if death ensues, is 
guilty of a felony. 

Sfe6 71^. Y. 897; Civ. C<ide, 5J 1708, ZSSS, 5523: ' 

38i.\ |Every person who, m puttibg up in any lt)ag, 
bal^, box/.biEir^el, of other package, any hops, cotton, 
wool, grain,^ hky/ or other goods usually sol^ in ba^s,' 
bales, boxes', barrels, or packages by weight, puts in or 
conceal* therein anything whatever, for the purpose of 
increasing the weight of such bagf, bai'e^ box, barrel^ or 
package, with intent thereby to sell, the goods. therein, or' 

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^'^l^-d^' eAtii^ AaAisrs^ txjbuo toALtA*' IGi 

t<y «t[aHd auoKBti' td iN^I the^«aaae» lot* ttii iiOMilied 
vrtight, is punishable by fine of not less than twe^it^Mfi^re 
dollars for each offense. [Approved Mareh 90tb, in ef- 
fect JFtd^ 1st, 18T4. J 

382. ISY&rj person tvho adulterates or dilutes any ar- 
ticle of food, dritik, drug, medicine, spirituous or malt li- 
quor, Or wine, '6r any jirticle usfeff ul In compounding thbm, 
with a fraudt^lent intent to off 6r the same or causa or per* 
mit it to be offered for sale as ilnadulterated or undiluted, 
and every petsoti who fraudulently sells, or keeps or of- 
fers f ot sale t&e 9ame, as unadulterated or undiluted, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Adulteration of food.'-^To render niiWliolesomd any food to De cob- 
nuned to anliMUcta))l9 nuigaDce-3 Maula A 8. 11 ; 4 Gamp. 12 ; i Haule 
M 8. 214. ^iftt tHe patiy dldnot Imow ttrnt the t>ro visions were adnl- 
tsrated has been held no defienser^ JUlen, 1<>0| 9 id. 480; M Mms. A 
W. 404; 10 Allen, 199: 103 Mass. 444: 10 B. I. 25Si 6 Parker Or. ^TSSS; 
wnira/FairclUi State. 82 Ohio «*«». " ?^ . . 

^3. Every person who krioMiigty sells, ofkdeps or 
offer^ for sale, or otherwise dis|)0se8 6f any arti<;Te of food, 
drink, drug, or medi(^ne, knowing that the same has be* 
<iome tainted, decayed, spoiled, or otherwise unwhole- 
some or unfit to be eaten or dratik, with intent to permit 
the same to be eaten or drank, is guilty of a misdenieanbr. 

384. Every person who willfully or negligently sets 
on fixe, or causes or procures to be set on fire, any Tfroods, 
prairies, grasses, or grain, on any lands, is guilty of a mis- 
demeanor, , . . ' 

fiee Act of 18^2. l>estniction of l^orests, Appendix, p. 713. 

385. Every peison who, at the burning of a biiilcling, 
disobeys the lawful orders of any public officer or. fire- 
ntan, or offers any resistance to or interferes with the 
lawful efforts o! any fireman or company of firemen to 
extinguish the same, or engages in any di36rderly '.con- 
duct calculated to prevent the same frbn^ being e±tln- 
guishedjt or who forbids, prevents, or dissuades others^isting to extinguish the saii[ie,is guilty ot a mis- 

' See^^oL Code, SS 8335-3S4ft. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

:i66 akasEB aoahibt rosx.i€ tiMJLvm.' §§-886-92 

- 389; "Erwy penon-^nho demftiids ot Tecetvet oompea- 
fiat^on foi*'th6'tt8e of any bridge or feinry, or'Mts tip or 
kedpi any road, bridge, ferry, or constracted'fovd; for the 
purpose of receiving any remuneration for the use of the 
same, without authority of law, ia guilty of a Biiade- 

387. Every person who, having entered into an under- 
ta;)dng to !keep and attend ia ferry, viokuteathe oonditiona 
of such undertakings la gatliy of a mi^eoaieanor. 


388ii Every person who willfully rides or drives faster 
than a walk on c^ over any. toUrbridge, lawfully llcenBedi 
ia pufniaha^le by fine not exceeding twenty dollars. 

389. Evex^ person not exempt - i^rbm pa^ng tolls, whd 
crosses on any ferry or toll-bridge, or pasaea throu^ any 
toll-gate, lawfully kept, without t)aying the toll therefor, 
and/tidth intent to avoid Auoh payment, ia pnniabalili) by 
fii^>ot exceeding twenty doUara; 

' B96. Every t)erson !ri charge of al6cotao*ive engine, 
^ho, before cfrossing any traveled jiublic way, omits to 
cause a bell to ring or steam-whidtli^' td-^ottnd- fct-the dls- 
tanoeol at least eighty.rods.^ct!?! the cfp^s^yajudup to 
iti.iagnilty of a misdemeanor*. . ,- p. 

391.' Every person who is intoxicated while in" charge 
of a locomotive engine, or while acting as conductor of 
driver up6ii any riailroad train or cAr, whether propelled 
by steam or drawn by horses, or while acting fis train dis- 
patcher, or aa telegraph operator receiving ot tiaittmit' 
tlag di^patdi^ in relation to the inevemenlrof ttaliM, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. ' ' • . ' 

8eePol;Code;S|J92a4to. - " ■-'^ ' 

'^2i BVei^ t^«»rs6n who> in making -up orLrannin^ rail- 
tosMf tMifa«,plab€x9brnrtai ofdaoMs'^tobe'plMed'Ifrmn, 
any freight car in the rear of passenger oars/ltt^ifitlli^^tf * 

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|§ 383-9 : Qsnm AoumT rtmuo mBAfjTW. 168 

misdemeanor; and if loss of life orlimb xesults from smsh 
placing or ntnning« is guilty of tekimy. The tsim ^ fvetglit 
ear/' as veed in this seotion» does not inchido a bagga^^ 
express, or mail car* 

393. Every engineer, conductor, brakeman, switch- 
tender, or other officer, agent, or servant of any railroad 
company, who is guilty of any wiiUul violation or ovia- 
sion of bis duty as such officer, agent, or servaat, wbere» 
by human life or siaf ety is endangered, the ponisbment oi 
which is not otherwise prescribed, is guilty of a misde- 

394. Every person who wilifnlly esqposes bimseU or 
another affiieted with any contagions or infections dis<- 
ease, in any public pljace or thoroughfare, except in his 
necessary removal in a manner the least dangerous to the 
pubUc health, is guill^ of a misdemeanor. 

395. !Every person who willfully makes or pnbUsifaes 
any false statement, spreads any falstf runior, or employs 
any other false or fraudulent means jor device, wi^ -in- 
tent to affect the market price x>f any kind of property, is 
guilty of 4^ mABdeEueaniqr. . 

396.- Eve^ person difving any conveyance drttwn by 
horses, upon any public road or Way, who caxfses or -suf- 
fers his horses to run, with intent to pass another convey- 
ance, or to prevent such other from passing his own, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor J 

• 397. Svery person who sel^s or furnishes, or causes to 
be sold cj: furnished, intoxicating liquors to auy^habitual 
or common drunkard pr Indian, is guilty of a nusde- 
mea»D^. {Approved Harah SOth, 1874^ • ^ ^QEeiet sixty 
d^s after passage.] 
See Act of 1872, Sale of Liquors to MlnoiSf ^k^t^v^OXf 9.. 716L;. 

.39& Erery person who sells or furbishes to any In- 
dian ^my drs-asm,vOr. ammuniti^ th^eforji^ guilty 9t 9k 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Hot CKobia AOAdsT ^esxio ttsAxint. §§ dS^AM 

399. If the owner of a miBchievous animal, knowing 
its propensities, willfully suffers it to go at large, or keeps 
It without ordinary care, and such animal, while so at 
large, or while not kerpt with ot^iliary care, kills any hu- 
man being who has taken all the precautions which the 
circumstances^' I^^nnitted, or Jvrhlch a t«a8onal>l»' person 
would ordinarily take in the same situation, is guilty of 
a felony. 

400. Every person who deliberately aids, or advises, 
or encourages another to commit suicide, is guilty of a 
felony. [Approved March 30thi in effect July Ist^ 1374.] 

.. 4PQ. Ev^i^ person exhibiting the deformities of an- 
other, or his own deformities, for hire, is guilty of a mis- 
demeanor; and every person who shall by any artiffelal 
ineaiis give to any person the appearance of a deformity, 
and shall exhibit such person for hire, shall be guilty ot a 
misdemeanor. [Approved J'ebroary 4th, 1874.] 

400. Any person who shall knowingly sell, or offer fox 
sale, or use, or expose^ or who shall cause or procure to 
be sold or offeved for sale, or used, or exposed, any horse, 
mule, or other animal having the disease known as glan- 
ders, or farcy, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. [In ef- 
fect April 16th, 1880.] 

401. Every animal having glanders, or farcy, shall at 
onee be deprived of life by the oWtMt at person having 
eharge thex^of, upon discovery or knowledge of itsioondi- 
tion ; and any such owner or person omitting or refusing to 
comt)iy with 1^ pro^sion of this section shall be guilty of 
a misdemeanor. [In effect April letAi, 1880.] 

401. Every person who adulterates candy, by using in 
its manufacture terra alba, or any other deleterious sub- 
stance or substances, or who sells or keeps for sale any 
eaady or candieS' adulterated with t^a alba, or any 
other deleterioud.subbtance or substances, is guilty of a 
misdemeanor. [In effect March 16th, 1678.] 

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§403^ csqcsa Muaxvt ruBug rjucs. Ii6( 

Of CiimM agaloftt tlie PubUo Paaoeu 

S 403. DlBturbance of pabllc meetings, other than reUgions or polit- 

S 404. "Blo^^defljied. 

S 405. Riot, prnxlahment of. 

S 406. "Bout "defined. "■' 

S4or. ^Vnlawftti assembly "dMned. 

S 408. Ponislunent of ront and unlawful assemblf . 

S 469. Bemslnlng present M place of tk>t; Mo./aCtar waninr to tfi» 

S410. Xw;l8trateeiiefl[!LectlngorrQfafllBgtodlsp9C8«rloten. 

I 411. Ckinsequence of resisting process after a county baa been de- 
clared in a state of insurrection. 

§412. Prizeflgbts. 

S 413. Persons preseot at price flghte.!' 

I 414. Leaving the State to engage in prlzp fights. 

t415. Disturbbig the peace In nl^fai^lme. 

S 41S. B«Ctaliflff to dlqierseup«n l»«rfdl eoniBiWfed* 

S 417. £xblbitli«dM4irwe«poa inr vudQj eto., maoMTf or vfiast tbm 
same unlawf oll7, 

S 418. Forcible entry and detainer. 

I 419. Returning to take possession of lands after Wing remored by 
legal proceedings. 

S420. Inciting riot. CRepealed.] 

403. Every penon wbo»^ without aathority ol law, 
wiUloUy diBtarbs or.bre»k9 ap any aAaeml^ly or moetiiis, 
not unlawful in its (Character, other Ahan auch aa I4 meuT 
tioned iiu sections fifty-nine and three httn4red and two, 
is guilty of a misdemeanor 

Disturbing meetings.— A disturbance of any public meeting ts» at 
edmuon law, indlctolSle^SS Barb. 548; ^ Qnuit xsSb, 400; M tnd.- 68f- 53 
Me. 125: 2 McCord, 117; a Tex..Gt. App. 116; as a town meeUng— la 
Mjiw. 385 ; or a meeting of School alre^tonM» 3Pa. St. 208. TO molest 
aud disturb taaye a well-de^ed meaiOog— 03 Ala. 398. .The natural 
tendency of the act must be to disturb ilie assemblage— 28 Ind. 964; 
Smith (Did;) 408; and Xhe dltturbanca mUstiUs willfuL and desisao^ 
1 Gray. 480. A man inay hiss im actor on the stage— 5 Tex. Ct. Anp. 
116; 1 Oraw. * D. ifiS: but not nr the purpoSaf ef ralnlBf tHe play or 
the actor— 2 Camp. 868. 

d by Google 

rlf9 .p^iMii»4(CUU|r»?:#'f5^^o,]^ ^ S<IVt# 

4b04w Aiigr ^me o£' force or ^<^noe; dlstnrbiiig the pub- 
lic p6«KM, oi dnir threat to u§e ioioii lotce or Yiole&cd, if 
^jMscoi^panied hj ixnta^di^te; poWez* of pt^iaa^on, hy tyro 
or more persons acting together, and without authority oif 
jlaw,:is:aEiot.' .-.■ :••■.' -i- ■ ' . 

Hiot.— Rloiia a tuiDuUuoua ijlaturbance of the peace by persona a«- 
semblei;] of ihelr o^vii axithority, with Int&nt of putting thrlr tlcs-Igns 
' iut^:) esecutluii Jtl » vMtntiiiuaint;!:, wtaetJjeir tbu ubjt^iiit; bo iavr furor 
unlawful--? Blackf. atij; AJtlw. UiO; 1 Hill, (3. C.):3ui; 5 ILL ItMJ; iii hi. 
I(i7 ; 4 »u|. ftrtJhj 10 i«1. 45LI: 4 J til. 27 J; JO Mass. 5lB: 2 McCoihI. H7! <SN. 
If* &i; i IUcJIp SJT; KlcerS.'i^j. Tlicro uiusc bo farco oi- vloLcuco, of acta 
. t^'uttimr tu^retis autl calculatedi to atriko tenor Into the peojjlfi— 10 
Mass.^le? 11 Xmh UliJi 33 Me. 454; 2 La.Kajm, I2tt>i 4 Lar. & P. 373; 
«ud if ona nerfiuji be nUrmoU It la byfficiHjit— AcitUH. 217; 1 finear, 13: 
T KlcU. 5. It li euuogb it tUO uctlou ai tho ]iiai ties be so violent and 
fcuiDultiiouB AS to h& likely io raubre fiif^it, uiid jf individual ai& 
frlglitenod— T Klrb. jy; 1 Suear* L3; by tlueatenlu^ lan^^iLL:i;{0 or otUer 
mlibelisTlor— 72 N- G. ^5l iJ FJdK ti^; and an att^nipt lu coLomtt an act 
of viokio.ce^7[t >% C. i.-<i; Vmt personal vjolcnico uce*U not bo coininltt^d 
. —2 Camp. 3tS I nud tin? art Uocio or atteinpttxl 1j£3 unlawful— 14 Mo. 
147 ; aa disturbing n un?etl!iK" lawfully liekl— 1 Oi-ay, 476. tLven n lawf al 
9X2 1 may be ihiim In uucb u violeuc U2id tumult uo us uiana^er as to cour 
atltute a ilot-4J Tiid, 'iT3; iO K. C. m; il 111. Zm; sco 19 Me. 34^; i 
^er£r. &;iJv- I mil, <S. G.) ^tfj'tf; U 3do. 117; aa removing a nulsaiiGe^ XIL 
nil; 11 Rlcli. 33 i orxitlslUij a lib erty polo—Addis. Si ji. 

Tbo aBsemblagf.— The asseniTilae^ must lio imlawful— I Ired. SOj yet 
an iiincf'ejit usstnibly may beeomo riotous by siibstitniiejit rJ0Cau!!t acta 
— i Mi^UoriL 111; JS Me.34!ij 42 Irjd. 27;i; 61 111. ^^tl; 70 N. C. 6£i; and per- 
acin3 Intentimg only a froliCt may ho cbaugo their course as to commit 
ft riot— T filch. 5; as fnlMbehavinj^at a (Jame— 13 Lid, 2tiO ; or dlaordcrlr 
beliavloratatmvn-meetins— mshisii, 3^s6i bo a charivari— 4 Ind, 114; by 
making' nol3e3,ctc.,lnthonigbt'time— lih;orgQlngthroughthestrect3 
cxyluz " fire," bloivlng horns, etc., or kicking a foot-ball In a noisy and 
tuxnuTtuous manner, to the terror of the People— It Ico, ^57. In Korth 
Carolina, whei'e tho assemblagfvls la wfiu, subsequent illegal acta of 
tbo members will not malte tlieui rloters^l Ircd, 30. 

IV^nmb^r^ engag0d.~At c<»nmon law three or more persons most 
concmr tocpns^tute thaoffen8e-4 Blacky. 72 : 9 Ind. fiw: 10 id. 4S»; U 
Id. 287; G^lackf. ^2*/Oa. 478: 30 id. 27; 3 Yerg. 428; 8 Bieh. SSf: 2 
Spear. S99:iA8bm. 46; 1 Bay, 358: 2 McCord. 462; Salk. 693; Holt. 636; 
9%urr, pmi 1 h^ 9ayiB.48«; » Car. A P.>is sea 4$ma.^Z; 51 6a. 
874. A riot may be committed wheire only two jHsrsohd are actively 
engaged. If a tnud yetson Is present aidiag and atjettiiig ttiem-^ Mo. 
654} 80 Ga. 37.. Cantra, .1 Morris. 142. Tbe disturbance of the publio 

?e£tee fnu^t belh tneexectitfon 6t dome private object-^ Bpaar, 899; 
Blch.837; 23LawBeporter,705. 

405^ Every person who participates, in an^ riot is 

^tmishablii "hf iiiiprisonttieuo in the c6itnty Jail not ex- 

ice^id^g ftwd yeatt, orby fiue not exceeding two^tlM>b»and 


Liabillt7 of parties.— Rlot-JtcwBiMmawnaa litiMHitntaXB^ pamUt^ 
able by fine and impri8onment-6 Car. ft P. 81. All who encourage 

Fev. Cona-lS. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^40^10 eteaaa kOAJ^BT TXSB^ia vB±jo^ HO 

, bt ga!U 

406. Whenever two or more persoan, aafe^nibl^d mnd 
ftctiiig tog«Uieir,' itta^e* att jr attempt or adirittce toward ih» 
eommiBsioii of an act which would bO' a riot if aetnail/ 
committed, auch. assembly 13 a ront. . 

Ront-^A dl8tart)ttiee of ^hepel^e V]rpenoii»aa9ei&bttiMnHth Intent 

law at leabt three persons are necessaxy to ebnstltiite tbe oCeBse-*! 
Hawk. F. 0. eb. 65. s 1. Wliere tbereqajiite number bf persons meett 
stake money, and propose to engage m « prlze-fightt it is a roat~3 
Spear, 099: and an present aiiling and encoaraglng are equally gollty— 

. . 407. Whenever two or more persons assemble to^t^their 
to do an unlawful aotj and setparate without doing or ad- 
•vaBcing toward it« or do a lawful act in 'a violent, boister- 
ous, or tumultuous manner, such assembly is an unlawful 

ITnUwfa'l asBomblr.— At common law it is an assemblage of three 
or more persons ^tn intent to do that whicn If doilQ would make 
them rioters, but making no motion toward doing th6 act-^IB He. sift: 
jMcCord. ll7« SBarn. ^Ald, sSs; i Car. A P. mTs 14. 151; 9 id. 431l6 
Up. Can. C. P. 972; as an assembly to witness a prue-ilght—2 Car. A r, 
23i; 4 id. 637; or ap assemblage met to go nlgbt-poacmng-^ Car. A P. 
871. To Gonstltate the offense no overt act of violence is necessanr— 
tip. Can. C. P. 872. Persons lawfully assembled may become an.unlaw- 
fui assembly if their conduct becomes such as would have made th6m 

runlawf ia_assembly at the ontset-lSMe. 346: 2 McCordi 117} 1 HiU. 
C. 862: SYerg. 02»; 4 Pa. L. J. 33; and see M Mo. 147; 8 StartL 79; 9 
Car. & P. 91. 

408. Bv^y persdn wha participates in any rout or un- 
lawful assembly is guilty of amisdemeai^or. 

LiabiUty of partle8.~All present aiding are eanaliy gollty^ie Han. 
«9; I Koot, 275; 8 Mon. 216. . 

. 40S|. Jlyevjr p^inoii i^i9%iulug present ajb the plaos- of 
apy ript, rout,* or unlawful assMnbly, af tjer the ^ame h9f 
be^ Ja^ttlly earned to di^p^i^se,' except pubUp f^poen 
and persons assisting them in attempting to dl^^peisai the 
aame^ is gaiilty^. a misdeineaBOB. : 

41f>; . If a ma^strate or officer, having notice of ai» tt^ 
laWfttl or lifptouv assembly, mentioned in thia idiaptei^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

171 0BI1UB8 AQSXSN TUBIJC TJUOM., Si 411-0.4 

neglects to proceed to tlie place ot a38eml)ly, or ^ neat 
thereto as lie can with jsaf ety, and to exerci9e the author- 
ity with which he la invested for suppressing, the same 
and arresting the offenders, he is guilty of a misdemeanor. 
Suppression of riots.— A justice of the peace is liable for not trying 
to sapprees a riot-1 Teates, 419; so, to refuse to aldaa officer in tryinl 
to suppress a xlot is an offense-see 9 Mo. 268; AdcUs. 277 ; 1 Car. » l£ 

411. A person who, after the publication of the proc- 
lamation authorized' by section seven hundred and thirty- 
two, xesista oraids in. resistii^ the execation of process 
in any county declared to be in a state of insurrection, or 
who aids or attempts the rescue or escape of another from 
lawful custody or confinement, or who resists, or i^ids in 
resisting any force ordered out by the governor to quell 
or suppress an insurrection, is punishable by Imprison- 
ment in the State prison not less than two years. 

See ante, S li8 ; post, 731. 

412. Every person who enga^s in, instigates, en- 
courages, or promotes any ring or prize fight, or any 
other premeditated fight or contention, (without deadly 
weapons) either as principal, aid, second, umpire, sur- 
geon, or otherwise, is punishable by imprisonment in the 
State priSQU not exceeding two.years. 

BHampb.519:5Yera.85tf:13Ga. 322; 93 Ala. 640; 10MaS8.618L6J.J.JiIar. 
616; see 15 Anc. 904 ; either actual orMesumptivetefroi«-« Strob. 69; » 
Ala. 392. TbereinustbeactaalfigbUDSbyatleasttwopersoDS— 63AJa. 
610; 1 Blackf. 377; 5 Yere. 366; 4HuEph. 429; S6e 4 HaWks^Mi^^S. 
Itt. It Includes flSsanlLiina taatter3r-40 IncL 18; S. q. 1 Oreen a 3^ 
SM; S3 Ala. 640; 15 ArkT 204. The place of fighting mustlbe pnbllc-2l 
Ala. 218; 22 id. 15; 13 Ga. 322; 3 Heisk^ 278} IBtrolS 53; 8 HumplK 84^22 
Ind.206. . . . . T 

LiahiUtyflf partiei.«^A]l persons present, aiding .and encbiuaglnffi 
are eqiaaiy gnUty— IS Ckk 323; 16 BCais«388; 1 Boot* 275; 3>Mon. Si6: see 
n N. 0. 288. 'Bvery person concerned in a duel is equally reftponsiolfr- 
»Leigtk.603. Astostt«8eon8-fc«ee24 eratt.624. - 

413. Every person willfully present as o spectator at 
any fight or eontiention mentioiiect in t|ie preceding sec- 
tion, is guilty of a xpis4^ineiai»>r. 

4^4. Byeory paji^n li^J^o leaver thiti '8^, With ^tent' 
'to md^ any of the provisions of the last, two section^' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

ttnd^c) TSomntit any act out of thiA State, 'snci as !s pro- 
Eibited by them, and whb does any act iyliich would be 
punishable under t^ese provisions, if conjinitted within 
thidlState, ts pttnlshable in tbe same manner as he Would 
have Ibeon in case such act had been committed within this 
State. •*'•■-•••' 

Leaving ^tate to fight a4aeL-T4- challenge^tq flsbt in anpthes-State 
15 t>enAUf cofl'ttizaWe m tbe State la-trtifch tlie cfikUengie Is Issued— 3 
Brev. 24dr Jl Treacl. :^7; 5» iG^ 332; 1 Hs^wks,;^x aee 1% Akh V6i 2 
Camp. 60b; nor Is It necessary to prove tiiattneciwlenge ever reached 

ito de8tlii0tion-»r3 Canpu hOfk Tho oflEensels iCODtlnittnis aad la triable 
in the State where the chaUenge issued-^Thach. C. C. 3iK): 3 Brev. 

4l5r/ Every person who ipaliciously and willfully dis- 
turbs the p6ace of an^ neijghborbood or person, by loud 
or unusual noise, or by. tumultuous or ofi^ensive conduct, 
or threatening, traducing, qjaarreling, challenging to. 
fight or fighting, or who, on tlie public streets of any un- 
incorporated town, or upon the j^ublic highways in such 
unincorporated town, riin any horse-race, either for a 
wager or for amusement, or fires any gun or pistol in such 
unincorporated town, or use any vulgar, profane, or in- 
decent language within the presence or hearing of women 
or children, in a loud and boisterous manner, is guilty of 
a misdemeanpr.; and upon conviction by any court of 
competent jurisdiction, shall be' punished by fine not ez^ 
ceeding two hundifed dollars, go: by imprisonm^trt in the 
county for not more tlian ninety days,, or by both fine 
and lmpTi8<>nment^ or either, at the disaretdon of the odurt, 
011 effect MarohJOtiilOTS.] ' . "' , w. 

Breach of peace.— All acts tending to disturb the pabUc peace kn 
UMKsMO^ afbammontukV^-^-wo i B&ii. O.U^hM.% mfi acts ftv 
wbiciitiie nsneeandaeoitity of thb pnbUo are ^igtiirbed*4eo-4 BL 
- GoiA.i4S.._TlimrenMdiio«ba8ach coBdnctasamountato assault $siff 
battery— 2d Conn. 7z. XbA f oUoiriSff am esanplfi^ ol tbe oCatiaa at 
common law: Making loud noises, etc., in the nigbt*time— 4 Indl 114; 
Uwcl aid Tiatantlanguicnv oppro^iaona epitlwtri(aod.exclUiatftHiaat- 
tractifig crowds, even when, committed in one's QWn'hou8e-i99 Mass. 
497.' ' TBe ^offeUsetof a'cetBiaon' bt»#l«ip itiat w ^edJuAaStM' w td^ ' 
epithets nsed in tbe heat of pTiw^,qaafsnlrr^ Mass^AW.. D»vini 
carriiu;e through the streets ataTfatSTOBr a»^ eiSdahp^*^ '^ ° 

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€QMlUMi0iiig:«o 4lght4*4s ibd SncmngfXiT. Inviting, or iproToUBg; an- 
other to fi^t— Hob. 21ft. A challeoffo to figb t wUhoat 4l«adly •we&pate 
Ir-tai^temefM Mjoa^nm^or aa .vbreacU of tbe P*eacp--^reT>8ij| : 1 
Hawk8.4»r; JxSW5epoftiKl48j 34 trTm; 1 l53iiar«I. Kb paKtiSIar 
^omof < wdrifl tf oeeeaBasyJtdfl a qaeetion of feet for,tlKf qnr->m 4i4* 
276; see 3JDaiia.418: «J. J.>Iarsli.l20; I HawksrJsT: C BlacRf.20; S^rey. 
243; 1 M^MoS. i26:-bttt4h& mend Words Uir.krtarb, or ttielUc^/cfotiot 
directly tend ta» breadv of tbe peace, as » qhalieoge, but words which 
tend tdaWSaShof the peateina^e IttffldtableS-r Dina; fiM .-' TLd. 
BayiaflOUk'66oS«ity^C]:iii>4^wli«Oft^ m** . . vT '^ 

•'ACalicioQSl/'* and «<ii^Uj^aij."n^6|9 ajt/e^ S.7»4Ubd. 4} i^ piffxt ^ 

416. ^ If twp pi .more p^^r^oota^aemb^p fo^ the piwiipse 
of disturbing the public peace, or committing any unlaw- 
ful act, and do not disperse on being desired or com- 
manded so to do by a public officer, the persons so offend- 
ing are severally guilty of a misdemeanor. 

417. Every person who, not in necessary self-defense, 

in the presence of two or more persons, draws or exhibits 

any deadly weapon in a rude, angry, and threatening 

manner, or who, in any manner, unlawfully uses the 

same, in any fight or quarrel, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Exhibiting weapons.— The appearance In pnbUc, armed with a dan- 
geroos weapon. Is an indictable offense— 3 Ired. 418. 

418. Every person using or procuring, encouraging or 
assisting another to use any force or violence in entering 
upon or detaining any lands or other possessions of an- 
other, except in the cases and in the manner allowed by 
law, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

ForCiiMo entry and detainer.— A forcible entry and forcible detain- 
er ik Ijidlctable &t cbmirtDti luw— 3 Mo. fH!; 4 CuBh- Ul ; 6 T^ttn. Bep. 
Vt7i_^ Bmt. 1731; and tit^y aradlstLucE oQenacft— a Cowen. 23; i HaU* 
N. y. 24fl; 4 JolitiJ!. l^fS: \ Joues. i'H. C.) :!M: 1 Strg. A R. IJJ; U I J- ^3.*; 
s QratL T08' IiK^lctrncDt Uic^a wueDov^r the unlawful entry U made 
with force— 3 Urev. i\:\: 2 Const, S* C 4b9. Tho entry mu5t have beea 
madQ when tbtj proprietor was In ijuiet poBsc^fon wf tho property— 9 . 
Ired* aiii a liar, (DeU 2tiiiz I Ashnu*i must lie uttended with' 
force nml lntlmld:*tluiv— I Astun. UWf but tltla Ja ijn material— ICotm* 
79; 1 I>all.e8; ft CQwea, 21^; I ila.ih 2i^l 4 Jobm. \mi t3 Up.Csn. Q. 
Bt 0fll ; 4 Man. A R. *7l. Forc<?i la neiitasfary, eicet-ding a btiro tre'p|iafia, 
vad givinif loasonablQ grouucla tor terror; It) IrcO. 3U; I A&luTi. ilO: 1 
BPewst.fttJ&; I liaj. (Dch>ft2W; S Blim- JT;: 4 IreiL 305; bUl.ih^; I J Id* 
S4S; I Jone3»(N,L\> iH&; 1 Mo. 2*^; 5 Car. <fcP*20i; Eyan A M» 27. TLicro 
mu5t bo a etiaw of f (jrcPt as wltli wcaiwofl or n nitilticucto ol people^ so 
as to Involve a breach Qt Um peiice— 2* B«rb. H3j 10 irecL 3!*; V BaXU 
iXenil. ) i^i 7 Id* Idl); i Jaiie^, (K. V.) ill6. Lu sani^ ^^.tat^a^ a civil rem^ 
edy U given bjr statute— lo >L:i^. 40li^ a i'lf:k. ai ; i) ^Vend. tij; a Co wen, 
226; I Jola^*. Utg; t^ut U reii;al]U Ati incUc table QJIeime ixk thiom Statet 

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^ 419-<20 t«DfB8 xaABUvt votaao nuoH. (S9ft 

'i^ort th6 most sniuBttihrtsl^U rtine<068 vn nm— # BIbB* STTt I lOnr* 
119; 2 Dov. 120; S Bar. (Dko 206; 8 Mass. 2ll; 1 Me. «. flee II Pa. St. 
-M; tat «ee S Pars. Gas. 4U. flee Deaty^ Gdia. Imiw,U » b» ei mA tee 

CL9. Every person who. has been remored from any 
lands by process of law, or who has remoFod '£rom. anj 
lands pursuant to the lawful adjudication or directlQu of 
any court, tr^, or officer, and Who afterwards unlaw- 
fully returns to settle, reside u^n, or taloe possaasion of 
nuch lands, is guilty of a tnUidemeanor. - ' 

420.' Bepealed. [In efleet February^Tth, 1880.] ^ 

» I ; , I 

.)• • • 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

ItB CBuas ukoAnm lUEvarafc 


Qf Crimes ag^dnst the HeveHue^ aiad Trop^ct^ ai 
tiiis State. 

S 424. Einbesstomeiit and faUUlcatioii of public offlcera. 

$,42S. Officers neglecting to.payoTer public moneys. 

r¥2& '<Fiii>Ucmoileys,*'tis used in the preceding section, defined. 

S 427. FaUnre to pay over fines and f oif eitnreft i«oeiired; a mJsda 

I 428. ; Ol)Btsaot|ng offlcer in collecting revenue. . , . . 

S 429. Refusing to give assessor list of property, or giving false name. 
S 430. Making false statements, not under oath, in reference'to taxes. 

II 43r.'. t^eUve^rtaig receipts for i^ll^'taxesi othev «b*ii prtoortbed- by 

law, or collecting polMaxei^ 6te,» wlttaml gMDf tbeiBMl^fe^ 
,prfwr|be4bylaw. • : /, - 

S 4?2. paving blank receipts for Ucenso^, e^, oth^t t|iaa tbpqe pre- 
scribed by lawJ 

S 433. nepeaeO. 

% 434. Refusing to give name of personf in ei|iplojUUwtr'«teJ - ■ 

I 439» eanrixigoBbasinefliwldwiiAUeeiiye. 

$436. Unlawfully acting as anctbmeer. 

S 437, ^^epefUe^, 

S 438: Repeated, 

$4». Itffecttag tostgtece en accqunt «f f oteift n ^ o iBi i aniwqirt |uw» 
> iofreoi]Bpllea«tthttelsin«£tbtt8tM6.: ,. 

S 44ft. Officer charged with collection,. «t9.» of .reven^ cefosing to 
per^Ut inspection of his books. 

S 44l. Board, of examinees, controller, and trcKastercr neglecting cep> 
* 'tain* duties. ♦'.'■■ 

VML ^BfttttgittatetflttkrOttl •• 

S44S. Belling State arms, etc 

. 4i4» i'. -Bacli oflM»! ofit^tfl State^ or, of ai^y comity, 
'SX%^ twrtiy or difttf itet c?f tbia Stjate, $i|^ jsrv6ryx)tlw)fl^p«r8(^ 

charaed' tvitli thl» i<deeipt, sal e^keepioi;, 'traiiaferr oe dti- 

ebmaement o£ public xBone^rs,' wW «itb^c— i . 

V % .^JWtJIuHrt 4ipthor|ty of la^, i^pp^bpxlatcls th^.i^fijta©; <ff 

pi,B};|»o^«lrili.cff0of^ to hifl'OiKni va^ ob tbthe^ufleoC aa- 

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fai2# cmtmfB.jGMsmcwmwmm^ iff 

2. Loans the same, or any portion thereof; or, haTinir 
the jKMMession or control of any pablic money, makes a 
profit out of, or uses the same for any porpose not author- 
izedbylaw; or 

3. Fails to keep the Same 'id his ^possession until dis* 
t^u^M4orpf^^outb]ra^thorB7of law; or, ^ ^ 

4. XJnlawf ally deposits the saxne^ or any portion thereof, 
in any bank, or with any banker or other person; or, 

5. Change or converts any portion thereof from cola 
into currenoy^ or from currency into coin or other cur- 
rency^ without iSfithority of la^i or, 

6. Knowingly keeps any false account, or makes any 
false entrj pr erasure in any account of oi telstllng' to tiie 
same; or, . . 

7* Fraudulently aitjMs^ f alaifies» conceals, destrpys, or 
HbUtsrstei any snoh account; or, 

8. Willfully refuses or omits to pay ofer, on demand, 
any pulilic moneys in his haiidR, upon the pi^entation'of 
a draft, order, or warrant drawn upon such monesrs by 
competttBtJMiifaoiiitgr; or, 

9. Willfully omits to traasfsF th» same, when such 
transfer is required by law; 6t, ■ =- - 

IOl Willfully omits or refuses to pay over to any officer 
«r pBRmL a^odaed by law to receive the saime, apy 
money received by hiia ' Under any duty imposed by law 
so to pa# over the Same; . . ' . 

.. — Js punishable by. izoprisonment in the ^at^ ptison for 
not less than one nor more than ten years, and is disqual- 
ified from holding any office in this State* [In effeat April 
16th, 1880.] . -J . . 

Fraini and broacb of trast^AnofQco t:9 a particular duty, f&org^. 
Of trnst; a rlRht toexpfrhpni pnbiic fmictEon— Ti liKl. ft95i; 7kL Iftfi 69 
^Ai», iJ'i, frud t>> f r^mmltHH/ f i>ulI ur brc'^tli qI tru^t aHectLQg tbo pub- 
lic, lA intlktiiblP'-sfe 2 Wbart. C L. 8tb cJ. ^J K-s: j ii. A tonnirt itto- 
tlTB Ij (^jyseiLtJiil to cciliatltutti tlia offf^pAt— U B. Hon- 171; 1 L^i^tt, T06; 
Ifi Wcnci, Ti i ; J Duim. 4Jij; 1 Term. lit n, (iSS. Thu carli^tence oif a tUQtlve 
may i»e Uirrrrrd iKnii f tiQ narui'e ortliQ ncttor frotutbocti^uituftiaiMi 

Tjlfl tor ftnhezi le m f! L, t fl r puhl j c f 51D (Is- ti') H^. '22 *, or tb© GoavBTBloii of 

aiiQiUfyntly wltbliold^ money boiotifflng t 
I U galley of contempc^i Blockl. itid. An ludlctBueut lies sg 

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Si^^neana ills eS^ika are!lu!ble'o?^evofflciUD^a-- 

' -' i ■ ' ■ I . ' . » ;-. • , ■ ... i. ' /If , , L . , . T 

JSlubd. 5. In Gkotsiai a comity treasurer, buying |in order on the 
cmmty for mbs than Itsiwr^ikltte/isiiiaictableM? Oa; 522. * ' ' 

£fiiM. 6. Officers aro liable for a babitoat negleet- to «ib<J0iitife ibr 

iSruSdJ fO;' ■ TffWh tax odUedoM' iah pmie MB«^su«?«(^ IM; ami 

Is not presumption ox a felonious appropriation— M^caf. 6l. Reports 
of public moneys received bm>I«' to mHUstemr omb$if»^% T«x« Ot. 
App. 525. A selectman is a pubUc officer, and laay be'a.i;ecei!rer of 
public money8-58N.H. 610. See 62 ID. 127: .-^-r^ 

425. JfcVery officer charged w;th tke receipt, iSafeieep- 
Ing, or disbursement of pt0bli6 tnon^Vs, wHo neglects or 
fails tok^iep and^ pay oVer the s^me in the manner pre^' 
scribedbylaw, is guilty of ffel6ny." ' 

426. Th^ phr«Mie " pi^bliQii^o^ji^ys,',' a^, ii^dLiln th^ two 
preceding sections, includes all bonds and evidencfs pf.ln* 
debtedn6ii» laod aU monessra belongln^ita th6 StatBt«r any 
fotfy^^QicatlCiyriowiki oi^idlstriot tberiain, and «ll:m<H(&9r8, 
bondfty and eiTidenees pf :ind«bt^dne8fk^r9«eived or bAl4 bjp) 
9tate^ OGonliy, dl9tziat,;clt74 <>^rtowA o^^m ^ thei?:o^« 
cial capacity. > • ' : ^ . 

427. If any clerk, justice of the peace, ahertd, «i^ (»»i« 
stable, vt^ tebeftes^any fine ov iloif eitmoi ir«f neeji o^ tieg- 
leetB ^Vffr tfae'daiM^coerdHng' kotlair, and iHtfain 
ihJisty<dMy» af tet-tbe^ reeei^ CiieMO^ Ue Ui gamy ef a wiH 

428«: t ^ifreiy^pMsoaiim^bo wiUfttUy; Qb9tiu^.«ii hinders 
«iiy pubUff '«fiPl<Qei^ ivQWb oeilfletlq« «nyi TeyaniiA^ «tiaceBy ^ 
otilMf <9«ti^ dC moneyiio. i^biQbiite p«i^<<)£ tibi» S^tft «r& 
iiil«r^sted> aod<)wbklij 9vic)i.,9li<ief i». by law..epnp<>D^$ire^ 
toQcOJesstilajruUtgEiolSk^iademefincrr^ .-.i..:., 

429. Every person who unlawfttfly teMse^r; til^h"^ 
mtmdiUt iil7et0ftii9»e»Htty^a8Miof 4ir }tet|oC^)ft|)repeity 

Digitized bfVjOOQlC 

to any assessor, when demanded "by such a9sessor in the 
dischiEirge of his official duties, is guilty oCa misdemeanor. 
Bee Pol. CkMie» ss «a&i aeau 

43(X £yer J person who, in making an j.ttkatelnexity not 
upon oath, oral, or written, whlbh is required p9^, author* 
ized by Ism to be made» as the %a6i85[)£ imposing an(y tax 
or assessmeut) or of s,t appUcation to' reduce any tax or 
assessment, 'willfully states anything <irhich he knows to 
be false, is guilty ol a misdemeanor. 

Bee Pol. eoae, SS M2»-«m,i»74, S6t5» 

43X. Every person, who uses or g^ves aijy receipt« c^x- 
cept that prescribe^ by law, as evidence of the payment 
of any poll-tax, road-tax, or license of any kind, pr who 
receives payment of such tax or license without deliver- 
ing the receipt prescribed by law, Or who inserts the name 
of mere than one person therein, is guilty of a misde- 
ineanor. ' 

Bee PoL Code, Lleeoses^ SS saOMStes Sevennii, SI 2&a-Mm.\ 

432;' Every pierson* Who has in his p<>s8eeaioli,'wtth in- 
tent to circulate orsell', any blauk licenses b^ poll-tax re* 
celpts other thani these furnished "by the <eontrolIer of 
stato <A county auditor, is guilty of felony. 

£e^]^ €006,1$ S83d-38f&. , . •, , • » r- . .. 

43a [Waa {repealed hyt son aot < exsfcHted V uyn. Mt to 
amend tend .in irelatioiA'.to' Tmm "SoUTWMiii lOiyu^ and 
FttiDAii Contti). and Tbs Oo]>i^t o« ' Gx^osi »£lt0CiElDVBii^" 
approved April first, eighteen hundred and seventy'twcw 
now on file in the office of the secretary .of Btaibt] . v 

434. Bvery p^on if ho, When i«(|ti«Mt^ by the^ool- 
lector of tales tft licefiSeSy refused to giV« to'sacli< edUftCtov 
the name and residentie df ekol^ man -in bis ^tit|yl09(ment, 
or to glve«ueh collection «eeess to^ tlw bttilding or {Aaea 
where such men are employed^ is guilty of a^miftdenieaBor. 
.a#e.JP6l.Co4^M-»«^P«t.. .;,.,. . -r .! r: 

- 435. . BvcQr|r>pen«n.wbo Dommencesrorcarrieaon an^ 
, ImdivprfifiusicNn or 4mlili|g, ior tte lBran«a0|biKMk 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

179 i6saikita tojjintriugvtMtL §§ <id5:4a 

or carryfn^ On of ^Mcli' a Ucfib^se'ifl re^ttttyab^iAay laW 
of this State; \^^liOtittEikirig<yat or ^roonrlttg'tlM lioe&M 
prescribed by such law, is gailty of a Misdemeanor. 

claiming tbat he comes wlfMft tUe pfoDiDitidd'of tire above ae«-« Fae. 
O. ii«jru& BeImittt9fl9ra^oanfi6t*4d. ftay tif/h <K)de» l^k^mtm, SS 

436. Every person who acts as an auctioneer in viola- 
tion of the laws of this State relating to auctions and 
auctioneers, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

See PoL Code, SS 8284-3293, me. 

437. [Bepealed by Act of April first, eighteen hundred 
and seventy-two.] 

438. [Bepealed by Act of April first, eighteen hundred 
and seventy-two.] 

439. Every person who in this State procures, or agrees 
to procure, any insurance for a resident of this State, from 
any-insurance company not incorporated under the laws 
of this State, unless such company or its agent has filed 
the bond required by the laws of this State relating to in- 
surance, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

See PoL Code, S 623. 

440l Every officer charged with the collection, receipt, 
or disbursement of any portion of the revenue of this 
State, who, upon demand, fails or refuses to permit the 
controller or attorney-general to inspect his books, papers, 
receipts, and records pertaining to his office, is gtdlty of a 
misdemeanor. , 

441. Every member of the board of ezaminexs, and 
e^ery controller or State treasurer, who violates any of 
the provisions of the laws of this State relating to the 
board of examiners, or prescribing its powers and duties^ 
is guilty of a felony. 

See PdL Code, SS 664-68ft. 

442. Every person who unlawfully retains in his pos- 
smsion any arms, equipments, clothini;, or military stores 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

'• 4^l£ Brery.meoifaev ol tli^.lBtofto mUitM^.who nulaW- 
fpUjr disposes cxf a^y axins, eii^piktenlts, dothiiiff, or mili- 
tary stores, thopK^ertrof thisfitatik or of any ooiopanj 
o£ tho State xnilitiai is guilty of a misdemeanor* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Of Crixnefl against Property. 
Qkap. I. AB80N, $$ 447-55. 


TTT HAYDra posssauoic of Buaglab^ous Instbu- 


V. Larceny, §§ 484-502. 
YI. EKBEazT.mncT^, §§ 50d-U. : 
VH. ExTO&TiON, §§ 518-25. 

VUL BaLSX PlE&SONATION AND OttBAn, |$ 528-86. 
YeBSIOS, §§ 539-41. 
X. Fbauduljently KEBPiNa PossxanoN ov 

WBaCKBD PrOPBBXY, ii 544r5. 

XI. Fbaudulbnt destruction or Pbopxbty In« 

BT7BXD, §§ 548-9. 

XTL FaIiBB Wxiohtb and Mxasubbs, $§ 552-6. 
XTTL FnAUDUiJiiNT Insolyxncibs by Cobpobations, 


§§ 557-72. 


TO Mebghandise, §§ 577-83. 
XY. Maxjcious Injubies TO Bahaoad Bbidges, 

Pee. GOD&— 10. 

d by Google 

447-8 AB80N. *!&• 

i ARsok.' 


$447. 4xK»k, dAAasd. , .. w , -i 

S 448. "feulldiiig" defined. ' ^ 

S449. "Inhabited building''- defined. , . 
-. i 45^.. ,"?jrij;JiHUne" deflneii. ' ' ^ ' ; 

S 45i. '«]&uriiffig" dddnMi * ' ' ' 

S'432. 'OwiiefrsWpof tbfebnlldiHif. • »' ' 

S 4J3. Degrtfes oC «rsvn.' : 

L I 49il{ .Ara^^i»f tiie fii^B^ degreie^ . 4xsQji of ^^e.secon^ ^egree. 

S 456. I»unl8hment of arson. , ., 

447. Arson is theiirillfta and malioiovfl.btirniiig of a 
building, with intent to d^stfoy it, - : . I 

Arson defined.— Arson Is the wHlfu] and mallcloua Uumipg of tbo 
house of anoLhuT— r-il C:il. 3'20j 12 liiiiih,243i a Ired, riO; IS.Tolins, I15j 
I J VC. 9^ f U Ut>.^ Can. C. P. m. It la a ciiiiiQ ^ali^st the aecurJiy of the 
dwellliig'-ljouso as suRh, and thejposaes.slon, and notajjalnsit the hulild- 
ing as imip* rty— 44 CaLlM; 2(JMkh. lOti: 1 Green O.K. 547: 2yconm 
mi «E^o5^AJa.367i 13 liusli.243; 3 Tred-fiTyj 2Jolma,105; 01 Mo, £76; 
IS) K. Y. 5:37; 71 N. C 61^. Thu of the property 13 not an ckmetit— 
53 Ala. 345. Malice ftntl willf ulaKSs are osseotial ing^fuJitJits, and iio 
uegliifence and iiilschanfie can make une ijnilty~l].4 Miiia. im; 49 Ala. 
'^Ti litthoujj^h done In the pursuance of au ille^^l aut'— & Ired. SSO; unless 
in tlj,e eoininlaslou of a ftilouj^— 15 111, 61(i; but it Is not necessary that 
there be a desiifu to produce death— 53 M! as. 3H4^ IParfcer Cr»K.B60; 
15 Win. 13, Malice Impllca an evil ami malicious Inteiit:^ however jg^ea- 
€ral— J Chit* C. L. 1120; a.?t where tbo design H to hum one boaso and 
he bnm* another— 33 Vt, 15fi; and the ar t wllich jeeults in Unrnliman- 
other'a liDuae need not be afelonlouiJaet— ^liist y. V. ItJ3D, JWJl. TTbo 
Intent must be maliclotis— 2fl Mlsa, 100: a li:a,Ht V. (J. 1033; or, to Injure 
or defraud— 32 Cal. ItRi; 37 Id. '^74; 73 N. €. fi.W; aa, an insurance com- 

\Jl U.(.:XLflU.l| U^ l^ai. JUL', Ul JU. ^|^, 1 IJ i.1 . V'. il-T^j, CIO, dU. i [li^U 1. l.l.ll(J12 Il^UIU- 

pany-sl N. II. 17ti; ly K. Y. 537; 1 1 arkcr Cr. II, fidO; and a |}OS?ll>Oity 
of fraud Is sufllclent— 1 Whan. C. L. mh eO. S B43. See generally, 114 
Mass. 272; 2S Ala. 71; Jliiss. & E. C, C. 13=^; 4 J'ost. & F:m2. TliougU 

It need not bo to tninre or derrand nny particnlar person— I^w K- 1 U. 
C. 344* The intent may bo ijiftjn ed from the laji^a— &1 t:aL 4ijfi : M Ala, 
345; 51 Ga, Ct3i fi3 Me. 123; 12 l.a. An. 385; 1 1^ Mass. 3,*i4 ; l(iMet.422; 
41 Tex. 6L«8 ; 47 lU, 533 ; 2 €ar. & K. Siiti; 5 €ox C» <J. 138; Kuss. & E. C. C 
20^^; and J n pursuance of tho Intent, to set firo to any combustible mat^ 
Cer In the Lciiidin(f 1^ an olfeni^o at common law— Tliach. C. C. '2i0. See 
Iltisty's Crim. Law^ title AiLBoN. 

448. Any house, edifice, structure, vessel, or other 
erection, capable of affording shelter for human beings, 
or appurtenant to or connected with an erection so adapts 
«d, is a ** building," within the meaning of this chapter. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

^hs baildiiisr-—Atif edifice capable of affording elielter forbiunan 
'beliig^ Is « " building "— «J Cal. ^idi U Id. 241 It Deednot ba a Quired 
fitructiire; it b BiUficiQnt if it j!) connected and CDtLre— 12 Cax C. 0. lO&j, 
Law H. i C. C. 333: ita state of qompietetiq-^a H n question of fact^l 
>Iet. 2^; 12 Cox C, a IQti; Lai*^ R I a<J. 3Ctl^: but tbereiaaloa of a 
^WTDOdeti bonso »fter a fire in not a bulkHn^'—Si Up. Can. Q. U. 4^9; S. C, 
I <j^reeu Q, R. 264 . A cliurch in ik buUdinjf wiibbi ttie bUiutci^ I Jleacb, 
3IS; Id- 320; ora scbool-lious^-^2 Root.i5fG: 4 Gill & J. 40'.'; fiMon. 156; 
or a buiklJJiir removed by a tlty»iiLii) flUcd up for pubilo ubo— 2 AUeiii 
15J>| or a Tef+9eL— see Brown Atlm. IbH. In arson, house, Bhop, work* 
shop, etc., have the sanio iiif'anlnif »« In cases of burglary*^ Up. Can. 
Q. B. (0. S.) &L''i« A warehouse m^^ana any bulldlnir used :i^ eucU nt the 
time— 10 Oblo St. 25J7. IVhero thare are no Itit«nor conittitmlfiatlonfl 
L^etwe'Cn two parts of a housti, the fieparatfly occupied partji arocon- 
BiUered as sfiparate LiitlcUiigi— '^li Coun. 34l^ See Desty s Crlui., 

titles AILSOW, B^TKGL AH Y. 

.449i. Any building which has usually b^en oocup^ied 
by any person lodging therein at night is an *' ihhatiiied 
building," within the meaxdng of this i6hapt6^. . 

Habitation,— Any building Is a dwr] ling-bouse Tvlilcb Is wbolly or In 

Bart usnaJiy occutJe*! by persons lo<:lglti|r therein at night— 1 Parker 
r, H. 2hL Every houso for tiwellinjy and hablt:itJon la taken to be a 
itiatLilon-hou?p— 4 Ga. 3Jfl* Hou^e means not only tlio (Ivr^UIng but all 
Out-houses whleb are parcel Ib^ereof, flnch as bania mul sfc,iblesH-3 
Uuleb.SL'U: « Jojifa (N. C.>, 354; ItL 4M{ Id. 459; 63 N. C *f5\ ^ CooD. 
47; 4 Dpv. & 1\. l!<,5; 4iiAla. 30; a Rtcb. 24i: 31 Me. 523; 2 Mich, 2m\ b 
Gar. dis P. &3,3; 13 Oratt. 763. A Jail Is ati Iribablted d<irelllng— 18 Jobbs. 
115; 41 Tei. bOl; 4 Call. 109; 5 Ired. 3^>; 63 Ga. 33: contra, m Ala. 50} 
Id. 33; 4 LelglL 6^iJ; aitd see 22 Amer. Rep. 255, Where the entrance to 
ft Jatl was tbrou^hadwelUng-bouse, the entire EtrucCiiro i-i a house— 
30 CTonn. 245; 2 >V. Bljick. to;3. CnrtllatTO raeans a court-yartl or the 
apace within any fnclioHurE* rountl a flwellinff-liouse^lO Cn.^^Ii. 47i^, and 
IncludfJS » Hnrnxner-honse-Kuss. ^ R. W^ and a bam with hay Wid 
ffrala in it— & Watta & S. S^; I Moody C. C 239: ^vw^f «» 81 Rl. JHiS; or a 
fiam conininnlcating Kvlth the dwelllng--ii Mkh. S5fl: or a bnUdlnc^ 
tbirty-i'U £eet distant, used as a dormitory for tbo ownor''» eorvauts^ 
MleU. i^O, 

/ ^SO, ijhel phifase •♦ ni^)i^-*tme," a$ msed in this 4Shapter^ 
ineans the period i between Bixnset and Auiu^ia^ 

451. To constitute a burning; within thifr ttfeanlng'^ 
this chapter, ili \^^t^^f^9^s^^'^^M^^' t»wW4PK.Wfe'On 
fire should have been destroyed^. It/isAnffieifiBitthfl^ftre 
is a^lj^ 8f?f^8 to tal^e; ef^ifiwyfi ^^^jijia^t of the.wb- 
^tanperollO^pbuiljlij^ . .. " , i, i ./ .u M 

2 Term. Bep. 255; but the house nead not bPL^nUJCttly, Qoaram^ 
sufficient Uany Dart Is hJiTnea-bw£dS6;mw&:tor^h&tmti86 

:»•;' 3iMl 07^ leTjMinurni^ irMMdJ lOOr^rtet iWaiVftlhg In the 

kiot^^SiMtial ttak«4tte«<«0oodw< thd hx^Oi^lkmid hWEe^B^TMi 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

timct^vi9 bnrnlDf U ft qatistioii of fiict-OOoBlL 427. , . 

^2. To constitute arsoi^ It is not necesitory tbat a per- 
son other than the accoded should have had ownership in 
the building set on fire! It is sufficient that at the tiioie of 
the burning another person was rightfuUyjin possession 
of, or was actually occupying suxsh bnilditig, or any part, 
thereof; ' 

Ownership.— It la not arson to bum otie'^B own property— 9 Gratt. 
€27; iJ Pick. aiO; VI Tip. Can. O, ¥■ Ifta, unless It ba accompanied by an 
Injtiry to or a doslmi to Injure some otlieri^r&on— 2 Pick. 3 25; S Stewt. 
& P, 175j 2 liast P. €. ID-U; Cro. €ar. 377; CalU, 337; but Gee 19 N. Y. 
IJ7; 51 1(^ IL \'6i It La. All. 5S2. AtauslsaDcl cannot bo pruHEy of arson 
In Immlng the bow$6 occupied by lilnasclf and wife— [^ti Mlcb. 106; S. 
C* 1 Oreeri C» E. fi-17 ; nor a wtfo for setting Are to her Iiusband^s house— 
1 Moody 0. U- 182; buta pei'son, setting flm to a Iiouse In llio city, the 
bon&e belug occupied by hlm»eif ajitl otber ten:iutH, in i^ great uiisdo- 
meaiior— 5 City H* Rec. 6M j wo, if tho owner of a build In p; set fire to it 
Wi tb Intent to oim i tli e ad j ciinlag prope rty » 1] e Is eiiUly of arson— a Ricli. 
142; 47111.53J; orburning his houfaO to Injiiro an Insurer— 2tf Cal. 257; 33 
Id.lM; 1 Parker Cr. It. 5ii(f; 2La. An.l57; seo'2ilAla.7i; Busa^ AR.lSa; 4 
Fost. &F, 1102. The building must be the property of aooth^r, but 
ftuch a possession as Rlvej a special property while It exists la Buffl* 
clertt— 12 Conn. 4^; ^ Jabns. 103. Tbe tenure or interest la tlie|>iiiJUd'> 
InfflanottobocoDSitlered— 5u! Ala. 3^7; 2 Johns. 211^, aa mortgagor or 
mortgagee— 1 teach. 'itU; Id. 242; Id. 224; Cro. Car. 37(3; Cald.^1; see? 
Cold. i'>v^ At com in n law a tenant canDoCboludlctcdforwUirully bum- 
log the house ihac ho lives lu— 1:^ Conn. 4S7; A Dutch. 323^ 3 £lackf.4aS{ 
lEeach, IJla; Id. 22fl; litl»24i^; id. 2&S; butundertlie statute ft lesi^eO may 
be Kullty of arson for ijummg thejproperty of the lei^i^ur or other prop- 
erty adjohUnff-W Cal, 3tM ; ly N. YV fiilf: i Parter Cr. R. 560 : 5 Stewt- A 
P, 175; IW Ohio St. 2«7; 61 Mo. 27ti: 'i East P. €. itWO; id. IQCtl. If the 
lessor, being the general owner, bums iho property while occupied 
by the lessee, he lji " - ■" - ■-- ■ - ■- - -- -^.._.t.- .«.* ™ 

Conn. 342; S GratC ' 

by the lessee, he U ruilty-'J Johns. 105; n Conn, i^l: 7 Blackf. 163; 2» 
Conn. 342; 8 Gratt- fi35; 110 Mam. fiOS; I Moody C, C, Ui. One entitled 
to dower may be ffudty— 5 Stewt, Ss I\ 175; 8 Gratt- GtU ; 5 Bam- & Aid. 

S7; or a servant who usually dweUs there TsvhUe the legal pos&e^oii 1« 
lnanother-2 Pick. 325; '^East P.C l(R7; Id. 1034; 1 Leach. 246; but* 
servant who seta fire to bia master's house by hla procurementli not 
g\i^ty—m Me. m I 22 Amer. Rep. &GQ. 

453. Arson is divided into two degrees. 
DagMis of ano&-63 GaL eZ7< 

454. Mialiciously burning in tile night-time an Inhab- 
ited building in which there is at the time itome'huihan 
being, is arson In the ^t degree. All other kinds of ar« 
sou V^ ^ thenecot^ d^re^. 

. . Ocoupation.<-6ccupfttion is an essential etemeat of the nifeaaait of 
anoii-47 Ga. snt* Bo* an tinflnished building bM yet oecnpied is not 
withU'the imrriew of the statuter-'SO In£: 348 : .14.21ft} 2»€oimb 245: 
M3X.Y. m\ 10 Ciisli^478: 13 Qratt.T68; cmfmi*IMeL25B; 4 0a.AaB;4 
gtMlLCia. TliatttwaaliiteiMledfofloQC!ipaDflr»i»r la eapaUaof; tot- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

li«oeeiipied, Isnot tiifflot«iLt-« Me. 30; SI Id. «; » Citfh. 829: or if ft 
WMmeittly casually occapied— 13'Oratt. 76S; or if tho oocnpaniB be ab- 
■ent without Intmt to retarn— 10 Cosh. 478; IS Gratt 76S. ^But if the 
house Is tramed during a temporary absence, it is the burning of an 
occnpied dwelllnffH8 &a. 116; ^ Me. SO; see SI id. 52S: S Cushr?29: 10 
Id. 4^: 20 CoQn724S. But it must he usually dwelt b-^ Miss. S84: 
or oecasionaily used-^ Ga. 142 c vnA It &• Hpnaterial whether the per- 
•on charged had knowledge of its occupancy— 1 Parker Cr. R. 252. 

459. AnoA i»p<tti!8hftble tf InpttBOflnittXit in the State 
priBon, as follows: . . > 

1. Arson in thei fixst degree, Ipr not less than two 
years. .../:.• 

2. Arson In the second degree, for not less than one 
nor more than teii years. 

d by Google 


$489. "Bnrgtarj" defined.' 

S4a. "HouMlireakiiig'' defined. 
SiO> PaotobBKntonuMiMlvMklDg; •, 
S4fil. -Nlghtrtlme" defined. " 

' . ■ ^ V 

459. Erery penon who enten any house, room* apart* 
ment tenement, shop, warehouse, store, mill, bam, sta- 
ble, outhouse, or other building, tent, vessel, or railroad 
car, with intent to commit grand or petit larceny, or any 
felony, is guilty of burglary. [Approved Feb. 9th, in ef- 
fect May 1st, 1876. ] 

i;iijg:laj7 defined.— Eun^lary i'' ilia brcskliiB mud enterlnf In tbe 
Hlgbt^iijzie liiQ tlwelJ;lii«4jf another ^ with tliolDicnt to couimU a f elo&jr 
tliejt:iii-^J L;al, 4'j4; 7 Mna^ 247 j ^hctlier tlio fcIonioLis Intonl be cie« 
cotea ornot-^7 Miiss. I'l; ; i €oxfi< (N. J-H41 i a7 Ml<Jj.5H ; 4 rartcrCr. EL 
l&il ; 14 A III. ^U, Tim tti^inkjug And cDterfn^ inm^C Us Coao tcloaloaaij 
— 9 W, Va, 43i€, It l3 lanjeny art it not burBlary for n ^ue^ to liteai from 
H L;i3>rDcrm wbero ho Lad si r I j^ lit to enttir— 1 J N. II. 41 la C&llfomlai* 
thci CodetefoynnfLsei no sueh offense as burglary luLxcd ^vlth Lirc^nj? 
orflficjttierfEU>Dy-29 ClLl>t,*J; *efl 1 Tti. Ct- App, lill. Tliat ttie lai* 
eeiiy lit merged in tba bureUiry— seo 20 Ficlt. iHAJ: t^ Ipi. &U 31 M. flal; 
4i 111. BOi. Tho attfiiiipt &t ^mrrlaiy I? ludJcUiblc^ at common Uw— 12^ 
Coi C. C> 1S5; 9 Id. tta; LelRh ^ U, li^^i an J breaklag: into the yard 
fif a awelUns-tiouso witli Intc^iit to i^onmut bujiffbiiy u An ottempc^ 

The bnaking.— There rauet bo a brdkln^ ki« ochuJ or cottfrtmctlye 
r-1 cose, (N* J j i'^Hi Hi Ja. St. 30ai .i5 Cinitt. yua. Thtra luust i>e a 
Dfwjnff, remwtTifjT of pyttlog aBldo POmu i^art oftbe dweiJia^-boase 
f^li^d on a^ seairity agalnat Intruslgn— in Irttl- .^44: '^^ lowa,4l3| ea 
IJUJ7U lOiJ Mass, ess ; butfiea aParkerCt ll.Aij-^; lUin,233^ 1 StnLOge, 
iaif Bill A I?. 63, A i^cKjr or window nmat basbtit, but Jt neeU noUw 
loclted, bolted, Of nfl(leil,a latcb to tbo Ooor and the weJffbt of tt»* 
window bulngfiiifflcleut— SiUiiQ c^c-s; Ij^it K mu^t be ehowii UiattUef 
were BbuE-l Coxe, (N. J.) 4;jy: S ParKcr Cr. K.&Jj^; 120 Iowa, 413; ll 
Ired, 241. Very i«iUjibE ToreQ wul buIUcd to coHFitltato a breaklnfl:. ai 
Jiftlngalatcb-l UAla P- C.fiS^j sin J If Uie door l>a do*ca, it Is iiotueo- 
e»ftiT tbat It ho Jurc^IirU— KHrpLhiiW: 20 Ions, 4P; 3 I'mkerC^R.aM: 
|%mir or pulllni down ai^ intlo^v-^^ai^h^y iiim. :U3; 5 Tex €t. App, Uj 
7 Car. &r. 441- IPus^, & lL40Ui aLthougli kept down oidy bylEifOWtJ 
weight ana not fasipnedtfUKi aUbougLi Lbera is an^uter eliuttpr not 
cIosed-EuSB. * li. im-, I Moo^Jy C. C. an ; 3 VatiLUr Cr. ILfiSi : JO loiva, 
IIJ; ^7 Mlcb. 131 ; ialtt?d.?W; aiiMi3a.705; enCcrluca cbiomeyorotbap 
uflosuBl Ulftct-jra Ala. 2fll ; 4J Tex. 2i(i^ I Jones, (N. C.J t^; fli AbkJrrSi 
a, U 1 AM. Cr. B.Mii ; 9 Pick. 354; 1 ^dXO, (li. J.) 4Jii\ 1 DMie'i Ahv. m; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Bq&s. ^ B. €. C,4^i 2 Car. ^ P. 62Si or t>ii»h1ng open a transom— 27 
Micli,15l: 19 Alb. li. J. 4% or loodenloffctuyfttstetiln^whlcli the owner 
haa provltlcd-'See 4 Bl. Com. TlH; 2 Eiist F. O. 4i7; or rcmoTloc a cot- 
eringi, If tticre l)o no partial opcnlnjj— 105 Mass. ^aj I Moorty CT C. l7Sr 
7 Car, <£e F» 441 ^ its a screen or netting over a window— 9 lick. 354; aoa 
23 T>Udu229i 1 Gratt, 641 ; or ntlelng a ^ratln? and entering- ti3 Mich. 
22^ i or lifting the flap ot sk cellar door nckl down ty its own Tveljrtit— 
Rytm & M. 377 ; 2 E:i.^t P. C. i^li contra, 4 Car. & I^ 231 ; doubt ed-Riiss. 
& IL C. C. 1^7 J or puhiliijicr open n bin^^jcd window fastened Ly airedge— 
liEisj. & R. C. C, 355; or Dy Lreikking or romQvhm a iviiidow-panfi and 
Inserting hand or finger— Euss. & K. C. C. 479; 1 Car. & r. 300; y Id. 44;' 
or by breaking moroTuUy ouo already broketi— a l[1.44i 1 Kyan *£ JL 
337 1 or by taking out tli(i» glass from a door— Russ. jt li. C. C. 417 : or hy 
breaking: a gla.s4 window v/itliout removing tlie Inside shuttrr— Id. 4'>y; 

1 Car. &r. iiW; or by makljvx jiu opeiiilng by means of hre — i\> Ala. 344: 
» Ad, & E. BUT; 7 C;ai-. & I\ 432i 8 Id. 7i7. 

OonstmctiTe breakings— Coustruetlve breaking snuy he committed 
liy the Ttse of threats, or by artlllee and fraud— 4;i Ala. 17: 13 ind. 339! 

2 Te^. Ct. App. 4Vi[ rhUh {If. CJ ISO; b9 N. C. 2&7; 1 Lfiack, 4y&s a4 by 
urtlJQce ami fraud prociaring tho door to bo opened^ by rlr^ginif the 
doortbell— 8.J Pa, Bt. Ui or knoefeing at ths ctoor, antiwhcn opened, 
niahhaii In— 4 Bl. Com. T>&i orffaining admL^iou on pictense of busl- 
ness— KeJly, 4J; or under iiolor of legal nroceisS—l LcachH2S4; or do- 
ludinj^a boy to let ber in, and sendiii^^hun on a m&f;iii:Lsej robbing tho 
bouse— 1 Ea^t P. C 4S.5 ; or wlLh Intent to commit a f eJony, cafnlnK: ad- 
mission by aonio trlck-^iN. C. '2Q7; la Ohio St. a03; «J Pa* St. ^iW; 8* 
Id* i54: PhlJih (N. C*) ISi&i butsucli entry must be Immediate, or so soon 
that the owuer coiUd not rcfasten tho door— aired. 4l>J. So, where 
tUo owner ornina tho door to repel tho Intruder, and an entry Is made 
—t East P. 0. iM; I Euas. Cr. 7ti2; onvbnro a lodi^er robs others of the 
tiouna wliile thoy are at prayers— Kelly, GJ ; or i£ (entrance is obtahied 
by conspiracy— 2 Eiias. Cr. 10; aswbere a Kc^rvant cnnspircs with a 
tbtef toletliim in— :i Strange, ai; HuL 20; KtrJi>%C7; but if be admit 
hLm for tho purpose of detection. It Ifj iiol; bur^'laJ*?^? CaL 2Tt; 40 
Ala. S31; Car. & 5l 218; 2 Leach, ei3. Where two comlilno to commit 
a burglary t and ono only enters, botli aro guilty— 'J Parker Cr. R. IL 
So, ifone entices the owncir away, and the other enters- 12 Ohio St* 
l4tL A confl(pii?acy to comtnit a bur^jiary 1b a felony— 2 Tex* Ct. App. 
uabV .. <: r/v r. ..■•-,,■ . 

Breaking OQt.-^EreaJslngoutof ahou90 Is not burglary at conunoa 
law-^5 Ala, l;;j{ &Z Pa. St. y(Hi; S. C, ^ Week* Notns, 4:); 70 N. C. 2;J0; 2 
East F. O. 4i»; b Cox C. C. atii^f; co-ntra, 4 J Conn* 4j3. But entering In 
tho night-time, and breaking out to escape, is burf^lai-y— 43 Conn. 439; 
but Bee m Pa. t>t* 3U:a; 70 N. €. 2i^; as by ^if tins tbti latch ot a door— 3 
Car. & P. 743; Beelto3c, Cr, Ev. 373; or havLu>f entered by tho cbltti- 
ney, hrcs^in^ the inside fastening of a window— ^iJ Ala. STti; 3t> Id. 2Si ; 
2 CJreeQ. J2v. § Hi; or breaking out of an inner door— 3 Coi C. C. 343; 3 
Car. ^P. 747; 2Ea£itP. C. 4siri; I Hale P. O. 534; or getting tho head 
tlirougli a akylJgbt— Jebb C. €. i<i. But entering in tbtj day-tirao 
tlirou^h an open window, or an open door^ and escaping by breaking 
out a window J3 not inir^jlarj— Parker Cr* R. f49i 62 Pa. St. aos: 23 
Am. 11.7.^; m Ala. 123; contra, i'ii Comi. 4S:i; 21 Am. B. m$i but It la 
maaoaa W fitAtui;or-;ai!J. a 2Ji>; JUAw. Iv W^ 

-ObnMrtictiv* emry.^SMdiog in a child of tandeiryean to bring 
«tatgbodd i»«leoiistntttive «iitry^l < Haloi B. O. ass, :£yejry entiWM?^! 
ex<MM»t l>y thd olmsetat of tba owner or hia agent* Is a QorgU^ioits e^: 
trj^l' Tu. Ot. APP*'625; «nd a oonbent of cletpctivc»l9 tli9 consent ot 
tbeiremiAmrft-^^CM. 186; 9 a?6x..;€tiAip^iId6. Wlten<»8Qme stasia 
ontsidetvIilfeioMkei* cnter^oUaa^e «^ltyH3.<lBb4 <nI>;: 2 S^sjtl^, 
C. 486; 1 Halo P. C. 439. .i . -ji^ ./ t i/: , 

, TbQ »o | ff B io g yTtiAa> eoteying jlft necessftiy^ butt)bue least^^ntry is suffix 
- — -kXeok^. A4^r 7^: I^im..4B. 0,4*9»t.Mn^41l AMppdy ac^ 

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BttttitAihr AH1> ^(HMoMAlSltdi IBS 

I8*i 2 teast P. C. <S7. It is Dot necessary tbat th* ^oifl 5?ll,^*«|;z:* 
Ala. 643, A liantl insened tct imlatclj a trinatm— 13 Ala. JUj; • 
Anders. 113; 1 Car & V. siKj; i EastR C. 4S7i EuAs. & R. C. a Ml ; 4 
Car. &P. 747; <J la, 41; Itl +J.\ 4 Cox C O-Saa; JJEast F. C fJOs 8. C.' 
Fo£t. 107; Ijutmcfcly brcLikinjfoyt aalmtter, and Dot getttaff tlirot^^n ' 
- ' - ' ■ — ^ ' **- '"» '"'^-"-jtinj r" — " 

tho pauG or class 13 uot smflclcnt— I Ala. 641 Tbrnstii, 
tlirougb a brokeu pano 1.^ au cnto— 1 Mootly C, Cflji : or i_ -^ _ ^, 
liaiiil ttiroagb ;m opi liingf to enlarge It-lU Mass, a'-^i »rJn»S™ir »^ 
floKer, 4:i Tci. JT^; Rusa.ifcll, acT^'J; ora foot— eeo Bitfb. ajL.!!©;; 
raiRlua a wiaUoTv and Ualdiug it up Willi tlio tintfer3--4:i Tqx, pG; ROBS. 
it R. il. C- 4>:ii or iutroductu:^ tlic liimd Isrtweeii an outer window ao<l; 
aiUnncr £jjutter-nu3,s. & It. C, C. a41 : I CLtr. A: P, 3iK>^ ot&etwlso if llio 
shutters aic outsider* Ala. G13: ijrcaidnLr in a window and pattlDf m 
a book or stick; or putting iu a jtlatoi or gun— I ilalo P. C.651; i t^^ 
P. C. 4L:y ; sc o I St-irli . 4'*. fehootii] s lliro DCii ft window to comm it a,f ol- 
ony la fill rntry-iJ Clilt. C. L^ lltiS; but wlicio n hole was too KjniOl to 
admit the band ot Instruiiicut. It Is not sumclent-l L^acbp 40fi; sa lit- 
sertiuga crowbar mider tlio bottetu oC tbo Lnsldo shutter, the baioa 
not InsiUe* la not an entry- 1 Moody C. C. Ib4 ; n East P, U. 4tf7. 

The intent,— ^Aa Intent to commit a felony Is a material clement of 
tbo crbnc— IG CaL 431 ; *!i Oa, BJJ; IJ Ncv. »:s7; Bee; fl Bush. 37e: 3 H«r. 
{I>cL)6M: 43 Ala. tisJ; ^ Tex, Ct A pp. J 10; 7 id. 276; id. StJi; and nwist 
bo proveil-ll N. H, IG!>; 23 Id. m; 18 Vt. cnj 2 PartcrCr. % WJlJ^ 
K. Y. 66U; 3 Har. {Del.) &54; Whist. (N. CJ i^n ; Id, J485 12 heT. 137. 
TbQ Intent must bo felon lous- 1 l^ Scrg, Jfc II. ITT: 14 Til.497i a»a 9err- 
aat ludatcliluff blsmastcr'a doorwltii Intent to kill lilm— 4 Craacli C, 
C*t»Ci4; 2 East P. C. 4sS; or with Intent to coniinita rapoon blan^ 
tress— I Strange, 4Sl: East P. V. 4SS. That tbe eiecntion of the to- 
tended feleuy was frustrated, or tliut ho desisted Ibiough fear, is oa 
defense— Wiu5t. {N, C) '^V). Intent Is tbcr gist of a burglarious entry 
to commit i-anc, and thercforo tho actual iJTtscuce of tlio female la not 
reonlsitc— .^ Tes:. Ct. App, 74. See Desty'a Crini. Law, & 5. 

ill Ohio tU& Intent forma no Ingredient of the oflfi'nsi! wben personal 
Tlulenc;e Ls atte mptcd— G Ohio , 2ir. fco atso in Vt'tmont , If the In tent t» 
to commit adultery, to break and enter la not bnrglary— lb Vt.531; or 
whtTe the Intent was only 10 cut off an car— 7 filass. 'iih. 

The Intent with which defendant entered, la juinestlon ef fact for 
the 1nry-5a Cal. il5; 64 Ga. }m; 8. €. 1 Acq. Cr, K 3tj6; to be Inferrea 
from the facts :iiid clrcuinstaiices-49 Cal. 57; 53 id. 415; 1! Uusli, 6a3i 7 
N. Y. 445; ^l^arkcr Cr. K. fr^H; 13 Pa. St. S3; nGr&lt, 7SXi; 4i Tei, 2*6- 
Asentcrhig through the window^ clandcstluclv.ata late boor at alffbt 
after the Ugbta were citlngiilshea— &i Cal. 4i5; or entering a room, 
seizing ayoQutf lady by tho ankle, and escaping on her &citfiLming for 

Tno tame intent must cbaracterlze both the breaking and the enter- 
ing— Kush. & U. 417. Violently brealiing into ft bouso with intent to 
disturb tbe peace l3 indictable a» tnalic^ous rnlschlcf— 15 Pa, St. 65 i S 
Bhia. 31^1.^ The f elonJiona act need not havu been committed if the In- 
tent can bo Inferred— 5 Uusb. 37(3; aud If tho felony be committed tbe 
act l3 »n jTj a /act* evidence of the lutrnt to commit it.-llN. H. 37; 20 
Pick, 5o<ji 4 Parker Cr, R. 153: 7 Serg. & it. 4!JL Every one L3 presumed 
to Intend the conyequence of his owa acts— 55 Cal. wJ, 

Tho crime of burglary by breaking and cnlerlqg with Intent to steal 
iscomplelolf it ia foniid tbat defcudant broku Into and entered for 
that purpose without reference to the valuu of the good^j- 'ZB Cal. 2Ui 
or tbat tbero was in fact no goods in tho houso to ttcai— ja Cal. 214 j 
32 Id. 3S; 2 TCi. Ct App. 110; Si Id. 617. Where onti agreed to enter, 
marti tho money and hand It to tbe burglar who stoodoutside, to en- 
trap the bnrglar, k\ich an entry h no burglary, &» he hikiX entered wltti 
np felonioua Intent— Su Cal, lai. 

' ^0 dw«lling-hoii8e.— A hoose. In the sense of th^^statafto, is may 
MJractnn'Wlilcli baa walls on aU aUlas, aaa Is eoytnA }ff%rQOt-UCut 

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245; refTordle^Fwtiether it was orerer hart beflu inhabited by in embark 
of tte himiati fanQfi^-lrt.; bw 71 N. Y. ,'MJl: etiitirging thocommon-laur 
tle&nltlom which leqairert It to bo a dw(*l]i!iK-li(JniiB where lh»faiailr 
usually reshied-see m V&, St. im. House* thvf Uins?, manaioq^IiouB*^, 
anil iTiSlfleni e aro (^qiilvnleiat teims— 3 Ji^erg. * H. 1E«*; 3 FiiTlEerCr, R. 
stjSj 2ft Wis. J^i9, The inwftPMslon of n rPBEPr is sufficient— 4» lowa^jjl, 
Bui^lary may hn <?ommitteil bv lierakimr Ititoivlodglug-rciomp tivea by 
a p«r!k9ri iHTwfHllyivithiii iba hmliiiun ut whU:.U ttla u imrt—14 Gray, 
103 1 26 N. ¥.20a; 3 l*arkcr Cr. K.fiSJ; U Vt. ti'jj H Car.A r-747: atid 
tho flpartment must biUaid tobchUdwelliu^-lionse-atlCal. 133: 39 Ga. 
1G5: 2a N. Y. iUO; 1 Faiker Cr. H.^iUi 3 id, 5.>J; 8 Cfir.A p.747j I Moody 
C. 0. -23: I Lcaeh. 2:37: id. Kll ; fealk. &32: 80 of aloftover aijtablo, used 
as o lodging— 1 Leavh, ^i;k:>; or a innirret iisf d aa a workshop, with tui 

apartmeij t for Bleei Hug-id. 237. The orrfiupiiUoii of tlio servLiiit a^ suiih 
Irit the Qci^upation of tbo master—I Havw, {renn.)242: 3 Huiuph. 379: 
Kuaa. ^ E. U. Q. 44Ji 7 Car, & P. \S^\ Rush- Jt II, C, d 115; uiilcad ha 
occupied It iia a Ifissor-l Moody C, C. 7 : inm S Car. -ft 3\ 2&2: Eii&a. & R. 
C C,625; 1 Mood J- C. t^, *i} id. 2^&; 1 Leach. S(J5j liuss. A R» C. C. Ib7. 
A hoDso tenanted by ii niarrleti woman i!fitho iiousu of tiit? ImabaTid'-S 
Can & P. 2Cid; Russ. & K. C. C,4iJii id, 517. But see la Ohio, MS; 21 
Mich, m. . 

WhHl withiti the cnrtilage.— Outhoijses, store-rooms, wat^hooses. 
haras, etc., are indiuU^d with the UwclliEg, If they are within ttio ctif- 
tilago, whether the varrt be inclosed or open— li Parker Cr* R. 23: 2 
Hun, 339; S. C.71 N.Y. 5tii; I Dev. 253; 1 llayw. (Term.) 102: id. 242: 2 
Ea$t r. C. 493 J Rus3. A R. 3&7; Id. 334; a^ a burn, part of the same 
irroup of buildings, and not separated by a public road— la Mkh. Ii2\ 
hut otherivLsc. if separated by a highway— Sil j^l.SOfl; and see 1 Dev, 
253: 1 Nott Jfc McC. 6S3; ora worfeBhop adjoliiioff thn rcsidcneo— Riisa. 
& E. 3J4j ora smoke-hcniso opening into the yard ofa dwclllne-housa 
—4 JoneSttN. C.) WsJ: but otherwise, If detached and lu a rtlatlnet lot— 
1 Tfl^lnst. (N. C.J No. % B0\ sOt of n gbose-botiae opening into tlio yard- 
Buss. A R. GttO. A twtKitory bouse* partly oceupitd as a *torehouso» 
and partly for eleephig ac:c:cjnriim.fKlatioii3t fs a dvvelllng-hOii>ie— 2(i Ala- 
li^! and aoo GA N. C. 2i>B; but where there was no fcnco inelosiug thft 
dwehhig, and tho store, which was twenty feet off and not Appiirten-' 
ant and aauihary to th o house Js not part of the dwelling— seo 4 Jobns. 
424; eO Pa. Hu 103; 1 Nott & MeC. 6a3. Outhouses, to lie within the 
curtLi^e, muat be anciUary to tho main building, contiguous thereto, 
or wichlu the sama inclosnre or lot— 4 Conn. 449; 20 Ala. 30; and mu$t 
Itself be a complete struc ture— 1 Car. Jfc K. 30i}« 

460. Bv^ry burglary oonuaitt^din tbe nigbt-timd, is 
bii^l&ry of, the first degree, and every burglary com* 
mitted in the da^-time is burglary of the second degree. 
[Approved Feb. ^h, in effect May Ist, iS76.] 

461^ Burglar^ of the first degree is punishable by im« 

prisonment in the State prison for not less than onei nor 

more than fifteen years. Burglary of the second degree is 

punishable by imprisonment in the State prison for not 

more than five years. [Approved Feb. 9th, in effect May 

let, 1876.] 

House-breaking.— Burglary committed in the nigbt-time is burglary 
in the first degree, and burglary committed In tbe day-time Is in the 
second degree— 53 CaL 454. They are distinct offenses— 52 Cal. 454, 

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§§^4l62^ BUIMILiJGbT A2iD BOUSEBKBAraVO, 199 

TbBmen fiMjt Hurt one penon Iswltikanother ivft»«BtaB 
•teautlierefroiii, but wbo dpei not Interfere to preTe«^t 

■Dfc render lilm ffaUty-27 Cal. 490. The offense is camm , . ^ 

Be«rf tbe propeny intended to be stolen was less tiian ni^ deUare— 2B 
Cu.2t8,difltiDfuIshing8id.619t. Entering, by opening » door CaMened 
bj a Jstflbv Is tne offense, If tbe intent to commit a felony ezi8t»-i X<ea, 
(Teun^)4M; 8 GreenL £t. S 576. 

T " " ' ','.■■ ipiii^es Rny pliif e wh(?re gooda are wold 

or ', i: 1 i i ■ t -: , i , ii : i,. m y Jg receivecl— 5 Day. 13K BpeiCOnn. 
44^1 I Bout, 6:3 1 Id N. IL 125; but nnt acoimtinff-room— 4 Farkfr Cr. R, 
153 ; nop place of busJnesa— 4*! Ga. SDj. Tlio term **eliop" i^ ei^utvalent 
to storp— 14 Gray, Stli: atid brcalslug and PtiLerttiff Into a hhop tidjola-^ 
Incj a dwpjllnjr-liotise Is liidlctabli?— a Met 316; tiL 5^: 1 Vlam. 24n; but 
SCO 20 Plrk* STiO. That the terms " shnp " arKl " stora *' are not evuony* 
itmiia. Bee— 10 N, H. la's. A "store '^ f.i a ph^co wIipto goofls arn ci- 
hibUcdforeale— 13 N. If. 135; mic] lirrafeluM: Into and entering a Atore 
l3 JudJctiible uLiiclier tha statute— 10 BIeinm. if^i; bnt seeM h];i,fij». 4H0. A 
'* etoi"ehous& " Includes a t^'i^s of storasro for all purposes, Lucludlng 
ccunmerelal nao— 3 Ired. 570. A " warenousa" la any place used for 
the teinporai'y storage of merchandise— 24 Conn. 57; lu Ohio St. 2&7. 
Bee 3 RiTfT. & R, li^.i; andiiichnlea a ccIlar-M. & R. im^ and a rail- 
road depg^.'yl YC 23T. A pfts^eEETcr^room In a railroad eti^Joa to aa 
office under the statute-^ t:iisli. ItH. 

462. Section four hupdred and si±ty-tWQ o£ the Penal 
Code is repealed. [ApproTed Feb. 9th, in effect ^ay Ist, 

463. The phrase ''night-thne/' as nifted in this chaptefi 
means the period between sunset and siuirise. ) / 

The time.— Tliq oiTen^e of Jiurgliary in the fir^t dogrce mupt bo comr- 
mlLLetl m the niglit-ttjne-5 Uoav. (Mls3,)2ii; but not atauv particular 
hour of the nigbt^35 Lah ll.v If the breaking? find fTirerlng bt5 hi tbe 
nlglit-tlme. It ia butT^lai-y in the first de^^ieep and if tn tbe day-time It 18 
In tlitj second decree— S2 Cal. 4M, NtghT-tlUie consists of the pericMl 
from tbo tcriuinatlon of dayllgbt to the earJiif^st dawn of the morning 
— 10 TJ, IL 105; aud the preaeiK-e of suffirilpnt duyd^h tto discern a man^ 
features la an establlBhed crltcrlort— 11) Cal. fiTN; lo Coini. a.'; JON.H. 
m 1 b How. ( >r tsg . J litj ; 7 Danfl 's Abr. IM . Wh t ( her c oni ir VU e d 1 1 ] tl i e 
flight or d:iy-time lua nue^ticm of fact for this iiiry—^ Ifow. cMisii.) liU; 
85 IS; eeeaa (al. 115: 31 Ohio St, 40*2; to bn Infene^i from facts 
and circiun&tancas^m N. H. IVS^ 5h G^ Td^i nnil no t'l't^^^inptiuci ufiaw 
v?m Bufflcc— 33 M. M7; 4 Jon^s, (N. C.J 34fi: see 41 N. Y. I. Between 
iix Euidl neven o'clo^ik, ou the afternoon of Aatfiiiit 3lgt; lii not La the 
nlKhl-time— 13 Cah &Ta. It is not materia i Uku tho brcaklntf and en- 
teritiij wero done on difTerent nkhts— Hus». A U. C- C- 417 j 7 Car. & P. 
4aj:; !i id. 44; £o, a purty preisent ut thcs lireakintr on tbn: first night U a 
principal, though absent sit the tnterlnB— 7 id. 4)2, it la Iniinaterial 
that li^n of the woik was done in tlie day-time— ill Masji. {33A. See 2a 
Ue» WOi CbArlC. R. M. ao ; 2 Tex. Ct, App. 412. 

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idi Buic<».AtaotTs iK84?tt&iir»in». • §§ M6-9 


S Ma P^0»^i^<mefbtu!gliiioiui]istviimaits. 
S 467. HftilBf iMMBeaslcna of deadly weapotts. 

466. Every persou hinriiig npon kiin, or ii| li^ei posses- 
sion, a picl^lock, crow,- key, bit,- op other iMtrameiit or 
tool, with intent feloniously to' break or enter hito any 
building, or who shall* knowingly" make or alter, or shall 
attempt <o toaike or alter^ any k^y or othei* instrument 
above named, SO that the same williit oropen the lock of 
a building, without b^ing requested so to doby sAme per- 
son having the right to open the same, or who shall make, 
alter, or tepair? any in«tju>ne9t or thing, knowing, os hav- 
ing" reason to believ0, that it is intended to .be used in 
comrnftting a^ misderaeauor. or felony, is gu^ty of misde- 
meanor; 'Any of tiaestiructures mentioned in section four 
hundred and fifty-nine o£ this Code, sh9.ll be deemed to be 
a building Within the meaning of this section. [In effect 
Mareb 8rd, 1374.] 

To prooiure,^with afrlmSi^U li^^ientrls im oifense— Bns9. A B. 0. 0. 
S08; 1 £1. A B. 435; and pdssesslon lUay be shown on a charge of pro- 
cm^ing^Rufis. ftlt. G. C.^08; 1 L«v. O. G. 43. 

467. Bh^i^ry person having upon him any deadly weapon 
with itttent t6 assault auother, is guilty of amisdemeanov. 

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§ 490 roBcnnnr aub oopurmFsmwa. VfSi 



S I7<k. Foigery of wills, conveyances, etc. 

S 471. HaUng fidse entries Sn TBoords or xetami. 

S 472. Forgery of paJbUo und corporate seals. 

S 473. Punishment of forgery. 

i 474. Forging telegvapb]cnie8iage&. 

S 475* Passing or receivtng f oig9d notea. 

S 476. HaUog, passing, or uttering fictitious bills, etc. 

S 477* Counterfeiting coin, bullion, etc. 

S 478. Punishment of counterfeiting. " 

S 479. Possessing or recefvlng cottnteif elt coiB* boIUoii, ete. 

S 480. Making or possessing counterfeit dies or plates* 

S 481. Counterfeiting railroad ticket, etc 

S 482. Bestorlng canceled tickets. 

470. Every person who, wil^ intent to defraud an- 
other, falsely makes, alters, forges, or counterfeits any 
charter, letters, patent, deed, lease, indenture, writing 
obligatory, will, testament, codicil, annuity, bond, cove- 
nant, bank-bill or note, post-note^ check, drait, bill of ex- 
change, contract, promissory note, due-bill for the pay- 
ment of money or property, receipt for money or property, 
passage ticket, power of attorney, or any certificate of 
any share, right, or interest in the stock of any corpora- 
tion or association, or any controller's warrant for the 
payment of money at the treasury, county order or war- 
rant, or request for the payment of money, or the delivery 
of goods or chattels of any kind, or for the delivery of any 
instrument of writing, or acquittance, release, or receipt 
for money or goods, or any acquittance, release, or dis- 
charge for any debt, account, suit, action, demand, or other 
thing, real or personal, or any transfer or assurance of 
money, certificates of shares of stock, goods, chattels, or 
other property whatever or any letter of attorney, or other 

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poMpm td^fecelTe^nio^By/ or <t^ i^c#te- or ItaaMf itif oenift* 
catea of shareskof dtock or animitieSj or to let, lease, 
^ispos^ of f flliisn^ or convey ai^ gooiia^ c^atti^ls, lands, or 
tenemionts, or other estate, teal or^ei^oiiali or an^aocept^ 
ance or inidoxsement of any liill of ezchaBge, promissory 
notOi draft* order, p^ assigninedt of any bon^r^^ting' 
obligjatory, or proniidsory note fot money Or other prop- 
erty, or counterfeits or forges the seal or handwriting of 
another; or utters, publishes, passed, oir atten^pts to ^ad$, 
ais tru^^adgenaine, auy of the above n^tned false, altered, 
forged, or counterfeited mattOra, as abore specified • and • 
diesci^ibed^, kiiowih^ the Yiame to be f ali^, afltered, f orgod, 
or counterfeited, with intent to prejudice, damage, or 
defraild anyperspn; or who, with intent to defraud, altets, 
c(UTu|>ts, or falsifies ai>y record of an:^ will, codicil, con- 
veyance, or other instrumeiit, the record, of which la by , 
law evidehipo, or any Record of any judgment of a cour^, 
or the return of any officer to any process of any court, is 
guilty of forgery. 

Forgery dcflaod*— Farmery is tlia fruudulcnt making or aJteratlon of 
a\rrltiitT»to theprejudke of auotlici'd vlglitSr^SCal.fiiT; i Up. €aii. 
Pr,2iai 1 l>earrt. Jfc U.StW; Law 11.1 C. CiWO; 2 Leach, 7Ta. It l3 ttio, 
falso niakluy;, ornjaterlaJly nKerln^j vriih intent to flefmuU, nuy \7viU 
iaavfhU-htiL acjiQiue, might appLirfntly Lo t»f lefjril eflicit'oey, or tlia 
foundation <jfft legal lUbilit>'-*3 Al:i. 467; 6 Ark. 340; aioua,2iil; la 
srj.2i>ft| liiiil.^ll SUitl.fiJl; aCiiSli-LSU: 'iIJ[W.2Li2; 2 Me. 3iij: 5dlJ. 
^W,^II : Tbacli, t". U. 1S7; 2 Conat. a, C bSf>; 4 1 atkor Cr. li, 21*; ii kL 
135; SVerg. J'il; ISMa.s9.BJ6j AdUls*aj; iJamcs^a^. It U tJio iiiafe- 
Inff of iia liiPtrqmeut f raudulciu ly iJiirportlng to bn that wliich It la not . 
—m Low. taa. Jur. iSHij; LaAV K. 1 C <J. 'im; iloubted— U Gvviy, IM; or 
A fraadiileiiC apjjllcatlon of a lalstj si?na[iire to« true lustninM-nt— 1 
Halai I*. 1.;. fci>3. Kveu » iiumK iDiyio In tlie ii:uno Of anotbcr la forgery— 

1 Learli, 67, Wrltiogr lijriiiUes cvi^r> tliiiijT iloue by tUa peo^ by cuKTav- 
ItiK, or uy pririTlng—3 G cay, 411; it Cox i". C. Sil; or otkerwbe^tui liL 
23Bi ILS, Oy itAAitng a naiit^ uvt-r iinutJiyr'M— 1 Har, {Del.) &U7; or, lu- 
fnmfliii(— 1 Fai'kertJr. R. lUd; 7 Ctvx H. L'. 4 4: Deara. li: U. 4W>; 1 Mtiody 
O. C- SUT; Id. iiiH; or Ly i}boto;;,'raiiljie lua^-'esii— Loigli & C !t^&. 'llio 
baitj m!LA:lDf.% wlttiout pu'JiLslLluifor utt^:rillJs^ consitiLiiiiea tlio ylTensf!— 

2 Bay„Jb^i 'i Miui&aiiT; Koss. & It. C, C UT. Ttio coumiondaTv offeiuse 
1^ ikjc sLiperacdi'd l.y I'lu statutr— ;i Cii:^h. I5U-. The purpusu of Uifc> 

'Stdijdcls of forgeiy.'r-The foUowiag instruments. have been held 
snblecta of forgery ; Aa acquittance for a gpeoli^c sum— 3 Cranch C. C. 
.rr*,».^ «,. ». eipfiiufnU-2 Ajle- •""- ^''^^'- "'- " ' — ^ 

Umber nuyr be areceipt-rl4 .Up« Caa.O. P. 309. ^q> book entries are , 
svbtectsof fptvei^wbea i«gBl«vldenee asailKit veppQerSS ■E'a. St. &2d$ . 
4>&iw;]:^iMlbloftttfleetidN^a*»a<i6; or entrieyfoapfl^H^ooJ^T^ Cox 

PXH. Ck>DX^I'Y. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

9 4:70 FOBantar jlkd ecmxTrnKwrnanBL 1M 

ac^mi UUMtt; 1LqMIi,18I>. ftp. to alter •«owBtiyttgriPli»t»l tl« 
ment la foigery— 15 Ohio, 717. Certincates oieoQd cmuraccer are rao- 
l90t9^ forMi7--Tbacli. O* 0.187; 10 Has*. im 2 Fofet: A F. 4«7 4 CflK 
0, p. 83; a la. 312; 7 1(L fi03 : Dears. A B. 285; 4 Up. Can. I.. J. 240. So,og 
letters of attorney-28 Mfch. 255; 8. C. 2 Green C. B. 572. Bo » letter 
ofrecommeodationmaybe a subject of forgery— 3 Cifl^cb C. C. SSL; 
68 Ga,l7l; 1 Salk. 406; or a letter of credit-2Xranch cTc, 621: Styles, 
13; but a mere letter of Introduction is not witbin the rale— 67 IiL fiL 
County warrants are subjects of forgery— 18 Mo. 445: so, of bonds- 
Addis. 44; 2 Va. Cas. 205; so, of deeds for land-Law B. 1 G. O. 2U0; 29 
Up. Can. 0. P. 150; though lying la another State— IS Johns. 163; ortk 
certificate of aclcnowledgment— 63 Ind. 567. A forged transfer or iana« 
though a blank be left for the name of the transferee. Is aa tnstmment 
wlthui the statute— tf ^ex. Ct. App. 864. Federal securities are snb- 

K. 004 ; as lottery tlcket8-3 Gray, 441. 

WHilnfis aalijeut of fdrgery.— The instniniRiit n€i6il not be in writ- 
Jug nor 111 words- 2 liar. {DH.J"S9; IJ Mo. .%: 'J Cos 0. C. 891 ; 6 id. 631. 
Afi wTltlnEti afleetlDg frrmthf^r'a risiit?» whcciior iiu Jer seal or not, are 
eubj eat)i of f arK*iM-y-5ie a ^ l>ait. { Tt ] i s k) "(^ j a J Ala. 4 S3. But if the Ii^ 
eiriwent t)p vmtt onltaf^csportnerely fiii?olO!i,?, it is not subject of 
forg>ery-2t» Op. Crm. Q. B.f&Ss n ultima liie forgery L^e one of aaeries 
of AE:UilouetQclefrauLl-[tflCa].Si}1; 1^(1 MaiSi. 33!?; 13 Serg. & B. 237; 
SJ Tox, b2\ I &o, tf IG be void by EtaLuts— 1 laeach, 4i\ ; Boss. & R. C. C 
CA; flo. if 1 1 be a ti jidumyact iim—.i5 Cal. 503. It mii s t, be an instmment 
on T^iilch Bu]t c oulii be brouglit- 2 M f?* StiS ; eo9 1 Tt'liart. O. I.. 8th ed. 
ItiBS; iuja miwt bo caicaiatecl to Injure aiiociier— iJCal.603; 7 Baxt. 
(Tenti,) 76; c3t- tliat lujarytnii^iiroijabJy nr iioislbly bedone— 63 Ala. 
m; m id. lei; 4 WJk^b. C. CriHi IlaU. au; 3 frujLi li CO. 43; 2 Taunt; 
8331 2 BLi'ange. 747; 2 Ld. Eaj m. Util ; 'J t5lrtLiij;t!, t(j] ; 1 Ld. Baym. 707: 
and its cnpaeity to Injuro may Lp luipaned to it by extrinsic facts— 6i 

ansendn.^U; & Cotren, TTft; 8 Bavh. SW)^ i^ Tnd. 886; 101 Mass. 211; 

Commeroial paper of all kinds is snlnect of forgery— 2 Kass. S97; 118 
id. 439; id. 460: 2 Me. 865; 12 Serg. &B. 237; 2 Moody A B. 117; 3 East 
P. C. 955. But a bill of exchange void by statute— 53 Ala. 469; 1 Bay* 
205, or a bill without a sigaiiture, is not Subject of f orgeiy— Buss A B. 
455. Checks and drafts aresubtects of forgery— 41^13.267; S.C.2Am. 
Cr. B. 149; 3 111. 442: or negotiable certiflcates— 118 Mass. 439; 8 Ohio 
St. 229; Addis. 44. A promissory note is subject of forgery— 5 Johns. 
263; and the engravedT border is a part of the note— 1 Up. Can. Im J. 
186; but not a memorandum in pencil on the margin— 66 ind. 831. An 
indorsement is subiect of forgery— 28 CaL 507 ; 2 Cranch C. C. 521 ; and 
signing the name of any person upon a bill of exchange other than the 
maker or acceptor, is forgery of the indorsement— 6 f ac Coast Law J. 
<)10. S6e6Cowp.73; 2 East P. C. 888; 1 Leach, 438; Buss. & B. C. C. 
260. The essential elements of forgery of a note are falsity of the in- 
Btnuneut, and intent to pass it as the true note of another^lU Mass. 
811; 120 Mass. 858. 

Orders for money.— An order is Subject of forgery— 2 Cranch C. €. 
2:>4; 9 Barb. 664; 3 Cushi 160; as an order for money— 8 Ohio, 196r 14 
Johnd. 347: see 59 Ala. 784: 80 N. C. 472; 2 Moody O. C. 210; 13 Up. Can. 
C. P. 619; 17 Up. Can. Q. B. 296; though no consideration is expressed 
—10 Bumph. 442; but a request for a loan is not an order— 20 Up. Can. 
Q. B. 260. An order giving a trade credit, or a request to loan another 
money, is subject of forgery— 2 Cranch 0, C. 521 ; 2 Ld. Baym. 1461; 
expbiined— 6 Mod. 137 : 1 Balk. 842. An order, though coupled with a 
promise. Is 8al]|eet of forgery— «l Ala. 88. Ghecks and oraers from a 

d by Google 





ree coua 

„ — „ „ . — , — 4n/vree coua reeoTer tii» 

L^^IT Up. C%, Q, B. 296. It is not necesaaiy that 

.M*«^ ,**.-,,«. -yw-^v^lbave tbe^riglit to dnw--^ Qrancfi oTq: ITl Brev. 

tl5 ^ 1ju« see fis N. p. 4;9: nor that the Orawed Abouia belKHmd to ober 

- Or<ierB for goo^s^— An order for the dcllTery ofgooda Is subject of 
roreery— i2 Crauch U. C. -^lJ; id. l ; U G». br2; l Cold, liiT; overruyng ti 
•^Clvk- iJ7; butBeotiAN.ailS: 3« ta, 2,m2] a Leu, fTcnn.JfllS; 
14 J uhJis, ^47; 1>J Up. Can. Q. B. 410. But a pecun1;ir>- dcnaancl Is not ftn 
Oi tier for goods— a;j Ala. 4i>it See 14 Alien, auO; 24 Ala. i^; 2d la. ^54. 
So, a request to deliver 4'oo<ld ia subject of foiigeri— 3 Barb. CW; al- 
tlioush lAot adareasctl to any one— :? Lea, (Tenu) fill; ^l K, y. SbO: ft 
iParKtr Cr. I1.21J]; aiKl It Is not necessary that ibo ditiwef hrkva tlio 
rls:lit to makGtko order— 1/ Mass. 40; 11 Ga^EL'; or that tbe drawee be 
btJUJid to ubty-KD N. C> 4ii3; t& liL 413; fi Ircd. 4M; Phm. {K. Ofias; liij 
I5f. t:. ti44. To sign uiifkr an assum^^d nanio to defraud drawee. Is 

Sakik-note«.-^Note8 of a bank may be forged ev«n If there be no 
sucli bank, or the bank be erroneously desonbed— 12 Up. Can. O. B. 
543 i 40 id. 219; or if H be of a denomination never yet tssoed-^O Mo. 
3a&; 2 Head. 591; or if they be of sk prohibited denomination— 2 Har. 
CN. J.) 827; 12 Serg. A B. 237: 4 Vo, Stl 219: 9 Id. 211: 9 Ohio St. 364; Bee 
fr I«elg±i. 707; 6 Ark. 849; or of an expired bank— 12 Serg. ft B. 287. The 
nkerfiTpvc^bitlon of the circulation of bank-blllsdoes not prevent them 
iXQQi DeiQg subjects of forgery— 9 Ohio St. 364 ; unless their circulation 
be taade a 6rime-21 lU. 642^ 

^ What not sabsects of forgery.— A writing which is a mere attempt 
to receive courtesies, on a promise of no biPding obligation, is not a 
anblect of fOKery— 67 ill. 91; or a writing which states that certain 

rersons are s^ent— 5 Ala. 747; or a bill ox lading«2 Cranch 0. C. 621; 
Sid. 278: 5 Mod. 137; or a clearance card from s^ social lodge— Iaw B. 
1 C. C. 217. 

Alterations.— It is ronfcry fmuflulEntly to alter the smn on a note— 4 
N. IL iSAi Ij OhScj St, 455; m Iowa, 544 ; t Car. & 1*. tHi^J; Kuss. & H. O- 
U. 101 ; lU. !i3 : 2 Kast P. d. 979, S»riti ; or to alter tlic dato of a note or or- 
der— 3 Yeatea. ^jI; ¥j Pa. St. iVJ; Q Tarlter Cr. U. 135: 33 Mo, lOS; * 
Tenn. ILep. SJO; ft East* mi\ 15 IcT. 2^; 7 C^ar, & V. m^h or to altera 
cheek Already made, with Intent to defraud— 47 Cal. 401; aa. altered. 
It 19 rorgery of tiio wbolc-U ired. 4^)1: to alter book accouiita ivnd 
pa3».bcK>liS^3 cos C. V. ItL^; Lelffh & C. k&i 1 LcacU. 180; to niter the 
receipt ou a not'?, tlJOURb suth receipt waa without fiSgnuturo—lU Uliio, 
15. So, it U foi-jfery for aphcrson fraudulently to alter au instrumcirt 
previously fofKed by hiuiSLlf-J E.T.!^t 1\ V. im ; or to cra«o oua elsiia- 
tore or indoraeiuent and luscit another^ Bar, mel.) 52^: 15 M^fi^s. 
mi 3 Brcv.&07; i\i N. J.L.507; Husa. & R. O. C 2aU To™^.^" VoS 
'•iRnPttca or luarglnal emblems of a bauk-oota— »i CoiC. C.S3J ; tioiit>tcu 
-J Brev. &07. 

Inaertlont.-To insert alter a namo a falso atl^lress J^^^^^^^7;\ 



552; but 111 L> lueio addition of BurpUiaafte to nii l^^tri^eiit la uot to™ 
er>-T hvA %ii; L N. IT, HT^ (i Mas*. 6ia; ;-J ,V^aS\'<ti^.1"knd^r5vcdL W 
aaWoij tu ttio liiBtimH«ut,mufct be specially alleged and pvovca as 
li^-llU&l. 4a B. €. C, 251. ^ . ,„.. 




jaf ecefot ttind » Ixwift^'CQM. Its ' «r vai 

fitoma not«-^rA1ktQ^li> but seo «<fiNiai?9i 1 Iht. ta, 

cePtancpbt{fTOery-38 N. H. 824 ; 4f Mo.552; Imoday a 0, 485; 7 Car. 
&P. 632?^^car. &*K. 627-; ^ Cox O. C. 426; 1 h^yr. C, a 135;:or tOflll ui> 
a signed check without authority— 2 Car. & K. 'rt)i; ot to flllilp a' Wank 
with a lar^r^r &am than was aatborizedh-^'i Pa. St.<29rT Gar.i&P. (i»2 : 
ortorauagenl;.frauaaleQtl7to aiterthfi ptroviilonsmaninstnimont 
in caaes of wills and AeeoB sigiied in blank—jie 111^46; 47 Iowa, 454; 
Noy.lOl. ... .'. • . ... 

Use^ of fic^tions name.*-Porgery may be committed Jiy the use df 
afictltipasi]%e'-a20Mass.858i 5 Ala. 747; Bald. 36^/1 Omt^b 0. a 
21«; 1 I^»Bh,fl4; fd.97; Id; K2; id. 2^14; Eusi, * B. 0. OMtBCir,A 
P. 62^ as drawing or acceptiug in a fictitious nawe-^n. Oa. 4^. whcr^ 
the Instrument is used to prejudice^a respoAslljl^ person bearmff the 
same name— Kuss. & R. C. G. 405; 4 Post. & P, 81 r 4 l^erm Rep. 29; s6, 
of_the fraudulenttiseof thd nameof a flctitiqutf flrmr-S Ca?. iSi.P, 629; 

2 Post. & P. 560^ MUW XV XO UMV AVJ 

member of ^ucu firm^U Orayj 

same name— Kuss. 

'"' ' "la?.! _-, 

_ . _ Arts td boa 
and.^eq Ruas. A»t G*GfSl^ I 

.^ „,. — .„_ ,„_^ a-existent Derson, if Uiftiy tpdep 

, may be foygery--7 Peters, 132; Bald. 3e8; d Sorg. ^ R. 568$ m 

214; 130hi<it453:,l4l.ex.6QSi & Cox C. CiQ^i id, U6; 1 L^wli, 

94; Jd.22flj 21d-775; id, 983:, Buss. Sf B. C. CSaOjid. 209; but seeB 
Ala. 747; u Gray, li;7; or the name of a non-existent corporatioti, to 
defreud;^-BaJd. S(>8; IBjpn. 418;.8 t.ei$|i, .732; as a non-existent baiuc-- 

but it is not forgery if- def ehdant 

^ . ^uch flnar-u Gray* a97; and.^eq Ruas. «. »# 

Lefkchj 439. To sign the name of a non-existent nerson. if 1: 


Bald. 368; 6 Berg, di B. 5(if),.^Yo'f^rge t]^' name of an im^iuary chM 
as the representative of a cmldless person is indi(n;able-^Ea$t P. <]. 



So, to sign a paper in an assumed namo».to defraud, if 
pnrpwtS'to be^dnulno> is forg«t4^Bald« 868; Bdss. & Bv O. G. 
297; id. 209; id. 26(>; Id. 278} iS. mx 1 I^aoh, 57. ^ 

Intent.— l3ie essence of the offense is the intent to defyaod-r^ Ci-„. 

G. C. 43; 39 N, J. L, 365 i5l Vt. IDS^ ^ Huhiph. 347; 15 Ha^ 6261 ^iVf^m 
409; 7 Car. & P. 549 ; WTTli. CaiDi. B. 1197 2"T!iunt. SsiTpralid and ii_ 
tent to deceive constitute the chief ingredients— 4 Wash. C. C. 726; and 
it Is not necessarj^tttat anV porttehlar person should be in fa«t de- 
•f rattded— 8 Iowa, 231 ^ 15 Mass. ■ 626 ; 2 Humph. 347 ;' 1 Bay, 1 20j Addis. 
44; Thaoh. G. G. I32rl4 Tex. 6981 & Ohio, I2f 2 Straage, mi i 1 Ld. Baym. 
7^7; 8 L0W« Can. J. 285; 14 tip. Can. C. P. 309; eomini, 25 Sdich. 359; nor 

._ .^ isary that anyone should be in astate to bo defsauded-^ 

U^i — • " ~ - 

is it 

^ *ny« . , _ 

Iowa, 231; U ^exJ 603; S Denlsou,>49d; Buss, a b: €. iC 1S4>; 2 Car.4; 
K.-8e6. The intent may be inferred; from fa^ar and bireumstatnees-^ 
Bald. 374; 61 lud. 406;.'75 lU. 638', d fiutaiph.494'; 13 OhiO, 19&; 8 Car. ift 
P. 27i4; idw 27ft; id. 4ftl; id. 6S2; id. 499. It is sufficiently shown by ex- 
hibiting af orged receipt for money pretended to bave been paid out 
on an employ er'e aoeount^? Cart AOP. 549. The .Ihtenti ext^t» tliongti 
■the forger liimself intends to protect and take tip the Instrument at 

Validity of forged instromenL—It is not neceisary thatit weald lie 
effective if trne arid genuine— 49 tJp. Can. Q. B. 2i8r nor fhat^t weuM 
be TWld— 7 Peters', mx 'X ^id. 143; nor that it woald be Wnalngori ihe 
tles-5(yMe. 409: 4 Parker Or. ft: 217. ' It mfet ajfcteroti itTft 


r J some l«gai validity— 8 Yetg. IW^.ei^b.WosCtJ^^V.^S': .« 

Allen, (N. B.)15; conrra. Bald. 866. A variance tn-t-ae HHme^oPtate 
drawer is Immaterialtt-fi^N. Gv.407;iOr th««aii|] of AH.-iadocsflmt&t— 
. BaUL 873 'r I Brter.'tbt orthat it wflata some: requisite «f law tnglye It 

d by Google 

or arrerfentoestuiip^-MCal. SOT; 13 Test. Tfii 47 V; H; 402) 191kniittr|72; 
l>Ut see *23 Wis. 004. If it be (Capable of being primtt facie proof in an 
•ctloi ft Is attfflelen^-Kuss. lA B; C; C. 83. 

Sijnilitude .— Korecry ro n s is , ; j v , i lj tlie appearaci -" o of truth to a 
irif^re cieceit—L^w H. I 1?. i.l -uo. llio resemblance of tlio forgc<l to 
tlje getiuma must b^ such iw lulcbt tlecelvo a jtieraon of oixllnary cau- 
tion-] I Cusli.^slj IDInd. 31? J iVlrJj. 157 j 4 Wash. C* U. 733; Knss. ,£ 
R, C, C 2l:i; or apefsoji of or«Jimiry tPbtiervation-nS N. U.^li 1 Vi^ik. 
137; tiUa.'i^Kl; 2 Head. M5; 7 reteia. UAi 2 Hi^r, fOel.) 327. It neetl 
not »o Tpsomblft the grenTiluo as to be Jikely to aecelve espefts, or t>M- 
cera of tbo hank on wklch ilie luatjrmuent 1^ drawn— U (Juab, 4^1: sto 
3 Dill. 3'^: 2 East P. C. Jni^^O; If ft \}e vrima facie Hvli^l to paaa aa frtte. 
It is euJt]Cient-*Jt\ H. ati; 7 Pick. 137; 4.' Me- ^J2; 4 Wash. 0, C. WJ; 'i 
HKaxi^OTV; 25 \\>ucJ.47i; 8 L^isb, 7JJ; aud sco 8 Iowa, 231: 23 Id. 4iJ7; 
nor does it maitertliit tletectioii would Imvo followed a close Inspcch- 
tion— 1 Har. {DeJ.) StfT. If thtrt: i?f u i>nro possil^tlity to dcnclvc, it la 
siiaiclcnt— ly La. Aii. 3?fl. TIib sJiuilitudo may exist cron t bough notf ft 
of that denotiiLnatluii iicvtir hiid beeu Issutiii— 7 Pick. Wi.\ ft NT li, 3v»7: 
30 Mo. 2M. 

• 471. .]^yefy person whos, \rith intent to defraud an- 

othjBir, make8, forges, or alters auy entry in xiny book of 

riBCordSf or any instrument purporting to ))e any record 

or return specified in the preceding section, is guilty of 


Poblic recorda and documents.— Judicial aii^ political records are 
Subjetta of fai^ery. as atirit— ';j Ma<i3, LliS; 6Bill> 4Wj SCar. & P. im\ 
or a hail bOBtl— 2 Va. (]as. 47i.i; <jr a warrant of attorney— 2 Orancli t'. 
C 5il; Hartii. T. 81: or aa order for <li9cb2jT?t5 ot a jjmoncr— 3 Jiaat 
P. C, fcitU; Kyau & M, ait;J: or ;i deposit i on— Su Mt;. +[tf; or a marriage 
recMer— 2 Cranch C. CKl; a Sid. 71; or a protection— i! Cranch C. C. 
&2ri 1 Sid. 142; or ;v will, though It iitirports to be ttiat of a living per- 
son— Bald, -im-^ tiScrg. & R,57^); L Lcacli.tiy, But a document wfilcti 
does not on its face purport to be .^copy of tbo record. U not a forgery 
—^Ih. £39: or a will att<^st.f<I bv an ini^ufriritnit luimbf^r of witne-ssea— 
8 "STefiff. ISO. A custtini-lioiLse baiti in Included In the terti^ "other 
ii<?iitiuga ^* under the Uuili d Ktatta SLritnte— 11 Ijkitf bf . 211. Putthiff a 
forged raortsfatre ou record Is a sufQcieut atterlnir— 27 Mich. 380; 8* C 3 
arten G. K. m. 

472. Eve^y person whoj with intfent to d^lrand' an- 
other, forges bt coiinterfeits the deal of this iState,: the 
seal of any public officer anthorized hy law, this seal of 
kiif cotirt of record, or th6 seil of any corporatiotti orany 
other public seal atithorized or recognized by thd^laws of 
this State, dr'of aiiy other State, goviemment, or country, 
0* who ffclJJely makes', forges, or counterfeits' Atiy ittipres- 
iftbn purxferting to be an ifepiJe^lon of any snoh seal; or 
ttib has'itk his jidsseSsion a^f «a<ib counterfeits sisal, ot 
fmiirfesibii theredf , knowing it to be 6tount*i*ffett6di''^i3iaf 
willfully conceals the same^ 1^ gtiilty ollckft^t^. ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

478. ' Fbrgdry ik piinlsbabl« by Impriaoiiiiieot in tl» 

State prison f dr not less than one nor more titan f onrteea 

474. Every person wlio knowingly and willfully sends 
by telegraph to any person a false or forged message, 
purporting to be from such telegraph office* or from any 
other person, or who willfully deliVers or causes to be 
dellTered to any person any such message falsely pur- 
porting to have been recelired by telegraph, or who fur- 
nishes) or conspires to furnish, or causes to be furnished 
to any agent, operator, or employ^, to be sent by telegraph, 
or to be delivered, any such message, knowing the same 
to be false ot forged, with the intent to deceive, injure, or 
deftaud another, is punishable by imprisonment in the 
State prison not exceeding five years, or in the county 
jail not excieeding one year, or by line not exceedinjg five 
thousand dollars, or by both fine and imprisonment , 

Telegraphic ine883ge8-'25 XTp. Can. C. P. 4id. 

475. Every person who has in his possession, or re- 
ceives from another person, any forged pi^Oilaisspry nets 
or bank-bill, or bills for the payment of money or prop- 
erty, with the intention to pass the same, or to permit, 
cause, or procure the same to be uttered or passed, with 
the intentloQ to defraud any person, kx^owiiig the same to 
be forged or counterfeited, or has or keeps in his posses- 
sion ^ny blanker unfinished noteorbanJ^Tbill made in the 
form, or similitude of any promissory note or bill for pay- 
ment of moQey or property, m^de to be issued by any in- 
corporated bank or banking company^ with intention, to 
fill upr and complete such blank i^nd unfinished note or 
bill, or to permit, or cause, or procure the same to be 
filled up and completed, in order to utter or pass the 
sam^y or to permit, or cause» or- procure the same to be 
littered Qr passed, to defraud any person^ is punishaW 
by Imprisonioent in the.State prison forjuot less thaa..ond 
nor more than fourteen years*. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

P&BBenlaii of forged bllla.>-To constitutA t!ie crime of poflaeaBlaQ 
of counterfeit notes, ft i.i notnftcesf^ty that thero ba aa Intefit to fill 
the in up. or an attempt to iio ao-^l C^aL ft'jSi 2S Id. 214. TUe ecl«nt«t- 
tti material, Anaiiiusc be alleged and proved— BMas^. 59; ABlss. ]2Jj S 
6ae«(l, 494. Th& fiHDd^seluii of b;ftiLk-bItl:3, wJilii Intent to xya&a tliem 
ill anotlier State, Is sumcient— 2 Maas. VAi: 10 Gray. 477, A bank-bLU 
tif another State Is a promliiaory note, aud possessfou of aa altered 
note la poflaesslan of a forged note--10 Gr^y^ 4T7; 11 Ld. SOd; see 2 AUeri, 
165. Ha?Jng in possession several banK-uotea on ^^IB^creat bank?, wltb 
Intent to pasA tl^em* constitutes Imt one oSonseW Coou. 414; fi Porfeof 
Cr. B. «3i see a Mass, 69. 

476L . Bvery person ti^o makea, passes, ut<i«rs^ pv pub- 
UsfaeSi "with mtention .to defcaad any olijid^ peiiisoii) of 
wli0^.witliiibeiik.(» intention, attends to pa^e, utter, or 
pubUfih^ or who has in bis po^9089ion> yrith li]i;e tnt^nt ;to 
titter, pasa».or! publish, any tictitions. biUi note, or check, 
purporting to be the bill, note, or chjeokt ^ other in§1^- 
xnent in wilting for the payment of money or iHroperty of 
some bank,' corporation, cdf^aitttership, or individual^ 
^hen, in fact, there is no such bank, corporation, copartH 
nershlp, or iiidividual in existence, knowing the bill, note, 
check, or, instrument in writing to be fictitious, is pun- 
tehable by iinprisonment in the State prison for not less 
than one nor more than, fourteen years. 

Passing fotgbd.i^apc^.^Passinsr a counterfeit U putting It off In 
paymeutcrex^haiige^Baad. 967; 2 Binn. sa^iBuss. A R. 25; Id. 446; 
1(1.212; Id. 249; 13.863; 2 Lfeach, 1096. The offflnae is complete when 
It passes'iutotJOssesslon of anotheiS-2l Wend. 50d; even though utter- 
ed as base coin— 1 Abb. U. S. 187; 17 Vt. 151: 25 ItUch. 888: 2 Leachi644; 
and even if passed at a gambling-table— Thach. C. 0. 2iKt: or for the 
Hlegal sale or Uqporfi-^ Cold. 12». • Dejivecinff a bank-note to an Ifijko- 
rant boy. to be passed Is a passing— 11 Mass. 136. It there is ^ concert 
bet^^een two or more tb pa^s counterfMts, the act <>f one is the act 
of all, and the possession of one the possession of all— Bald. 292; i 
Halst. 26. 

Uttering.— Uttering a forged Instrument Is parting with It, pasaing 
it. or off erlni? to viMiii It, whether tlifi offer be acreadetl to or not, know- 
liiff it to beToi'gcd-2S Cfvl.^Ufi; Bald. Ul; 2 Blnn. 2^i; m Ufatt. ?33; 
lii.m; U Brit, a C.iyi: Kiisa. *fe Tl, C. C, 25; Jtl, 4iii; id, 2U:, Id, 24^; id. 
3tia: Id. '200: 2 Leacli, 10^. Tiiere tnust be an uffcrinff lurH caw.**— 7 
CtJi C. C 122; aiKi see 7 Car. * r.428; Kuas. A li, a C. 121 \ Id. mj 4 
€oi C. U. 4 JO : 2 T^aelj ,736. It im Indes any deli very for value— 23 Cal. 
308; lAt»b. U. S. 137: ITVt.iBl. Tbere must boan tut^atto paaa Has 
cenuine-Bald. a^7; 1 Abb. L\ S. 137; 60 Ala. a4! 2^ Ga. 3S7. It must 
not only bepiiUMahed ^ true. kirowJng it to be false, but %s"lth tntont 
to Injure fioma one-23 CaL -idb: 6* Ga. W)4; 29 Id. 3ti7; 2 Ha\vl!St44)i 
Thiicn. C. €. 533^ atid It l3 no defense titat tlicre Tva3 at tbe tbno no 
one to be dof raurled— 5 Car. Jt P.iiai 2 Denlsoti^ 4J3. It Is ail Independ- 
ent offeaso— a Mass. J&th id- 107; iind Intent to defraud Is an pasiiiitial 
elQUtent^Se N. J. I*. ISi; Thach, C. C. 142; 2 Taunt, 334; but this, may 
be iultrred from the f^jcta- see 1 Urev. is;]: 27 BUcb. 3&T; 3 Abb. N, T. 
App.4il i 1 €ox €, C. 250; 4 Id. 430; fi Id- 18 j 1 id, 313 ; Rubs. & K. tf. C S&i 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


att^ 14. «Uic 4 Allen. a05; }Ajll IHl id Br^T.^ 
na: t BM»,S^i 'A Hiimlth.76; 46 lU. 162r 24 
Leiffh^TAii 6i(L7a8; lA Obio^ 817; SlnO^JU; « 
Ctini. Law, title Voexokt^ 

4tTI. "EvefTf x^rson who counterfeits an^r of the speeies 
of gold or ailver coin current la tWlStatQ, or any kind or 
species of gold-dast, gold or silver bullion, or bars, Itimps, 
piles', oif^ SMiggeCi, -or \vtio b«I1», p&atieSt or gi^^ei in-jpay- 
Aient BUch dOunteYfoit Wfti dus«, bullion, 'bSM, * lomtis; 
pieces, idvTktggiBtai <i» permits, ^eau8ies» or pvoetursa the 
same to bd sold^ uttered, or passed, with intention W de- 
Irand iii37 peMbn^'kn&wlilg the same to be ooanterfelted, 
i^ goiity of ooimterf^tlng. 

iS6aAftaifeMAg.^Ttktf€oogteU tit the Uttitea i&tstwliM poWcr to 

the powei'of Congr^Mll not elciuslv^^ Efow. 419; 9 Id. MD; MCaL 
163; 8 Mo. 421. Coimtexf eiting appUet to tbei act of i^oi^o as (UatliH 
guished from tbe act of cireulatina— 10 Law Beporter, 400; and the latter 
may be punished f>ythd »bite--^^ow<4ia: 9 Id.KO; 34 GU. U3; 1 Doug. 
(Micb.) 207 ; 3 Head, 26 ; 2 Tread. 77(>; 2 Law JReporter. N. 9. ^. Counter- 
zeiti^ smootn-wom com is sufElcienir-^l Leacn,285r id: 364-.- Brightening 
iq» bitse coin for circulation is ooantf if eitiAg— 2 Va. Cas^ 366. A State 
may punish for counterfeiting a national bank-note— t' Ark. 89; and It 
Is aniicient similitude if tt had the fti»eliniappeataiic»V'aiid purport- 
ed to b^ sigoied by the president andcaslUerr-z J^ick, 137:. but where 
UMBf e waa no-auch oank in etisteilce; It wu held not an oiCense under. 
OSatatute— 3 mss.m. I^orgery niay be committed, by counterfeit* 
Ing aajbutnunent wholly printea or engraved— 3 Oray,<l41; 4 Parker 
^B.]S6;a8 railroad j»aaaba-^9ual^ 150. . 

478. Oounterfciting is punishable by imprisonment in 
tibe State prison for not less than one ndr mor^ than f oor^ 
teen years. ' ' 

479i Xrery piferton Who haii ^ his'^Ofldedsioa, op re- 
ceives for any other person, any counterfeit gold or silver 
coin of .t^e spedi^s current in this ^tate^ or any counterfeit 
gol^ dust, gold (>r silver bullion or bars.luBaps, p^ec^, of 
nuggets, wUh ithe intention to sell^ utter, put off^ or pasa' 
theaaine/or permiits,, causes, or procuire^ iha s^ite io "pe. . 
sold, uttered, or ^as^ed^, with intetitlox^{)fai(d^t]7 
petson, kno^ilig the same to be^nterfeit, is j^Mbable 
by imprisonment in tne State prison n^ less tlMt one noie 
oiore t'hlm^^ioar^ti yeara. J . *. ..;;'" |' '.••"./.' 

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. Gtiiit^FctBB^Micn^— f^Q guilty parfeloliiAtlotL k^tht *^ xsq^ b« In^ 
, f erred from pro-of of pos&eseion of a qunntity of tlit> coin, miQ. iiish^' 
nncBtf iinrt aprntratrts fof itfttkriijif ft— .V McLean, ?a3: Jrl. gH*; |»^e«.» 
. Blcm witlj K^:lOl•it4s^!i^ot tUo puiisuiii^ fttf i,vlilcli tUt^y were designed— II 
Cal. twe. So a StatG mciy puulbh ttic oiCeiiEiC? of kceplnjcf cci'miterfelt 
coin ^iih lutrDt ta pASsU— li Uead/Jiii; oa colri Lu ttie liltiiUltnide of doUxira— (.a Met. 'loH; but Callfomla grjia coin not being I*w- 
fuJ colDnthfl passlug thereof Is mot wkbln torf frtatut<5— 1 CIrat, Sl^. 
^vlcleiico thEkt tbo acfrj:iifUut had coiinlierfeJt f^in for Balo, i^ud pjatlia 
Eold such cot n t:o a i>art> ,13 sufflt;l^iit to CoiiTlet— 30 Cal. lirj Aea23 

''480. 'EriBty petsbn %lii5' inafc^sj '^^'kiKi'trttagly' liaa In 
tii posir^dsion^ny'die, pkrije, of atay aj^ilAtufr, pape^, 
inetal/mabhine/ot oKierthitig^ljatfelVet, ttlaae Ud6 bf itt 
€totmt€¥ffeiiiii^ttoiii Ciirrtotin^<*ls Stot'<6', to itt'cotoi4«rf ei*- 
Ing gold dttst; gbld^fsilf ©^ ^t^, hvlISdti, lutfups,' ' j)l«k5^ 
or nuggets, or 4ti ^OtttrterfeitJiig Bknk'iidtiea or Biff*,^ & 
Thinisha'We by fttiii^sdiimeritiini th4 S*ait€» ' pift^ii ^Mbt lesk 
than one nor more than fourteen years; aisd alt^sdeh d$e^, 
plates, apparatus, paper, metal, or machine, intended for 
the purpose aforesaid, must be destroyed. 

Molds and tools.— A state mav impose a penalty for keeping 
molds and tools adapted to connterfeitinff— 2 Oreg.221 : out not unless 
there was an Intent to use them— 34 Cal. 183; 2 Mass. 138: but see Law 
B. 1 C. C. 284; the possession of an instrument for making one side 
only of a counterfeit is sufficient— 6 Met. 221. 

481. Every person who counterfeits, forges, or alters 
any ticket, check, order, coupon, receipt for fare, or pass, 
issued by any railroad company, or by any lessee or man- 
ager thereof, designed to entitle the holder to ride in the 
cars of such company, or who utters, publishes, or puts 
into circulation, any such counterfeit or altered ticket, 
check, or order, coupon, receipt for fare, or pass, with in- 
tent to defraud any such railroad company, or any lessee 
thereof, or any other person, is punishable by imprison- 
ment in the State prison, or in the county jail, not exceed- 
ing one year, or by fine not exceeding one thousand dol- 
lars, or by both such imprisonment and fine. [Approved 
March 30th, in effect July 1st. 1874.] 

482. Every perlbn who, for the purpose of restoring 
to its original appearance and nominal value in whole or 
in part, removes, conceals, fills up, or obliterates, the 

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MMitil, SMuAa; 'pnA^lHbolIes, or other •▼idsAM of ea&oella- 

iJSon, £rom any ticket, oheek, order, coupoo, receipt for 
fare, or pass, issued \>y any ni^Iroad company, or any le9- 
see or manager thereof, canceled in wiioleor in part, with 
intent to dispose of by sal« or gift, or to olroulate tbe 
same, or with intent to def mud the railroad company, or 
lessees thereof, or any other person, or who, with like in- 
tent to def mud, pf^ for sale, or 4n pa^menit of fare on 
the railroad of ^he ooaipany, snch ticket^ oheok, order, 
ponpon, or pass, knq wing the same, t9 have been so re- 
stored* in whole or in part, is punishable by 4n).pcison- 
fioent in the coimty jail, not exceeding, six months, or by 
a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or by both such 
imprisonment and fine. [API^^OTed March 3Pth, in effect 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Lineietir; S ^M. 



S484. •OiftTedny'* deflnied. 

S 480. Xjveeny of k>86 property. 

S 483. 0ranaand|>etltl9rc6ii!3r. 

S 487. Or^iod Ij^rceay defined. 

S 438. Petttlareeny. 

S 489; '^tudahment of grsnd larceny. 

S 490. ' •Ponlsluneab of petit larceny. 

9 491. ]>ogs property. 

S492. lATcenyofwrltteQlnatnimenta. 

f 49S. Talueof passage tickets. 

S 494. lyritten InstroiKentB completed but not deUTflrod. 

S 49ft. Bererlag and remoTloff part of the realty. 

S 496. Beoeirer of stolen property. 

S 497. lATceny, and receiving stolen property ont of tha States 

S 498. Stealing gas. 

9 499. BteikUngirater. 

S fiOO. larceny of goods saved firom fire In Son VranelBCO. 

S 601. PorcWlng or re<:elving In pledge Jntik, etc. 

S M2. AppUes SS 3S8, 843, and 843 to Jonk dealen. 

48^ Larceny is the felonious stealing, taking, carry- 
ing, leadingi or driving away the personal property of 

See Stat, apj^d March 6th, 1873, and Stet. app'd ICardi 90th. 1873, 
▲ppendU, p|)b 714, 715. 

lianeny dffiiiBd.^Lart!6Dy Is th« wrongfiil or frandnleat tstking ot 
th9 pFnpvTtf ormnoth^r of Bomd IntiimLc tbIuPk uritbout bis aaattit and 
wtth tho Intention ttj rteprJTa liim tliereotpenuanently— leCal. 369: 2a 
id. dm: <7 Id. laa; S rtrancb C.O. i2-2; 19 Mo. 3^1; McAlL 'i03; Efl Tex. 
rr»: S. C3. 1 Uret'n C, U. S49: 2 Leacb, fCte3: ftlthougli lie intends onlf to 
la^fee temponii-y use of It— 3^ :N', .L L. 176 ; 8,0. 1 Aai. Cr^ B. ^m\ unci even 
If ho did not Inteul to convert Ic to his o wn usc^':iS €al. 3i^t . Tt Is cotd- 
ponnded oi tha t:iktiL}r, tiio carryiun ^vi^j, and tbo folonloaa Inteut— 
ifi Ciil. 371. Thpro must ba tlio p lemon t of trfispttss to com pie to the 
offense— *1 ?f ► Y. ei t m UL HtM. The iarcepy of aevi?ml artlek>9 beloDf- 
lag to dUTflrPitt owners, nt tUi* Rfltpe timo, la one offwac— St Oa* 171; 0. 
G7i Am. Cr, B. 344; 23 Ohio St. 3S); S. C.2 Green C. E. W2; 45 Tes. 7J i 
S3 Am. Bep. a02: H Itnl. Si?; I Tux. Ct. App, tSsJ Id. iO; 10 Hnaipb. 
lai; 1 Mo. 65; see 2 McMuU. 382; J Ma33. 400. When a se^iOiid tblef 
elflalfl gCHXls from th« flr?it thiat, H Ifl larcenjf— e Fa^. C. h. J. 453; 21 
Me. U; 8 Hill, »yd; 1 Lejkcb^ bti. ^Mtltii la puf^itaiice of a common 

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intent and preTlonsly formed design, actinff together, are all princi- 
pals, whether present or not— 3 Tex. Cft. App. 413; 7 id. 361. 

Subjects of larceny.— Every kind of property which has an Intrinsic 
value, however small, is subject of larceny— 3 Ulll, 194; 9 Gar. A P. 349: 
as a box of matches— 45 Ala. 29: or a piece of paper on which a void 
instrument is written— Buss. & B. C. G. 181: 1 i>enison, 69; a coffin in 
which a body Is interred-^^S jl|3D|.'20pi'Jlji <J. 2 Am. Cr. B. 638; iUu- 
gas— 4 Allen, 308 ; intoxicating liquors, though bought to sell 

mlnatlng gas— 4 Allen, 308; intoxicating 
., ,«.-__»„ ^ -d— 9(Jr 

'> immat 
lug away were immediate and continuous, a|:je ^ubj^t^ c 

Illegally, and illegally transported— 9 Gray, 139; or the money obtained 

by its illegal sale— 10 Gush. 397; jarticlea' kept and used for gambling— 3 

w . Ya. 685; chandeliers, and it is immaterial if the severing and carry- 

,. . ^^ continuous, a|:je ^ui^je^ct^^of 4^rc^ny-?-14 

Mail matter.— Money, gold^ust, orAHK^tkAri^ataatilMnAt tbMHkgh 

the mails, are subjects of larceny— I9teady,^S^1;,2|^tet|f«,M8;.a]P9rt. 

461. It is not larceny at common law tota^ke (mo^Bi^te 
has no value and does not import anyproperty InpmsessioAM} Jolfiis. 
103. Under the act making it an offense to steal tha ncdlj'eic., « post- 
office may be a desk, trunk, or bo^v^^urtedabeuta hpu«fiu ovfrom 9ne 
bulldhig to another-2 BlatchfJlOa; A^tTa Bbs^offl6Q"mSt p^ he 
liable without removUig the letter tvoiA the^ulldto|^2 Biatasa. t08. 
A decoy letter is within the act— 2 Blatchf.49Q. TiietM)t MpU^a.only 
where the letter is obtained wroiu?|ully from' the' po5w>mce lot the 
carrier, to constitute the offense of o¥>emhg, sedHsthig; «Aibezzl&ig, 
or destroying a letter-2 Blatcbf . 104; bat if tne let<^i^waa (» 

an agent, ^j^ ^'^ " *^ '" "' --^^ 

Money, gOK 

—3 McLean, 408; 8 Gox G. G. 491. See post, § 505. 

The intenlH,— Tbo Cy,!vtti^muat ha wronirful and frauanldrit, with Iha 
Intent Lo i}«i'iuajy,^l.l/ d^yriViitlltt owii^r uf ULi lirou^rty— I McrAU. kiti: 
SrorL 4ul; 53 Ala, filtl; 2 111. hlH; 1^7 N. C, (ji): Thanh. €.€* 4"i 3^ Teil 
!)75i 1 roir. mi u Yer^. Siii; Bi Ma. HI; sa m. SHl; 41 Cljqu. &;«: s. a 
1 Am. Cj% K* itfj2; ItasB. & K. a tJ. 2U3; boo 2S N* J, L, I7fi; L Aiiu C^, B. 
ff&a. All intent whoUy to ii(3]>rlvi3 U smEcient— ^li Tex, ^T.^i S, c. 1 (ireeu 
C. It, Wtt; wlUiOi^t :iiLtva.ut;kffO or ami to liun^^eir, tiicri caasa^ i^ not 
necessai-y-Jiti €^. m}\ fi^mm.2U\ 10 Ala. iii4: 64 id. U\t 1> C;in*P, 
34fii 0.4 4U1 iiiCeiiE tQ iiesLri,jy iU^ jiiijpsity i.LJilvtu^:^i U:ii.^&1^; ^ >ll&9< 
214; I'TTes, 521; 5'3 Alti. 4-11: 111 tllect uviirrLillElff S l'on.4(5t; orxtliwo' 
A UfPil wyj3 Rlvfn foFCX.imJnatluxi luul tlt-siroyed— Tloeii. (J. 0. 157; »r, 
\vliyj'iJ a bank oliicqr,exliHjitcnl lo UL^fcu'limt 111* nolo to oxOrmlitep and 
liecoiipeal.Hlor ifeACToyeait^l Ootm. SM^*? f^^ C, I Aiii. Or/lt.lSJ'Jj onlv 
Injury til Lho ovniei* UGiid Lua btni;;ht— ."aj AI;l, 4 lu. ^Tlijii' tlJ^tikliiAf rnu^e • 
iMJ {nfliimia /iirundL or aii ftifii cauio— H Mu. aJh ft I'urt.^liii lilcAii. 
SOU -i Hitr* (DeiJ ,l;iJ| a Ciir. Jfc I*. i^J4 j a Eaitf Lw ; McAU. lOi): 5j Mo. tW i . 
S*C. 2 Gr^eu C. ^GIJ; SJ Mo. gl!J; ^1 iiLiiii. Tlia UiLi^ut tt) deprlvo 
tJblas^rHiii-ily if BialUsi'^tjt^'ia H, J» L, ITu ; 1 Am* €f . S. .L-iJ; 4 Bijtcii^ 25. 
I^Jij^jfo ton to iio laiiie'uy witliout j> fc36niou7 liitcut— nBlAiiKl^;:^!; ll> Me. 
3*fJi X4w E. 1 C-.<^.2ttt; m1. l^Lit It in t!i j caskjucp af lliD oilciise-li N^v. " 
337; 55 ^d. \i.< Sq, wliure LJie laLUtif vi^^ Qpt'-^, tnnocejico will Ija 
prt^iunt.Ml'-^ Ala. Itli 1 i . ^. Sui tJ ud. (t- 51. -I* J J . It vv ill Ikj fi lin [* I v txeapaaa , 
'-^ Ala. lISJ; li tiiutidoii & ^L'4i}L But wliero lu-u^jcrty y hn't wltEan-^^ 
other tLiroiigli l^JidvcrttJices aud ho couf cui^ ] e. It ii liirt^f n/— 17 WtntU , 
tHO. - E<Pf tliji'o wln^ gCMHlj^ oIT^ rmUoaj:! iraLii In inotlQii. w iLli a felonious • 
Jat«tilii 14 lartieu) — 11 T&x. 21f j S. €. 1 Alu. Cr^ E, 4J3. tiot^i t ry in tis^n , 
•jtto|f*way, imy *tttfUii>t tkt cOriQealiflCHt.or ml^ rtejiral of injiit-iilou, 
ditjtmjuhiLea Lvrceoir fitiin mere trtspiwss-^dili.a^l; sodi flcia aje 
ovldeiicu of A JulomoLia iattijjt— il ll;i. 2^,^. Bii, tikin^ a korsc.imd, 
f.rni^.tJiiUTijf IE; t9 ol^tiiui jk reward, ur until tlia o^j.i£j! la uiduuud ta aull 

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2Q& I4«qc;bkv> I.^|B* 

lis at; B «acilllc»Tl«5:»Xl08. 143* *. See PMtjr's Ci^ini. L«<v, ti|le X*ab> 


The tekfaiE' -Thf^T* intist i»an actual or cottstmctlTe t^iMuT:' arifl 
amerelookii """ ■► ■'■■■■■■' ^'-cfiyJnH-in rif'irncrrirtiipfenrnprja <.•■:> verfr I 
with leares. ^ • [ ■, . . , .- ml— /lt NM.\,i:;ti: cr [.lH'.- iT]i;-r.>u|wt.Mtirj^i:if i% 
haiTel'Ortari";;K.jjiL' wLtn ufi^laniuaa intent ]■* mat- n lakini;— ijfj N*Cp 
395. The ess nvo of t hio otfcuiiO 14, l.lin,E ttrj npopei ty ba tiiJtbu ngiilQse 
the will of tliy ovrner-^1* Ytrg, 1*; Id, SiT; Law It. I C. €, iM. Bo, If 
to trap amaij , tho ownc^r leavpg iii^ [^ropprty cxi>o^i?<lK anilt tlirongli nu 
agent, Inciten the tUlef to tute It, It H not brc^'iij— 4^ Or*, tilx K. 0. 1 
iun. Cr. R.41 J; i\nd the prttperty miiist liftva l^eeji either In Um nctrml 
•r oonstructi ^o pi i^sct^c^Lun ut tLe mvEier— X^tv H. n^.i^. JAI. Tho tUef E 
need nut &e< < f<.3jiriiy be fii^crct acid wiLiiuixt kiiQ\vltJi4l^o of tba (jwnctr: 
it mMT be dCMJo by dt t!cutioiitaitl(lee,or ft-aud— 41 Conii. swU; S, C- 1 
Am. Cr. K. 31.' ; &i >?« Yh ll L ViolL''nao Is not uuccstiai-y, m fraua in^y 
supply its pUicu-*! I i(j fc. ^; ^ = 

The asportation. r-Asportationand intent topteal are necessary ele- 
ments of the crime~47 Cal. 105. lliere mast be a severance f rent the 
possession of the owner— 8 Port. 611; as by enticing cattle by placfna 
food-8 Port. 511; 3a Mo. 92; or by leading-15 <;al. 40»; 80 MoT92; op 
<lrivlng— 19 Cal. 409. The least remoyal, with Intent to steal, Is sidB- 
elent^O Ohio St. 608; as taking ujonej firom where the o'smer put it, 
and dropping it when discovered-^Ia. Hie thief need Only; have a 
momentarypossession— Ooj^e, <N. J.) 489; 8 1'ort. 6il; 65 N. 0. 305. Any 
chauee In site enables an asportation to be presumed— 1 Moody O. O. 
107 ; Buss. 4; B. C. C. 387 ; 1 Craw. A D. ^; lCwH. I C. C. 316. A fraud- 
ulent taking, under the Texas statute, is sufficient. Without asporta* 
tioifc-d2 Tex. 157 ; 3 Tex. CU App. 70 ; (» id. 4d6* ' . 

TaMng by a trick.— Where property was obtahied. by trick or frauds 
"Without the iirtentlon to pay for it, it is laa-cenv-^l? Cox C, C. 269: g. 
C. 1 Green C. B. 30; or with thC intent to steaflt— 12'Cox C. C, 474; S. 
C. 1 Green C. B. 154. Obtaining property by personating tlie dwner is 
larceny— 13 Allen, 181: 121 Mass, Sfif; as personating the owner of a 
watch at a jeweler's, paying for the repair and taklhg itawsfy— 12 Aileh, 
181; or obtaining a parcel &oui a carrier's servant, if done lucri causa 
—1 Tex. Ct. App. 204; where a bill was handed in 'payment for a less 
amount and the whole was appropriated— 66 N. x*«!^t 10 111.506; or 
where one got possession of his own note, with a felonious intent— 41 
Conn. 590; S. C. 1 Am. Cr. R. 3<)2; or to Indorse it, and carried It off— | 
Denio. I:i0 ; or where a shopman put clothes in the iiand^ of a customer, 
who carried them off^^ Gray, 83: 94 Barb. 420; or where one took, a 
bond, due by him, to examine it, and destroyed It^lO. Gratt, 768. 
Fraudulently obtaining money, under color, of a het^Bnss. & B. 0. Ci 
413; or inducing another to play cards and winning his money by a 
trick— 6 Baxt. (Temi.) 622; or oy a fraudulent device, as the " hVe-cent 
trick," is hiroeny— 3 Heisk. 53; S. O. 1 Green ,0, B. 866. Obtahiiug 
money by the confldenoe trick, as, where one of two confederates pep* 
Boaded another to Jet liim have money to \ffager on dice, prou^ising to 
pay it back from a ctieck he pretended to have, and the other coufed* 
erate won the money* it is larceny in both confederates-Htl N. Y. 322; 
8. C. 2 Am. Cr. B. 346. A person may be conviQted, although tiie prop- 
erty waA obtained by oonnivanoe with a servant of the owner— 17 

Ohtaining-jgpods by ^aud.-^Where property is obtained by f^se 
pretenses, a felbnioas intent Is necessary to raa«e ft larceny— 4 Xeigh, 
689. If the owner parts with the possession merely, and not the title, 
it is laroen7-^124 laass. 326; 1 Port. H8; 19 Tex. 826; » Tex. Gt. App. 122: 
as where a uagistrate reused to return property taken from accused 
on his examination-^ Hd>.666: or where a person left his property in 
charge of anoither, who converted a part ofit— 1 Cold. 120: or where a 
person expeots that the same tlung will be returned .to himt the con> 
Pmr. CODB.— Id. 

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§ 484 IrARGBKT. 206 

Tcralofi may bo [arceoy-U I]l.93»t 43 td.39T; 41 K. 0.513; 13 Qmttu 
603. But it tho owner la dec e I vctU iito partlnflr ^ Ith the posa essiou uul' 
the tltlo also* It Is not larceny but faLne i hrt tenses— ti Hon, 609i 5 
HlUpariJ; I Port, US; IS Tei.flitti & 'ie^.Ct. Aph. l:2i:; iieltlicr thetakp 
ting nor tba con version U felonious— Ki 111. 127. wlicro tlio eoods were 
ti-aiisterrod so aa to create any tfust or ligbt ot property, tUo iadict* 
mentcauuot bo inaintaliied— 1 Pott. 11«; 1 MooUj C.C, Iw: 7 COK C C, 
Ittl; as wbtnscoo<l3 aro delivered on credits LclJib, (^B-^^ 5 II111.Z9I; 
H CovfQn,n^i U Serg. & R. Sk3; Iluss* ^fc K. C. C-^ifl; A Car. Jfe P* Til- 
See 1 Loacli.4&Tr 2 10. C 14; 1 Moody C. C. 113; L«lgb& C 61; 2 EastF» 
U. (373. 

Parting with goods for spociflc pturpoae.—Tf the owner parts with 
til a nrojitTty for a partkular purpoio, imd tho receiver with traiad- 
iitcnt; lureiit couverta It, It la larceuy— 15 Scrg:. & R. 9»; 2 Nott -fc MciL 
sy? IJ: Jiuslu ITfei. fio, where nioney was delivered to » man, to be do 
llvered by hlni to l]i3 wlfCf to tie liy ber jR%^e.ste<i in fltot!ka for the use 
of the owner, and the Ucfendants in tended to convert It to their owa 
usB^ It Id Lu-c€!ny Ui lintb^&^€aL IBj; but If tbe owner parts with and 

fives ijos^esslon absolutia of tlio property , It la cniheizlement— -12 Bush, 
rti; IS Stiftf^ A: R. flS. rrauLluienLly obtahilns atbet k and tonvertlnBr 
It and receiving a Boldier's ditichiirse, is larceny of both— J03 Miisa. 12$. 

Inducing a person to eoEisl^n L^oodSj aiid then convert hig them, la 
larceny— 17 Him, 3tf6: M N. Y. Ill : 4 llun, ."illi \1 Cox C. C. 2ti3; fi Elch, 
2ill 24 eratt.*B3: 3t{ BaiSH.MJ; 3 j'^rker,&90. If oneukcs possession of 
Im own certified check to purclumt] lii L vur there with for the banki and 
be u^eathe ehtjcfcfor hid own ivurpoaess, IE l4 larceny— 53 Cab 2d4» In 
iiucbi:as4:!, tho check reinahied the projierty of the Lank— Id. 

TaLttng by owner— A man cannot be convicted for takinqt hla own 
property- if €al, i^ti; but be caimot retalt.» j>t oLen property by a bi each 
of the peace— SO Ala. Ud^ 8. C, 1 Ain. Cr. it. 5j ; yet a miio may be 

fnllty fortakliigf bla own property from a bailee— 31 Cal. G71 ; If tho In- 
ent be to char^ro ballco. or Ln po^o a loss on h Lm— ;j? Cah 51 ; 34 Id. 67 1£ 
Ifi Id, 3G9i 10 \Yend. iWi i 1 LI Mais. SW, Seo 1 Tex, Ct, App. fei 2a Ala. 
90. K tho geueral owner of attached property takea n part of the 
property to Uclraiid attaching crtdJtor^, it la larceny— 111 BlA$Sy392. 
A Joint owTieiv or tenant In common, by taklnff the whole property 
out of the biuda of the bailee, i3 liable— !»(i AlX t'u; .,» Id. ".JVii; 7 Tei. Cf, 
App. 21 i Busa & It. 47fl; Id. 47L^: tba title to the whole l3 In tho tenant 
until division and dellvery'-<ja 111. 'Jl-S; 2y Ark. 573. See 60 Ala* (MS; 6S 
H. U. MU; 7 Tex. Ct. App. 27. 

By bailees.— Bail Is the giving of any property to any person for any 
purpose— 9 Low, Cin. J. 247. Bailees under this section are bailees to 
keep, transport, and delIyei<-8 CaL 42. They may be indicted for 
larceny on converting the property to their own uso— 19 CaL GOl; 23 id. 
S80. It is larceny to use any bailment or agency as a means of procur* 
ing possession ofproperty with intent at the time to fraudulently 
appropriate it— 3 Helsic. 63; 8. 0. 1 Green 0. B. SS«. Where a bailee 
obtains possession of property with intent to steal, and carries out his 
intent* lie is guil^ of larceny— 23 CaL 280; tliat it need not be «atniiM 
furandi, hnt merely a fraudulent conversion— see 82 Pa. 8t. 472: 8. C. 
2 Am. C. B. 962: €ontra, I Kerr, 116. The chief distinction between 
larceny and emoezslement is, that ia larceny the guilty party has, and 
in embezzlement he has not, possession of the property at the time of 
the commission of the offense— 37 Cal. 53. If the intent to steal did 
not exist at the time of taking, but afterward, it is embeolement— 23 
CaL 280. 

By agent or aervant— Where property, when appropriated by a 
servant, was in the actual or constructive possession of the master, it 
is larceny and not embezzIement-99 Mass. 428; 63 N. C. 656; as, a serv- 
ant who has care of horses in a stable, who may be convicted of steal- 
tng ohe of the boises— 37 Cal. 61. The possession of the lervant* In 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

a07 xABOsNir. S 465 

mdi eaMs, te tfie Bosaewion of the mMfias^l JDento» mi I B»y, 9^:4 
Wasli. O. C. 70#. A senrant. wbo ilias only the custo<lr of the gooofc 
and contorts them, Ja guilty of -lAraeny-^Sd ICass^ 4^i ?Q '^n 744 

Law R. 1 C. 0. 2S5; to, where corn waa dellTer^ to a miller to be 
gronnd'-l f ick. 873; 2 TJp. Can. 0. P. 288: oi: material recelTed hy a 

B. aei. Smbezzlement hy ageota and embezzlement by trusteea are 
distinct offensea. , 

Borrowing and hirittg.->Where a bailee obtatns possesalon of prop* 
crty, by borrowing or hiring, .with a fraudulent intent to convert it, It 
la larceny— 35 Ho« 229; otherwise at comnion law— 20 Ala. 428: so/ 
where a person borrowed a horse with felonious intent— «4 N. 0. 586: 
or, where he hires a horse and absconds with lt-^3 Up. Can. Q. B. 130; 
4 Mo, 461; 7 Leigh, 732; see 82 Vt. 569; eontra, 9 Yeif. WT; or trades 
it olf , it la larceny-^5 Tex. 738. It is larceny, although he did not sell 
or dispose of it— ^ Vt. 369. But it is not larceny unless the I>alhnent 
waa to redeliver the identical chattel or money— 1 Fost. & F. 647$ 2 id, 
14; Leigh & C. 38; when it will be obtaining by false pretensea-26 
Ohio St. 13 ; S. C. 2 Am. Cr. R, 98. 

By carrier.— A carrier, converting put of the goods intrusted to 
him, is guilty of .larceny^ Mass. 380; 8 id. 318; Euss^ & B. a C. 337; 
or, a ahipmaater .breaking bulk by taking casks from the hold— Buss, 
Ss R. C. C. 92; 7 Car. A F, 823: so, where a laboTer, hired to linlq^, 
takes part of the cargo— 1 Cush. 3; taking a whple package, as well as 
a part of it, is larceny— 4 Mass. 380; A carrier, hlited to cart Coals to 
specified persons, who sells the coal and appropriates the proceeds, la 
guilty of larceny— 10 Cox. C. C. 289; 14 Week.Tl. W9. The wrongful 
tiUdntff rora a oanal'boat, by the captain, of part of cargo, is laraeny-^ 
17 N. 1. 114. 

By clerk.— A clerk in a meircantOe house has a qualified apd limited 
possession of the goods as to strangers^ but, as against his principal, he 
has neither the possession nor the right of passession— 367rex. 333; S. 

C. 1 Green C. B. 646. So, If he converta a bill of exchange, it Islarceny 
^1 Low. '269; 3 Bos. A F. 396; or, where he feloniously approprl£Ltes a 

_.fft— 6 Hun, 401; or, where a teller of a bank wrongfully converts 
money to his own use, whiQh he abstracted at night— 116 Mass. 1; on 
wherei a salesman abstracts part of the goods and converta them-^ 
Leigh, 743; 26 Ind. 101 ; 2 Tylet, ^2{ 104 Mass. 348. So of a night^letk 

485. One who finds lost property, unciet circum^tflnces 
which give him knowledge of or meains of inquiry as to 
the true owner,- and who apprppdates such ptope^y to 
his own. use, or tothe'uae of another person not entitled 
thereto, without first making reasonable<'and pst efforts 
to find the owner and restiOi^Bithe property to 1x114^ ^^\xtliy 
of larcepy. , . , , , f , , ,- '•' - 

Lost property.-rLost property is subject of larceny-^ Ala.' 43«j 
Bell's C. C. 22. The llnd^ of lost property is giiflty of larceny, wheire 

he knows or has the means of knowing the owner^iand he appnopi^ates 

perty found to his own use— 9 Conn. 327 ; 20 Iowa, 267; 2 McMull. 

„_ , „i Mais. 42i .S; C. I Ajm. Cr. R. 412; 33 iUa* 423: . ?5.Ioiwa,itt«i 10 

nL;805; e<^ C. C. 390rs!^O.''2 Lead.U G. S2 j 4 ifoied^a & Mr 949; 


in.\„. , , . 

but see 1 Mart. & Y. 226; as, where a number otim$^lm$wei^ VlVf(9 

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§S 486-7 BABcnanr. 20S 

MMtt a wat^lKBiaber's window, IHUI he picks one up and oonoeato It— 3 
eneed, 885 ; 4 Id. 8S7 ; 'or, U drop|>ed from tbe pocket of ownen and be 
pteked it up and appropriated It— fO Iowa, 2($7. He mast know ttie 
owner at the timis of the flndln;, or the goodar must have eome maarlc 
ty which the owner could be ascertaiuecK-l Hi&, 94; 13 Oratt. 725: 14 
id. 635 ; as, where a name is written on a cbeck->9 Conn. KJ ; 2 McMnU. 
50?: ^'!'. 0"<* -»— '^" ♦'>n r^Tticular person— Jehb C. C. »: but If there 

hi : :• i -1111.327; IHUI. 97; 18 Ho. 821: U Johns. 

X!^3; 4^1 iDwa. 7^ 6 Vtiv,. iuj ; 6 III. 305; 14 Gratt. «35; 3 Up. Can. L. «f- 
iS; Deur^- ^Mz 1 DeulMjn, ;i f; 2 Car. & K. 831; 3 Cox C. C. 453; 2 Lea<i. 
0. C. S4 ; lis, ^hcm a pfjekt iL )ook Jias no tnuk'^l Penison^ 3&7; 2 C&r. 
t)£ K. ml ; ^ Cox C. C. 4^. \'i Uere the owner Is unknown It U larceny, 
unUsa ha is ivkoily tjukno -vu— <» N. C. 813; "Where a person picks up 
anything vfhciv Uajumtw^i ihit he can immediately find the owner, hui;, 
JnfitiwJ of r^torinjif ihv> an ^^ie, appropriates It, it is larceny— 8 Car. A 
V. Ufii or, it lia iiad r£!it^ii:i.jle ground to believe that he can find the 
OvmBtt it la lilt c{.^iiy--l L AUui, MS; 29 Ohio St. 184; S. C. 2 Am. Cr. S. 
a^Ti a Cox C. V. 4[ii-t Lel^ti .t C. 1; Dears. 402: 6 Cox C. 0. 4l5: as, In 
ease of coitua faLLiiii; iru^a .% train— ^ Ala. 381: or, a servant nndinfip 
baiik-notma In Ler luo&Eij^rV House— 8 Car, &P. 176: or, jewelry found 
IQ the a wner'a ;?^irtleu— l Cu: & K. 245; or, a pocket*book left by a cna- 
toruo r— 1 1 lumiil]- 2J^. 1 f i Lj -^ prisoner, within a reasonable time, could 
h&TQ found the owu^, wL^jiii ne believed he could find, but instead of 
waiting he ImmefllEitLly uoii verts It to his own use. It Is larceny~-I2 
Cox cr. c. 10:j; S. C 'A Or.-r n 0. R. 87. See generally, 19 Miss. 249: see 
C\ ^ . •■"■'■ . 1 i : t: = i ■ ol. COde^ §S 8185^142. 

Bight to appropriate.— The finder of lost goods may take them Into 
bis possession, if done without a Celonious intent, and no^utoequent 
felonious intent will make.hknjsuilty— U6 Mass^ 42; 22 Conn.l63; $ 
Dev. 473; 14 Johns. 8»3; 8«Jones, (S. C.) 899^ 63 INU 223; 14 id. 86; «7 id. 
102: Law R. 1 C. 0. 139; 11 Cox C. C. 103; 5 Up. Can. L. J. 148; Bell's a 
p. 27. So as to estrays-^ Ind. 285i; id, 223 ; 12 Cox C. C. 4^. If he takes 
them with intent to appropriate them, really believing the owner can- 
not be found, it Is not larceny j but if he reasonably believes the owner 
can be found, it is larceny— 116 Mass. 42; 29 Ohio Bt. 184: 68 Ala. 42d; 3 
Car. A K. 831; 8. C. 2 Lead. C. C. 409; I Denison, W7; 8 Cox 0. 0. 458; 
?,Car.&K.8;il; 8CoxC.C.458; lLewi^,251; but if the intent is formed 
afterward, even though is not larceuy^l Hill, 
46; I Humph. 228: 58 Ala. 425; Mart, ft Y. 226; 13 Gratt. 757; 22 Conn! 
mi 18 Mo. 321; 14 Gratt. 636; 19>Io. 258i 1 Parker Gr. B. lOJ « M. 188: 
Beii»BO.C.84; lLewhi,251;8Ctaw.4D.8(K ' * 

Of articlea mislaid.— Placing an article on a table, neglecting, or 
forgetting it, i^ no^ » hM^ig, l^id a toloniquB approoriatlpn of it |s lar- 
ceny— 21 Ala. 240: so, where one left his purse, unintentionally, in a 
Mable-4 Sneed, 357 : 2ckl. 285: or where ant^iea Are left Ina vehicle^ 
2 £ast P. C. 664; 1 Leach, 413; id. 415; or where money was left in s 
bnrean dent to be repaired— 2 Leach, 952 s er to beeolrCj7 Mees. & w. 
023; or wh^re a ring was accidentally left in a washpt^i.o— 33 Conn. 260: 
or where property was, bv inadvertence, left In possession of another 
-~17 Wend. 460: 21 Ala« 240: or where a hone Is iiirtiay*7 Tex. Ct, Add. 
*'ii.21 Tex,J72; 28 Jdo. 630; 1 Lewin. 195: or sheep; l)ut not If drlv^ 
•ff by mftotalra-^ Packer Cr. B. 199; 1 Hue Pi 0. 6W. 

486. Larceny is divided into two degrees, thd first of 
which is terpied ip^and larceny; the Becond» petit larceny. 

See onftf, S 484, note. 

487. Grand |arceny is larceny committed In .either of 
the fcdlo wing oases: 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

a09 LABOBHT. g 487 

1.' When tiia* ptopetty taSken Is of' ft Val!i« exce^ditj^ 
fifty doUai:s, 

2. When the property^ is taken firom the person of an- 

3. When the property taken is a horse, mare, gelding, 
cow, steer, bnll^ calf, mule, jack, jenny, goat, sheep, or 

Grand larMnf— is a dittkiot offense from bnts^arsr-^ Cal. (Dt; and 
Is not subject to the doctrine of merger— 48 Ala. 684; S. C 2 Green G. 
R. «27; 29 Ala. 62: 86 Ind. 286; 37 Ala. 134. Larce&y Is included In rob- 
bery, and, on a charge of robbery, the jury may convict of burglary— 
93 Cai. fO. It U competent far tbeXeglsiatura to deiDlare that larceny 
Qt specific property i^hall be grand larceny— 39 Cal. 406. Where therp 
Is cue contunimg tra!nsactlofi, the defendant may be convicted of 
grand larceny for the final carrying away,though there be several dis- 
tinct asportations ; bi^t the mere retention of the fruits of several petit 
larcenies will not make faim guilty of ghmd larceny— 63 Miitt. 4Dt: See 
unle, S 484. note. 

3ubcL 1. Value.- The valu^ of an article Is what It will fetch in open 
market— 68 Mo. 208; S. C. 2 Am. Cr. B. 638. The liCgisiature nuty de- 
clare the larceny of specific property designated shalTbe deemed grand 
larceny, without regard to its talue— 39 Cal. 4V5. Value is material only 
when the offense is graced by it— 1 Ga. 573; but some value is neces- 
sary— 49 Id. 229: as to the owner, but not necessarily as to others— 
Charlt. R. H. 518. The allegation of value is sufficient, if it Is iEts cer- 
tain as the language of the statute— 9 Cal. 236. 

JSubd.2. Xj^jSOCj-Vj U'-uiSM tiiu ptj ai/il.— L-iiliji^;.:: i.tiMI^JUy, J.ini Uii-KiiV 

tram the p^ noil, are dbtluct oirttDiua— Ehi LrJi. l>i; Sj. L'- 1 Am* Cr. iL 
426. It is siLLllLlent it tliL^ru hn uu iuieiit to a|j)i[njirlate', tliuugli th« 
owner Is noEiUsFituUnt;—;! Cu.sii. ^35; iiij.l1 in pK:3inig n ]>arKt't^» actual 
asportation in nut ("^cntla]-HU MiT*^* 4;il: KoiiijiitiuifT iIhej ha.ud Iblo 
one*8poclcer,tvt^u:Ujy: n pooiitt-ijugk mtti hiiLng ih tiUuuC thfuo iiichijs 
tromthebC'loLii uf tlve prjtktit, i^suainJEnt— ipi) N. Y. 61ti; 4J '1 ox. SUi; 
8. C. 1 Am. i"r. 11, 41^4 ; ami sito ^'i^ Ma*ft. 4..1 ; m- UiJcluu a wati'li f rom i he 
pocket, tbOtLLtt Ihe t liiim f zitohiikt iiini [jri: vptits iii asiforuthjui— i t'p- 
Can. It. J. Itj; DtLLr^, Ji.S. TLl re cnii ho uii attuniiJt to CfJUijiiH an att 
only when tiiCfii Id hm-U ji lf<':j^lTiiMii!Jf jm. If uuhitciiTuptwl, wobIU emJ 
In completina-Loljii ^ €. 4rt : iP Cu\ C. C €/7j S. C S LtJMl. C. 0- iva. 
ThecriteriOLL whUh aistmgiiJsilMM r^bhery tvam Mrctaj, U tbevlo 
lence; there ran im nolnTconv wath vtEjl^tiee— li Ga-USS; andijn^tchhig 
money out of a pE^rtion'g hanii is iarfieu^ aud ijpt roUbfiiT— ^5 Ind. 4ijU; 
24Qratt.555. See an^e, §211, aud note. 

Sufyd. 3. Larceny of anirnsls. -Any one who shall BtPRj> etc, is 
guilty Ql grand iarci^o^ — 3u da. 4yti. Bomc^tfc nii LmaJfl rto snbleota 0I 
Dmieny-^ Ga. 2UU; as Mo, BJO; a ParHtr Or, E* I'^i » Gruy . m. Bo of 
the cinrasa of an aiiimaj lnW^A wiiU liiteat to Hea,! it— 55 Ala. 1^ 
<* Cattle" inclades a biiU yearJlng—JS Tex. 1: aoil "tow" fncliKles a 
beiler-4& Uiil, TOj Bo astP€:r 1.* aa nnlmEkl of tlie "i^ow " klisd^-SS AiiW 
15(1. Tht) ttriu '* yeEirlUtg " ijuiy apply tu :kny aEiUiial a year old— 55 A l:i- 
112. Hogs ai-e sablficta of lattrLny— :::4 Oa. 4lr7 ; "itl id. t]3S; ^ Id- liMj and 
a p]fi Is a bugt witiiiii thtj feiatuto— flj Alii, i!tt: litf Id. tiu. The Uicf t «f a 
*'geTdliig" Is tlio lljoft cif a pfirtK-Mlnr kind of pm]ierly-l Tcr, Ct. 
App. 2^; mid a lioi^af-niiuot bii <'iJiDitnnj*l to ftnamde n ti'kliiiff or a 
marp. eJi;.— 3 Tox. t:t. App, 240. ^l3£?n3 n purty obtiiliied a borsie D/ 
false pft^ten^ef* f roio a buiit;^. be i» piviliy of laroeiiy a^i to tbo owtuji" of 
the horse- 1 J Cox: a U, iJd; S. C. i; iin^vti C. R. Iii. Poultry and pea« 
tem\»f tbeir yoiuig» aBid tiielr eggs, aio^ auujects of larccjiiy— ^ Qtk^yt ^1\ 

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fSS lOoScuTcTzS anubees In possessroDLofui^lr owner*-* Blatcbfl 
498; 23 Oratt. 941; S. G. 2 Green, 658. At common law;'wfld animals 
are not saUqcts of larceny— 5 M. H. 203 ; bat mar become such by t>e- 
ing kfUca'SrVJbnflnfed-SfN. C. 815; 2 Buss. Qrjfo; I Hale P. C. 611 : 1 
Hawk. P. C. ch. 33, « 41 ; 4 Bl. Com. 235. So, doves and pigeons in tbe 
cote are subjects of larceny— 9 Rich. 15; or flsb in a tank, or confined, 
fHC deaA^lS K. Oi 4Si; 2 Bun. llaa; or d&t>t in a park* or bare In a war- 
ren— 2 Buss. Cr. 73; or oysters in the bed— 2 Bish. C. L. 6th ed. $1 77?, 
'775; but} arable o4ue^ In a trap in the woods, is not a sabject of lar- 

48d. Latcenyii^ other cases is petit liarce&y. 

See oirfe, 5 484, iioto. ' , . 

.. 489* Qrand larceny is pu]iislia\>ie by imprisonment in 
the State' prison for not less than one nor more than ten 

^ CattloH&teiaUjig is felony )Iq Oeorgla-^S 0«. 491; and in Texas Uie 
th^f t or certain animals under the value of twenty dollars is a felony — 
1 Tex. Ct. App. 628. In Tennessee Ijorse-stealinfir is a capital offense— 3 
Helsk. 452; B. €. 1 Oreen €. R. itel. If the character of the property 
'fitolen be charged fei the indictmeht, and the thief offer to return it, 
it 'will not mitigate the panlshment-^2 Tex. Ct. App. 148; see 5 CaL 
«56. Bee anfe, Sf 460, 484, notes. 

Connected with adultery^^tt is a felony for a man running away 
with another man's wife to take his goods, though with the consent of 
the wife— 6 Co wen , 572 ; 43 N. t.,5QS ; 2 Lans. 370 : 1 Denio» 549. Aa adul- 
terer stealing Jointly with the wife is guilty of larceny— <> Cowen, 672 : 1 
Denio, 549; f Moody C. C. 243; 8. 0. 2Xead..C. 0. 361. An intention to 
comjllt adultery is sufficient-Car. & M. Ii2; Bell, 95; 7 Cox 0. 0. 1 ; 10 
ld< 60. So an adulterer may be guilty of receiving stolen property— 
"Leigh & 0. 240 ; but he Lsnot guilty if he merely assist the aaulteress in 
eariying away necessary wearing apparel— Dears, & B. 187. Where a 
party eloped with a man's wife, taking her husband's pony, cart, and 
harness; which he' sold, retaining part of the proceeds, he was flniilty 
of larceny-12 Obx 0. 0. 19; 8. C. 2 Green O. B. 3! : 6Cox 0. 0. 876; S. C.2 
Lead€. 0.862; but he cannot be convicted without proof of hlsliav- 
ing taken part in the asportation or ih spending themmt stolen— li 
Cox C. 0, 637 ; S. 0. ,2 Green C. E. 82. . 

490. Petit larceny is punishable by fine not exceeding 

five hundred dollars, or by Imprisonment in the county 

jail iiot exceedi^ig, six i^onths, or both . 

Seoopid offensebf^-A statute providing that a second conviction for 
petit larceny makes one guilty of felony is . not obpoxious to the Con- 
stitution— 45 Qal.432; 48 Blass, 4I3;.3 6ratt.738. Petit larceny is de- 
claoed a felony by-the laws of Indiapa-t^ lad. 376^ See <mte, Consti- 
tutional PBOvi8ioira,'art. i« 1 16. 

4^1. Dogs are property, and o£ tbe value of one dol* 
l^teach) ^vithlnth^nj^ean^ngof thi^t^rips "property'* and 
*' valu<^,** jEts used in this chafjter. , * 

> !D^s.-;T;A.t <M)mmon law dogs are npfesiibi^ts of larooay-^bhlo St 
400; S. C.2.Am. Cr. B. 338;. 81 N. C.J}2T; 48: Akk. 161; 5TJp. €an. L.J; 
1439 ^BU- Conk. 286; IHale P. G. 612; nor .in' New. York, except when 

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492. If the thing stolen consists of any evidence of 

dQbt,.pr other, written ^nstr^umowt, the amount of mon^y 

due thereupon, or secured to be paid thereby^ and re* 

mainihg utisatisfied, dir whichon any cpntiiig0?acy might 

be eoll^cted jbhereon, or the value of thiB property the 

title to which iSi shown thereby, or the sum which might 

be r^QQiroj^^d in tlie absence thereof, is the value of tb© 

thing stolen. ' 

At common law, closes In action, toODds, btnsr or' notes, or otiier 
€jjdejirc-3 of debt.aTQ not detmetl Butfjcitsof l,irccny-5 Mason, 35S; & 
How. (Mii?3,J33; 1 Kott & MtC 91; (IJotinJ?, 103; 8Cott't33; 1 Leacli* 
€taj unLc:^}^ they be vaJltl and subsisting securities— l Tort. 119; bcg :I 
tFp. Can. Q. IV. O, S. ^41: but tbo statiilo puta them ou ttic sjime foot- 
mg aa the iTioney intenuea to bo Eccurcd— 3 Erer. lU. Ha bank-uotes 
and Uniteti States treagiirj-notes aro gaotl3 and chattels— 5 Ark. fll3: 
33 Ala^tifH; 5Ma.soii, fl^Jj « Mo.28;J; 1 Ttx. Ct. Anp. ElU; 1 Maocly C. 
<J. 218; 2 Leach, nm; 4 BOfi. & P, 1} i leach, [J5S: lUs-S. &E. C- a 67; 
ci}ntra,2 Grancb €. C.4ii3t Id, I^; rso 1 Port. 35; 1 How, (Mlss.)2if2. 
Coupons on State bonds— 7 liaxt. (Tenn.) 22; rertlflcates of slock, as 
railway scrEpt— J Up. Can. L. J. S9; a chuclt and asoltijer'?? discharge— 
lOa Mass. 4:5; a receipt or release— -2 Lrev. Pti; 3 Hill. 1&4; but, if talken 
before aeliTery, IC is not larceny—^ Denlo,>5U. Ko.accoimtable re- 
ceipts for morn'y or for property in storo, and stiippiniir receipts, ara 
subjects of Jaixreny-4 Parlitr Cr. K, 245; tiT N. Y-aiJ; 3 Hill. 194; or 
redeemed bank hi Mi? In po^iscssion of tjauk ngent— Itf Cusb. S^kj. Kecords 
V'hSch coiicer]i realty are ijot subjects of lareeny at common law— 2 
Strange, 1133; 3. C. 1 Lead, a CM?; 1 L^acb, 13; see 1 Halo Y. U. 510; 
2 Eskst F. C. StiG; 4 Bl. Com. 1^4. 

493. If tho' thing stolen is any tieket oi^ other paper or 
writing entitling or purporting to entitle the holder or 
proprietor thereot to a passage upon any railroad or ves- 
sel or other public conveyance, the price at which tickets 
entitling a person to a like passage are usually sold by the 
proprietors of such qouveyanceis the value of such ticket, 
paper, or writing. 

494. All the provisions of this chapter apply where 
the: property taken is an instrument lor the payment of 
money, evidence of debt, publip security, pr passage ticket, 
completed and ready to be issued or deliv^ed, although 
the same has never been issued ordelivered by the mak« 
.er^ thereof to any person as a purcha^^r or owner. 

495. iTlje prdTfisions of this chapter apply wh^re. the 
thiaag takekt is any fl:ittttre or pa^rt of thereajiy, and is ser* 

y.u.y Google 

§ 496 : uoboart, St2 

leted at the time of the takix^, in the same mazmer aa if 
the thing had been severed by another person at some 
previous time. 

Bropdrtir savoring of the x«alt]r.— At comttibn law things wUlcb savor 
of the realty, and are part of the flreebold, are not snbjeots of larotay 
—1 Hale P. tf. 510; 4 Bl. Com. Zs2i 2 East P. 0. 587. The rulo does not 
apply to such thinvrs as are only coustntctlvely annexed* as belts used 
In machinery— 11 Ohio 8t. 104; a key iu a lock of a door-d Blackf. 417; 
orlcelnanfce-bouse— 3H1I1.395; but things severed from the realty 
are subjects of larceny-4 Har. (DeUlitt. Oroiainik field is subject 
of Iarceny-^2 BaiL S34; regardless of value— 59 Ala. 116. Althougb 
outstanding crops are part of the realty, they are subjeeto of larceny 
-54 Ala. 238. Seep(»^SS971,972. , 

In committing trespasa.- If a person, by committing trespass vrttb 
a felonious intent, carries a\vay and converts personal proMrty to hla 
own use, it is larceny— 11 Cush. 433; as by steaung things amxed^to the 
freehold— 7 Car. A P. 665; as chandeliers' attached to the buIlOlng— U 

wuii:ii una luu kiuui ucca uibu uuJkcs~-i xjvoMUf la. xut^uuauvuw i,u«&fr 

of an article attached to the realty, there must be a severance prior to 
the asportation— 4 Tex. Gt. App. 26. When tlie thing in Its original 
state is not the subject of larceny, it is necessary that the act oi tak- 
ing be distinct from the act of severance— Law R. 1 C. C. 317. So* It 
the goods vest in the owner in the interval between the severance 
and removal, it is larceny— Law R. 1 C. C. 817; as potatoes dug and 
in pits— 25 Up. Can. Q. B. 146. No particular space of timo Is neces- 
sary, only the severing and taking must be so separated as not to con- 
stitute the same transaction— 8 Kiev. 619. SOt it copper pipes are car- 
ried away with a felonious intent, if severed at one time, and af ter^ 
wards taken away— 5 Har. (Del.) 192. Whether sufficient time bad 
elapsed between the taking and carrying away to prevent them from 
constituthig one transaction, is a question for the lury— 8 Nev. 263; S. 
C. 1 Greene. R. 335. 

Laroeny from houM.— A person maybe gottty of larceny firam a 
house, although the original entry was not felonious, or with intent to 
steal— 10 €^a. 511 : 14 Bosh, 233. The entry musthave been against the 
owner's consent, unless.crime was meditated at the timQ of the entry— 
6 Ala. 855. In Massachusetts, housebreaking with intent to steal, and 
stealing In a dwellin^house, are distinct offense»-^ Pick. 1. There Is 
in Texas no speclfio offense of theft from a hou^e— 4 Tex. Ct. App. 472. 
It is not included in burglary —29 GaL 626. Larceny from n house may 
be committed in any bouse, whether within theourtilageornot— 58Ga. 
430; 54 id. 213; Charlt.R. M. 84: so throwing oft goods from a train In 
motion with a felonious intent IS larceny— 4l Tex; 215; 8. O. 1 Am. Cr. 
R. 423. Stealing property hanging outside a store door is simple lar- 
ceny, and not tareeny from a hou$e— 41 Tex. 126; 6. C; i Am. Cr. R. 420; 
nor is stealing clothes from the railing of a plazzar-3!) Ala. 679: nor cot- 
ton from an alley-way outsidea warehoose— 5» Qa. 248: & G.l Am.€r. 
R. 422, Stealing money from the trunk of a fellow-lodger, while he is 
asleep Is larceny in a uwellhig-house— 111 Mass. 429; 1 Tex. Ct. App. 
220. Where amaa committed larceny and threw thestolen prgpertyput 
of the window, the party receiving it is priiici pal— Ryan & M. u. p. 
66. Awifle cannot BtealxMm her bBsbaiM'ahouse-d Gray, 450. 

496. Every pcfrson trhb for his own gain, or to pre- 
rent the owner from again possessing liis ptopettj, bays 
or reoelTes any personal property, knowing the same t6 

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213 ULlbCSNt-. § 496 

have 'been stolen, ia pimisha,l)le by imprisonment in tb^ 
State {>ri8o^ not expeeding fire years, or in the county 
jail not exceedii^ six months, or by both; and it shall be 
.presumptive evidence tbat such property was stolen, if 
the same consists of jewelry, silver, or plated ware, or 
articles of personal ornament, if purchased Or received 
from aptJWon nii^erthe age of eighteen, nnless said prop- 
erty is sold by said minor at a fixed place of business car* 
ried on by said minor or his employer. [In effect Febru- 
ary 28tB, 1S74.] . 

Ofibnse generall7^~A party who wi^ not present at tbe theft, but 
•mbdeqtientiyv with' i^ullty knowledge, receiTed atd aided in -the dis- 
posal o^ the gpQds,.^Bpt an accessory to the theft, butls Jiahle«s re- 
oeivel^-^40 Csd. 8997 ^ Ga. 221 j 23 Ohio St. 130 ; 1 Green Cj. H: 630. It is 

. C. 1 Green .0. It, 37^. BeceiY;uig:« at the same tiiBe,|;oods stolen 
from Several parties, constitu«es Be vera! otffenses— 2 WfasSi 409; 3 Hill, 
194. The property must be of some v^ue,howeTei* fsmal^^l Ooniia 
690 ; 3 Hill, 194^ 4d Iowa, 116; 68 Mo. 98: Charlt. R. M. 618; T i*brt. IK; 
4 Rich. 8«H <7 Tex. 899^ 21 He. 20 { 1 Mass. 240. A statnts which pro- 
hibits buymff, oircQlatlng, jov aiding In the .conooabnehi of etolen 
Koods, 6p«ctfies four distinct offenses-e Ala« ei<V 6o, concealing 
stolen property, with guilty Icnowledge, is a grade of the offense— 2 


Tex. Ot. App.304; id..228. In Ohio, it is a misdemeanor -23 Ohio 8t. 
130; S. C. 1 Green C. B. 530. It was intended by the statute to punish 
the receiver where it might be impossible to identify thothi«,asin 
cases of professional receivers— 43 Cal. 197 ; so, persons receiving stolen 
goods do not thereby become guilty of larcen7->24 Cal. 14. See 2 
Btrob. 273. The common-law pfcense is enlarged by making the re- 
ceiver .equally «pnilty AS the thief— 2 likh. 432. 

Fk>opl9rt7 xx^i^ hare been «tolen.-rIt must have been stolen before 
a receiver can be convicted— 65'Ga. 296; 62 Ind. 879: 4 Strob. 300: see 
5 Gray, Kf: 7 id, 43: I tip. Can.X; J.~55; ,6 Car. & P. 199; Law E. 1 0. C. 
270; and the «t«5almjr must have been! done by some^o^er person— I 
Strob; ^00; 13, It:ed.338; 37 Mo. 68; 6 Gar. ^ P. 399; 9 Kt 366: but see 6 
Cox CO. 654. r 

Quiltf faaowledge.-The rectiver mu^t hme knnwiedgfi that tbo 
proiiCrtywaaet^len-Sl Ala.4^^ mm. m% kt2M; 73 N, H.^iiil Ma. 
%ii3t i'JWMafla. l!)H; 3 BJiiokf. ^; sey 3 Hill, m; unagiitlty kfinwlerl^e l4 
« crlnia when Ibe rectlviaK waj for the pnppoaa of caitcLiUmeat or 
^riitit— ,13 Ala. 4Si ; 3 Mt:t,< Kj'. } 4lT. Guiltr kuGvi Itdge injiy be inferred 
.roin the facts-!* Conn, fii;7; 7 VL lid: sao &£ Ala. 37y; Sd Id. 434; a 
Hebli, yU; a3frompo.=t3e!i«lou— 9Coi]U.&>T; TVt. I IS: but hnre j^eysties-' 
Blyti i-iijQt i^ufljci 1*11^1 3 Mich. 35U 30 Citsh. b^%; 4^ Iowa, ITS. Bee 1^ 
Cojta tJ. 017; 4 Foat. & F, sl/i* Evldi^nco of tho j>rint!lpal fa Ion. with 
corroborative fswts. is Kqfileicnt— 10 Cimh, 6JSj or iiy proof of other In* 
ataneiia at rocelvUi(?-4l AL.i, Uj^ 3 Slet. tKy.) 417; 23 Ohio St, 130: 3 
ParJtcr Cr. R, 33J. Ste 10 Cush. 5:!1 : M N. V, Bl ; 65 Id. 555; e Oar. * P. 
177 1 1 Moody C. 0, Uti; 1 Fost. * t\ hi; 2 Denlson, m. 

BflcelTfng.— The property must ba rt'ceivqd frottithe thief— 3 DgdIp 
son, 21 i fi Cox C, C. 443^ 14 Id. Ill; buE rcccivins from hla agent ll 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 



§ 497 lABcmrr. 214 

8iifflcient-123 Mass. 430 vaq asecoBd thief reeeivU^r from^ flort tliief 
la a rMeiTingf— 1 Car. A JL. 139, UnMfts the owner has rwimied pones* 
sioii previoas to bis receiying, t;he parQr must receive UfBjtoqaft, and 
aidinlUsposiDff t)f them-4(rCal. M9. Tt Is enl&cient tttfie re<ielver 
have control of the ffo<ids> a manual possessloB is not neoe$8ary>-19 
Iowa, 144; Const. 8. C. 274; 6 Cox C. C. 353; id. 554; ^ Car. & K. 987; 2 
Denison, 97; see 17 lonna, 140. Bat ft possession of commoAitles ex- 
changed for the stolen goods Is not a possession of the gooda— 3 8awy. 
547. Secreting the goods for the purpose of obtaining a reward is snf- 
lLcient-3 UiU, 194 ; I Blacli^ 28. 

Intent.— The receiving must he felonious and fraudulent— I Parker 
Cr. R.664; 3 Heisk. 215; 78 N. C. 4S4; but see 6 Car. & P7l78; Id. 335: 
with intent to deprive the owner thereof— 5 Humph. 68. It is sufficient 
if he receives the goods as a friendly act to the thief, or to shelter or 
accommodate him— 117 Mass. 141 ; 6$ K. C. 29; flee 6 Car. A; P. 885; Id. 
177; as, where a passenger allowed a trunk of stolen goods to pass as 
pait of his luggage— 1 Const. S. C. 274. An Intent to secrete the goods 
from the owner is sufacient— 3 Heisk. 215; 1 Parker Gr. B. 564. 

497» Every person who, in another State or country^ 
steals the i^roperty of another, or receives such property 
knowing it to have been stolen, and bringis the same into 
this State, may be convicted and punished in the sama 
manner as if such larceny ox receiving had been com* 
mitted in this State. 

Bringing stolen pro|Mrtjr into Slate.— The bringing Into the State 
©f gaoas stolen In the Dritifib Provinces is not larceny in this State-4 
Gray, J34; S. O, 3 Lead. C C- 371; 24 Ohio St. 168; S. O. 2 Am. Cr, R. 
549; but see 11 Vt. CdO : 4a Mo. m-, 11 Mich. 827. See 2 East F. C. 772. 
t^jitra, 1 Ma59. USi 2 Id. H; 9 OF^iy, T; 123 Mass. 480. It ia Otherwise 
maifit the Ijxw of Cannda— 9 Am, Hen. 119; 85 Ub. Can. Q. B: 608; S. C. 
1 Am. Cr. K. mi ?* Mi4 h. 166; it Coi c. 0. 74; 1 Dears. A B. 662. Prop- 
erty' stolen iti nnotht^t t>i;iC€, find tnuught here, Is larceny In this State 
flOray,7: S.CaLead. C. C.sra; lHar.AJ.840; 1 Mass. 116; 2 id. 114; 
SB MiM, 6?)3; I Ruot, ti^J; a Etam, J 23: the common>law rule being 
chanijea by &tauuc-ia.; UAIa,l«; 18 id. 727: 13 Mo. 453. latheab- 
ftRD^^a ft Bfatiito tbo ihitt oaiiiiot ho convicted for property stolen In 
C3Ji:4cl3— 24 Oblo Et. IGti; 8. C, 2 Am, Cjr. B. 349; but the rufe is other- 
wise oa to ft sister Stale— a Cowi?ij. IiTjj U Vt. 654; 49 Me. 18U 88 Miss. 
m-, ^Orejf.llas lUoiTa,4TDj i Duval, 153; 1 Masa.llG; 11 Ohio* 435. 
Bee 1 Cmnch C C. i:<i^. f?D, tiio thitf v lio steals goods in another 8tate» 
fiiia fccau.^ tuCii.1 L;.ni L> Jill agent, may he ludlctf'd for laVcdny here— 
123 Mass. 430; l>Qt there must be proof tbat tht taking was larceny U 
the first State— 5 Alien, «80» The^ possession!); the^hlef of stolen 
property IS larceny In evtery county Into \vhich he cairiee it— 47 Miss: 
671; S. C. I Green O. B. 842: 17 Mo. 193; 7 Lelgh> 708? ^ Met. 475; 1» 
Mass. 154; as every moment's centinuauce of the tresptisB amounts to 
a new«spoitatien— 8 Nev. 20S; S. C. 1 Gieen C. tt. 344; aiKl he ts pnnr 
ishable^ under any new etatute whkih may be passed— 21 Me. 14. TThe 
nde extends as well to* property made subject of larce^ by statutes 
as to goods fiub)ect of larceny at common law— 7 Met. 475w 0nder the 
Alabama statute, indictment 11^ in either county— 5fV :Ala. 59 ; biit the 
statate applies to lire animals, not to dead ones— id. 138. 

Ziiabili^.of receivers.—^ party liiay be guilty as a rec^iyer in a 
county other than where! the prope^y was. stolen— 40 r * — 

«a._.._ ^... — ^.- 1 — .J. "-'in— JJr — " !-*•- " 

Stato other than where it was stoleix— 2 Mass. 14; „ 
stolen abroad, under the common iaw-^l Cox C^ C. 

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215 liABOBznr. §§ 498-501 

498. Bte^ jpertkm ^<y, with litrteritljo liijttte or de- 
Erand, mstked dr causes to h^ made khy pipe, tube, or 
other instfdiDietit, aud connects the sazbe, or causes It to 
be' Connected; Trith any main, servlc^-plpe, or other pipe 
for conducting or supplying illuminating gft», in sfuch 
manner as to supply illuminating gas to any Earner or 
orifice, by or at which illuminating gas is consumed, 
around or without passing through the meter provided for 
the measuring and registering the quantity consumed, 
or in any other manner so as to evade payment therefor, 
and every person who, with like intent, injures or alters 
any gas meter or obstructij its action, is guilty of a misde- 

A person secretly appropriating gas by severlnsr a portion in a senr- 
Ice pipe of the company is guilty of larceny— 4 Alien, 808; 6 Cox 0. U. 

See 6 Cox C. G. 213. 

499. Every person w;ho, with intent to injure or de- 
fraud, connects, or causes to be connected, any pipe, tube, 
or other instrument, with any main, service-pipe, or other 
pipe, or conduit, or flume for conducting water, for the 
purpose of taking water from such main, service-pipe, 
conduit, or flume, without the knowledge of the owner 
thereof, and with intent to evade payment therefor, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. 

500. Every person who, in the<5ity and county of San 
Francisco, saves from Are, or from a building endangered 
by fire, any property, and for two days thereafter cor- 
ruptly neglects to notify the owner or fire marshal there- 
of, is punishable by imprisonment in the State prison for 
not less than one nor more than ten years. 

See Pol. Code, S 3343. 

501. Every person who purchases or receives in 
pledge, or by way of mortgage, from any person un- 
der the age of sixteen years, any junk, metal, me- 
chanical tools, or implements, is guilty of a misdemean- 

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^9011 £tABC8NT» 216 

l^undrad and forty-two^ ,ax^ tbrea hundred and forty^ 
three of Tnjt Penal Code are applicable to pezsons carry- 
ing on the business oC junk dealers, axid apply to their 
transaotiona of purchase and sale, as well as to those of 
pledge or mortgage. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



S 003. *< Embezzlement" defined. 

S 504. When officer, etc., guilty of embezzlement. 

S 805. Carrier, when gaOty of embezzlement. 

S 606. When trodtee, banker, etc., guilty of embezzlement. 

S 507. When bailee, tenant, or lodger gnllty of embezalemeot. 

S 508. When clerk, agent, or senrant guUty of embezzlement. 

S 509. Distinct act of taking. 

S 510. Evidence of debt undelivered a subject of embezzlement. 

S 511. Claim of title a ground of defense. 

S 613. Intent to restore the property ia no defense. 

S 51S. Actual restoration a ground for mitigation of punishment. 

S 51^ Funlshment for embezzlement. 

503. Embezzlement is the fraudulent appropriation of 
property by a person to whom it has been intrusted. 

see anU. SS 211, 425, 484, and notes. 

Embazzlom<;m.--Tho fraoiliili'nt apHproprlatLon of the property of 
anyLinir by cmo towbum it lias Ijogu mtru^tedt la eiB^bezzleuient— tHI 
Iowaj404| -1 Parker €r. It, filfJ; 7 Tos. Ct. App. 4lB; 4 Up.Cim. L.J. 133; 
*a, wuen projitirty is vtituutarlly tb llveieu to a person, wtio haa not 
genprally tho care of tiia eninloyRi's proT>erty, ^ml lio ctinverta lt*a 
Greene, i;IuT?pa,}ii*^ feS N.C.3i i. It tmpurU tho rDceptian of mcrnoy bo- 
!on]7li]^ to a inftjittir or tin ploy er, ninl ii f rLiurliilefnt jipproprlnitloii before 
It reftf-Qfia Ills bam Is— 10 Lf p. Ciiui. LM". 1 17- it vvud iiat an oUen^o known, 
atccimmon law— 4 Up. dm. L. J. 1^4; but ij pcirt^ly a statutory olfenao 
"31 Cab im; ftiid DOtoh]^'VVlLtcliwiiiitiii't:eTiyatcomfQO]iln,«i!§lD^rlu{|f^(li 
In it— til 111. SSt'j; a. C. ^ Am. Cr. R Hi. Tbo etatuto lattiiKN to puuislt 
aces Which before wcir» not I3!in]shable—'JS ind.^lX; 7 l'e?r. Ct. A pp. 
419. Tlio £tatut9 of CEaifoniia wiia fmmga to coiujirebend tbose ciia^a 
in whlcli property is hitruiJtetl to (icrka* strvaur^, vU:., by or for their 
iiastvT»t employers, etc.-— 57 C;U. 51; and tlio frntitlulQiit eoiivcrflloa 
raaj bo eifecteu in uny maniipr— 7 Tex* Ct. App. i\i. Tlio stalutola 
mado uppiicaliltt to artoi-noys'ivbo frauduleotly convert their client's 
proirtity — I Tej. m. App. Wi^ tliu {ainbexxloincnt of spveral artlt^les at 
tha ^[QO tiiTHj betiig ti flL'p^iat^j eipbezilemeot of each— 190 VUas* L 
Where 3 person hi Inaoeea bj fraud to pttrt with tlja tttlo, it is emlies' 
ilifiQf^Qt a^Eid not Iai^euy^-4& Iiid. ^^1; IT lib &3^: 43 fd, $^7; fi Gniy, S3. 
See mtit^j i is4. 

The property.— The property mnst be the property of other than 

lie defeni " " " " "* " * 


the defendant-2 Met. 343; U Met. 64; 107 Mass. 221: 2 Lewln,256. A 

?iiaUfied ownership is snfflclent as right of possession and control~7 
'ex. Ct. App. 418. 

Iiitent.->The fraudulent Intent is to be determined from the ert- 
deno»-7 Peters, 188; and it nay be inferred from the facts, ae 

Pmr. Coi>x^l9. 


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§§ 504-5 BMBBZZLEMBNT. 218 

flight, concealment, and evasion-^ Cold. 307; 7 Tex. Ct. App. 419; 7 
Oar. & P. 888. If a person In one connty is intrusted with per- 
sonal properly, and he takes it to another connty and there embezzles 
it, he cannot be tried in the county where he received it, unless the 
intent to embezzle was conceived there— 61 CaL 878. 

504. Every officer of this State, or of any county, city, 
city and county, or other municipal corporation or subdi- 
vision thereof, and every deputy, clerk, or servant of 
any such officer, and every officer, director, trustee, clerk, 
servant, or agent of any association, society, or corpora- 
tion, (public or private) who fraudulently appropriates to 
any use or purpose not in the due and lawful execution 
of histttist, any property which he has in his possession 
or under his control by virtue of his trust, or secretes it 
with a fraudulent intent to appropriate it to such use or 
purpose, is guilty of embezadement* [In effect .A^ril 6th, 

Oorporate body.— A statute against embezdement, from any corpo- 
rate body in this State, does not include corporations doing business 
without authority of law-*C5 Qa. 286: S. 0. 1 Am. Or. A. 166. Whtre a 
bank cashier misapplied the funds of a bank, it is no defense that he 
beUeved his aots'^^essnetioned by someof the direetors— 11 BUtte^ 
374 ; 8. 0. 2 Qreen C. B. 241. See ante, i 424, and note ; and pott, S 514. 

505. Every carrier or other person having nnd^t Ms 
control personal property for the purpose of transporta- 
tion for hire, who fraudulently appropriates it to any use 
or purpose, inconsistent with the safe-keeping of such 
property and its transportation according to his trust, is 
guilty of embezzlement, whether he has broken the pack- 
age in which such property is contained, or has otherwise 
separated the items thereof, or not. 

See notes toss 484, 504. 

Emi>i^jaS£,Ii:miui;it from malL— To constitute embezzlement of maU 
matter, ihalotusr must txi ulitilned from tho poaUifllcc ortbo carrier 
—3 BlfltcM, 104 J 4 rarkor €r. H. 1 <s4 , K o p ijatKimce cierK takes a tetter 
from tUe I>l«io of Its (deposit, he |u guilty, nlthongh lie Oties not tali^e It 
from the hui Id lug- 2 Ulalic bf . lJO*a. Bo , if a 1 alter-carrj er e ei? retea, em^ 
b^olG^, or dGatroya a J ttter^ packet , hag, or mallj he la Ita^bls— 1 Colo. 
315; tiful ft Jeccjy klter ia wUulii tllio fitatutc— 1 Ctirl:. 3iJ4. When a let- 
tor |M dsIlYerea to an autliarliiGd af^cati It c^imot La cliargod witli Imr^ 
log beea eiiibeEalcd--a McLean, mil 1 Low^ 304; 2 DlatuM. IMj aad 
gunerally the ileteutloii tif n lottcrwlikU camq lawfully Jnto a persou'a 
lioSficasLon ta not embeizlenicnc— a N.J. Law J. l?i j eep, 2 Blatch!, IM; 
ti McLcini, 5nSs 1 Low. 303; as* Oil delivery to fkU (Jiratid-boy—l ld.S(4; 
2 BUtcM. mil fi MaLeim, &n; t Ourt. 2«S* WLoro ft barkeflpor fraad^ 
ulautl/ coarerbed a latteCf conUlaim^ moo&y, intnutiad to Mm ta l» 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

319 Biquzzidnonrr. §| 50^7 

>fEt where A. mtrnsted B. wit:^ money to ognnt, andlB, walked away 
witb It, It was not embezzlement-^ Hase. eSi. 

506. Every trustee, b&nker, merchant, l>ro^er, attor- 
ney, agent, assignee in trust, executor, administrator, or 
eoHectot, cft person otherwise intrusted with or hwring in 
his contivil property for the use of any other person, who 
fraudulently tippropriates it to any use dr purpose not in 
the due and lawful execution of his trusty or secretes it 
with a fraudulent intent to appropriate it to such use or 
puri>ose, is guilty of emhezzlement. 

See notes to R4S4. 504. 

Tmsteea.— EmliezilpmcFit bf tmstncs Is n diHercnt offptise from 
embeziliimetit hy ajrents— SJ Pa, St. *7ii; S. C. 2 Aiu, Cr. R. lUi'i. Wbero 
a parly recelTiUB-lnoricy baa » rJilit to mix it wltli his own- ho Js not 
liidlttablfl for ao tluing-3 K. Tf, Sunt- N. S. 3S3- TIio failure to ptkf 
over to ft ward iiudcr as[e srn3 mairfed, after settlement of tho <iaiat«, 
la not a felony— 1 Loa, (Teiiii.l 73). A, person who approprlatei to hiA 
own use moiipyspnt toll ira to be tlavoted lin jipdrticuUTpufpaTO la 
UalJlG-^Law 11, 20, C. Ul; 8- C 1 Aiu. Cr. It. I.^T. It canuot conjbt of 
procecdii of tru'it property oUicr tbauaucha^ havoacLTiiodfrom ita 
Bale— 3 Tf^x. CU Apu. 314, A creditor mtsapproprlartii^ collatural ao- 
eurltlfs oitor <lelit Hhq^ if tho tnist bo to rtturn tlicm after the debt 
Ia3a.tl5rtcfl,i*jlinbl&— 10 Miisi]. I; or franc] ale Qtlymlaapprofffiatltig gov- 
emiBeiJt BPcnrttlM, nltliougU not fndonied— 1J4 Iowa, 102, Wbero a 
bank treaj-cTrcr alter;} Uw rvcconut t^ook of tlie hauk to mak« it appear 
that deptellL w;i=im[iiJ|p, uml no proof tlirii; tli& (Irposit did not go wItU 
<Oih^t bivuK IvJCLila, it 14 uot cmbe^iltmeut— 1 AlEen, 575. 

Oonsignee.^The fraadulent misappropriation to his own oae by a 
conslfirnee or bailee is embeszlement— 6 Tex. Ct. App. 844. Bo, where 
lie denies tUe receipt, or makes a false statement or entiy, or refuses 
to account fojrit— 19 Qray, 173; but see 61 HI. 882. The mere makinff 
of false entrlMi and false accounts does not constitute the ofrens»-118 

Oommlssion merchant— Actual demand is Indispensable to eon* 
▼let under the 8t«tQt»-41 Dl. 882; & C. 2 Qreen G. B. d06. 

507. Every person intrusted with any property as 
bailee, tenant, or lodger, or with any power of attorney 
for the sale or transfer thereof, who fraudulently con- 
verts the same or the proceeds thereof to his own use, or 
secretes it or them with a fraudulent intent to convert to 
his own use, is guilty of embezzlement. 

Bailee.— ▲ bailee is within the statute, and the term bailee is not 
limited in the sense of a iKidlBe, to keep^ to transfer, or to deUYer~i9 
t!al.600; overruling 8 Id. 42. The conversion of a bailee^ may be ef- 
Jeeted by sale, whether authorized or not— 7 Tex. Ct. App. 4ia. If 
money is Intrusted to a person only to be kept for abailor. Its eonrer- 
Bion la not embonlement-8 Gray. 461 ; but this rule hM been modified 
by statute— MO Mom, 9. An Innkeei^^who frwidSMpr «onve^ 
ba«gage Is guUty^ embealement-36 Mich. .806; S. 07% Am* Or. B. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


§508 BlQMS^CttBtlffiBfT. 220 

lllv tt is fioffloMkii tfdliyer^ to an innKeeber where e&ecU for tee- 
gage are deUTered to li}in^3Q Hlcli. 90S; S. G. 2 Am. Or. |t. 111. Tie 
iraudolentconyersioB. of property by a bailee, or seeretrngifwlth a 
fraudolent intend to convert It, is embezzleme^tr-51 CaL<d78. 

508i^£vevy cleT^, ag6^t^xK^ Bervantof Any pesson who 
fr^aduleiitly {appropriates to his own use, or .secretes with 
a fraudulent intend to ^propriate to his own use, any 
property of another which has come into his conti?ol or 
oare hy virtue of his employment a9 sach (derk, agent, or 
servant, is guilty of ^nhezzljBment. 

Clerk or aErvant— A cleric or servant appropriating money orffoocls 
intrusted to him In tlio course of h\s eniployuientla guilty of umbtzr- 
zlcmcufr-15 Wend, 117; bo of raoney received on bDlfi collected— 11 
Nev. 2^7: denying 23 Cal, 577; ao. It Ua obtaitts pa^aesslon of rool\a 
wlthauttiorityto dispose at ih^m^ li<s may bo guilty— 2fl Ala. 17; 5«> 
lud. 229- A person assLSvlng lila f atiicp in lil3 dutiei* jia clciK may be 
Unillty of cm oczzletnenl; iT.a to liL3 latlier, f or converting the money of 
bis father's employers-Law B. 2 C. C. 150: S- €, 1 Am. Cr, K, 153, A 
pereon en erased to soMcit: orders to be paid by ccniiulse^ious is not a 
clerk or 6LTv;iTit— Law 11, 2 C. C. 341 ; S. C, 1 Am. Cr. It. 150. Oivlnjf a 
ij^riion a wattli to trade off lor a waEfoiip for wbleli service he waa to 
Le paid, la snJiiclcnt employraput— y7 Iowa, iOii S. C. 1 Am. Cr. B. 
146. Appropriating money paid on hi.H, master's cheek l3 embezzle- 
mcntr^y Cusli. 2a 4 ; or a bill of excbCLage-3;J Ala, 5S9* Wiiere no privity 
of employer and employ^ exists, it laiiot emUCKElement— 14Gray,e2; 
so, where the owner 'a possession is divested— S7 JWCasa. 584; though de- 
f GDdaiit liad <^ust<idy as It S a a crvant— iiT Mass . 433. It canaot co nsist in 
fraudulent cou version of money paid over by mistalce— 14 Gray^ 62. 
A clerk may commit more tlian one cmljczzlement, and lie indicted for 
each— 11 Nev. 237. A clerk about to leave, takini;^ tho amount due him 
from hia employ er^ and entering the samo on tbo books, Is not guilty 
of embezzlement— 4i II L idH, In case of embezzlement by a servant, 
demand and refusal are not necessary— ?2 Minn. "Hk A commercial 
traveler la a acrvant— 7 Vi>. Can, L. J. 331? JI Oox C, C, 150; id. 490. 
Wboro money TTOs reeeived by a servant, but not in the name, or for 
or on account of his niaster, itM coriversiou was not embezitlenicnt— IS 
Cox u. 0. 46&S a, V. I Green 0. H. 147. 

Ag:ent3.— Embezzlement by acrents may be committed by mfsappro- 
>riatin3f money left wilh him for Lbo purchasG oH lauds—43 Mo. 531. 
JO if money is placed in the hands of a person to be loaned on certain 
securities and interest, and ho converts it— 1)2 111. 42.>; S. C 2 Am. Cr. 
R. lOS; but If money U received bv an agent in a manner not autboiv 
Iz&tl by bta agency, it is not received In the course of lila emplosTnent— 
31 Cal. lOS. IJrawing a draft on bis principal payable to a third person* 
If the principal pay;* It, iA embezzlement— 31 Cal. liiS. Tiio agent of a 
comjnlsury is liable for Ibe conversion of flour sent to a bakery— 38 
Ala. 4tS<. The unauthorized appropriation of money by an agent or 
employe not authorLEed to receive it ia not within ibe codo making 
sucli larceny— 4y Iowa, 141. Where money is placed in one's hand, to 
ba loaned at Inter esc* and ho converts a part of it, it ia emhez2letnent 
if he aciaas ngcut, but not if ho guarantees payment of the Interest 
-^ IlLtir^i S. C. 2 Am, Cr. R. h)l>. So tbo agent la ciitltiod to dedufst 
his comn\Lsslons out of tho reeolpt&— 22 Minn. 41; 6. C. 2 Am. Gn. K. 
107. SCO 2 Met. 343; 1 1 id. 04 j 107 Mass. 22L 

Wh6 iiM«M<rants or agents.— An auctioneerls not the servant or 
sffent tf^m owner of the j»roperty-^'2 ^Cet. 348:'xior the collector of 
bills for the pro^rietop ot a new8pai»er*ll id>. 64; nor is a constable 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

281 msBmzijmKsn. §§ 5O0^ia 

tii*Mf«iat of taift«ndtt<to«4 Doidb, 7B^ nor to ]ie¥fl|]fl«-.«i JXH tb7|< 
nor 18 the keeper of a county poorhonse an MSsat or -servant ot the 
soperintenden^ of an incorporated compvii'f3^^/'^,iil^x)rnW' 

509. A distinot acl^ ol taking i^ not necta^^ry t<^:COO- 
stituto embezzlemezit. 

See 15 Wend. 581. 

510. Any eyidence of debt, negotiable by delivery 
only, and actually execnted, is tlie enbject c>f embeszle^ 
ment, whether it has been 'delivered or issued as a vidld 
instrument or not - 

51X. Upon any indiotment for embezzlement, it is.a ' 

sufficient defense |;hat the property was appropriated 

openly and avowedly, and under a claim of title preferred . 

in good faith, even though such claim is untenable. But 

this provision does not excuse the unlawful retention of 

the property of another to ofiset or pay deniands held 

against him. 

Olaim of title.— If the defendant supposed he had a right as partner, 
he cannot be convlcted-118 Mass. 443 ; yet a manmay he convicted for 
«mh<^aBil1ng his own mortgage— 6 Allen, 502. 

512. The fact that the accused intended to restore the 
property embezzled, is no ground of defense or of mitiga- 
tion of punishment, if it has not been restored before an 
information has been laid before a magistrate, charging 
the conomission of the offense. 

Intent to restore.— It is no less embezzlement thatthe intent was to 
restore, and that the party had property to make restitution— 10 Oray. 
173; 4 Up. Can. L. J. 187. Embezzlement consists in the fraudulent 
misappropriation of bonds— 100 Mass. 1 ; though with Intent to restore 
them— 97 Mass. 60. That he believed he would k«pay the money does 
not relieve the act of its fraudulent intent-41 wis. OtfS; S. 0.2 Am. 

513. Whenever, prior to any information laid before 
a magistrate, charging the commission of embezzlement, 
the x>erson accused voluntarily and actually restored or 
tendered restoration of the property alleged to have been 
embezzled, or any part thereof, such fact is not a ground 

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of defense, but it jmthoiizes tbe nowt to j&iligate-piiiiieh- 
914. Krery pei»on gmUy. of embezzlemeiiLt ie puniBba- 
abl6 in tbe madner j^esctibefl fx)r feloniously stealing 
property of the value of that embezzled; and where the 
propeiHt eiiibezjsled is an Evidence of debt or right of ac- 
tion, the sum due upon it or secured to b^ paid by it 
shall be taken as its value; pravided^ that if the embezzle- 
mepj! or defalcation be of the publie funds of the United 
States* oir of this State, or of any county, oity and county, 
OY mu^icipa^ty within this State* the oltense is a felony, 
and shall be punishable by imprisonment in t}^, Staite 
prison not less. than one year nor more ten years; and 
the person so convicted shall be ineligible thereafter to 
any office Of honor, trust, or profit under this State. [In 
effect April eth, 1880.] 

Paiiishment.-^That Skpttety is liable to prosecotlon for embezzle* 
mentof national bank^aote^ under IJjaltea States statutes, does not 
relieve mm from punisbment under common law or under a State 
ststute— 116 Mass. L Tbe puntahmsBt is tlie saiBe as that tst laroeoy 
-4 Met. 468. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

v;;frfQ9anm, §§(#M6L9 



S518L «£ztortioii"d6£kne(l. 

1619. WUattbreatsmayconstittiteextortloii, 

S 620. Fmilsbment of e^rtlon in certain eases. 

$ 621. Extortion coBuuittednnder color of offldAl right. . 

S 632. Obtaining signature by means of threats. 

S 623i Sending threatening letters with intent to extort. 

1624. Attempts to extort by means of Tei%>ilthreatf» 

I 626. pfflpers of railroad companies making OTebiisigtBS. . 

518. Extortion is the obtaining of proi>erty from an- 
otber, With tis consent, induced by a wrongful use of force 
or if ear, or nnder color of official light. 

See €tnte» 211, 484, and 609. 

Extortion.— Tim a^^t to preveat extortion woa dei9lgn«d to afford a 
rera&dy of a mitniiinry ttharaciter nj^tnat omce-holders— 45 Cal. 1!^. ^t 
cominon lav*^, extordrtii in e^klug by color of offloo moac^y or other 
tblDg of valtio titflt Is not due— fe Conen^cei: 3 Rush^lJ;), before It la 
dn&-<i Cowcrit m\: 7 Pk'k, )lli):5i N. J.L. U2\ 2 ftneecl.liiO; 1 Tei*. 
5*61 1 iMont. &i2j 6-1 Ala, 125; 1 Lea, (Ten u.) 271; 5 B]iL'ca,61}j Sfiawy. 
473,* or >nor*) Ihjm Is dnts— I YRatea, 71. The nCHcor mu^ttinvo acl-^d m 
Ida OfficiEil cauacity-55 AJa, 12^; 10 Mas3» 2Uh Tha dcgSgu to cdUeot 
fees to whkfi he was not entJtlsdj donirtftutes the f orrcpt: Intent 
ivhJch la the tiSRcnc^ of tbo oftunse—U Alii.^M. A izottuut nmtivo is 
esaeutlal-a Brcv. 175; 1 ^Li^h. •j'l^; 15 itl. &r^: 17 I a. ^ 10; 7 Lcl^h, TiB; 2 
Mo, 2i; I PJrk. 1?]; 7 Id, J!7Si; IS Weotl. 277; cxf-ept ^!i(iro tbo Lara . 
taklDfT Is inado Indictsihle— 3^f N.J. I.r* IJS; Imt the eammary remodT 

has not taken a^Tay tlia coninion-ii^w rt^mpdy— 7 I'Jfte. 27fl; J3 Sem, A 
E. 4^. It in oaou^h if auy vakiable tUliig is r^f^eiv^fd— {^ l^lacltf. 44j()^ 1 
Lrt. Kaym. 143; but a mem EVgrreemenit to iTiiy Isnofcanfflcleiit^lS Mma. 

91 1 jSrid. A.!3: iiideas the imreucueiit car ham^de tbu l>atiiB of a BUlt— 1 
Ld, Raynj , ll?<. The takl iiof iimst bo wlllIiiJ and eorrapt-tlJ Ala, S44$ 1 
TTeates, 71 ; 2 Mo. 22 i 15 Wend. 2T7. 

liV)|oliaUe.-*A puhUe, QfllQ^ only ean be cooTlcted of this offense— 
66 &a. mibut that h6 is an officer' de/aeto Is snffi^ieht^ IMd. 171. 
BeeDetty^s Ortm. linr, s 84 h. 

-519. Fear, such as will ooilslitate extortion^ may be 
induced by a threat, either c 

1. To4o an unlawful injury to the person or j^roperty 
of the individual threatened, or to any relatitve of ^is, pr 
member df his family; or, 

•2. T<r aoeusQ him, or any relative of 14^ or weinlpe;r of 
his family, of any crime; or. 

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§1 ^5M^f ' BZXOBSloir. 2M 

3. To expose, or impute to him or them any deformity 
or disgrace; or, 

4. To expose any secret affecting him or them. 

B^ctortion tiy othara tiian afSceirA.^Obtalaljjs tbe pi^operty of W5- 
other by tlii^at9, cotiHlsta in the tbreateuLnLf. wbetLer tUfl tlireAtB did 
or dill notnroduoo tlio desire J tiTpct— .J Dall. 3W; 2ii Me. 71. Tbe of- 
feiiEO Is Ridnc icn ily d« flucd l »y s Eatuto-ia lu li , 3*>* 1 1 1 a cdou^Ii \t the 
tbreatGhDint; to acnias of crtido wa^^wlJlful and intent (ona I— li2 Mass. 
IS; llUltL<lf; SCush. &58j -whethnrtlic) purty be Innotrfiiit or frullty of 
the crJuji? Imputed to lUin— 7 (-itr. ^t l\ 47»» Ar. tlireii^te^idDg tO oCcusa 
one of Hediit tiou nod aemandlng tnonc^ tp kt iiim go l-j ftpresaat 
tljreat— 1U8 Mijis. 4Ei^ ; of Citortinj^iTi uotQ upon tbe r^prL-seiitHilOQ tMt 
a female is wit b c-blld by him— l5Hmj. 347 ; or accnfiiQ^ a ijian nl^eej^ 
iii^ a woman &a M» mistre&s>— c>4 liid. iHQ; B. 0. 2 Am. €r. K. ISw So, a 
falae fltj^tem^nt tliat £k warraat Liadbocu Issued is ti tbrtmt— 12 AUen. 
WfJj and n tbreat to coinplalu to n noUco officer is a threat to accuse of 
crime— Itpe MaS!%. 15. So eondinsr ft letter threaten Infr that If Iio did not 
paracertalD auiounC bo ^ould brln^n proi^ecQtloiiaijBULitllilra^and 
fiflQd blm to tbo pcoltentiary— oj) MJgH. 4iiii}s but see ilbityatiDKOpinlQii* 
id» Tbe wort! "tnaUcloiIBl J*' refen nlmntv to the dolntr of tbe iinL^t^rfal 
ftct Wltb(Hiti3lc«fea-122 M^S, 10. 

520. Every person who extorts any money or other 
property from another, under circun^istances not amount- 
ing to robbery, by means of force, or any threat, auch 
as is meoti^ed in the preceding- section, is punishmble 
by imprisonment in the State prison not exceeding £ve 
years. . 

521. Evezy person who commita any extortion under 
color of official right, in cases for which a^different pun- 
ishment is not prescribed in this Code, is guilty of a mis« 

See ante, 1 018, and note. 

522. Every person Who, by any extortionate! meatus* 
obtains from another his signature to any paper or instim- , 
ment, whereby, if such signature were freely given, any . 
property would be trafasferred, or apty debt, ^^mand, 
charge, or right of action created, i» punishable in tbie 
same inannsx aaif the^aotoal. delivery of auo}i debti.d^^ 
mand, charge, or right of action> .wexjeo^t^ned. . 

523. EV^ty person who, with intent to extort any 
mohey or oVher property from another, Btebds or deiivera 
to any person any letter or othex^ writing, whiether auh*^ 
Bcnbetf w nov, esEpressing br implying, or Adapted to' im^ 

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225 x±TOftl!i6K: ^ §§ 32«*5 

ply, any threat saoh as is specified in section five hun- 
dred and nineteen, is punishable in the same manner as 
if such money or property were actually obtained by 
means of such tbrecit. , . 

Eztortion.—Extortlng money by a fals& statement that prosecution 
hadbeeneiit;Qpe<l«fj;afii^tl)im.->22 Fa.Jlt.a$a; .liVt,not if tbe offer is 
made to iliegaliyicompromise tbe offense— la.r 7 Car. A P. 191. A 
tbreat to falsely accuse, tbrougb band-bills and newspapers, of keep- 
ing a woman as bis mistress, tvitb intent to «8toct money, IttntAclent 
>-M Ind. 400 ; S, C 9 Am. Cr, B, 18., Obtaining borseis from an ignorant 
countryman by threats of a criminal jprosecdtloh for alleged horse- 
Btealbig, and by tbrests agafbst his life, is^ IndH^Ue-T Bay, 2»2. A 
conspiracy to extort money is per te an off enMi at eommon law— (> 
I>owT. ft R. 845; 4 Bam. ft 0. ^ 8. C. 2 Lead. C. C. 84. Sea Desty's 
Orlm. Law, § 84. 

Threatening letters.— A letter in defendant's own name, sent to en- 
force payment of a debt,l9 not wltWa the stattite— 2 Barb. 427; see 1 
Leach, 445: 2 East P. C. 1116. Dropping a letter in a man's way Is a 
sending— Buss, ft B. 398. To putiiTrntter in a place where it would be 
likely to be seen by the persbn to whom it is oiredted is an uttering— 
6 Cox C. G. 226. 

524. Every person who unsuccessfully atten^pt^, by 
means oi any Verbal threat, such as is specified in section 
five hundred and nineteen, to extort money or other 
property from another, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

525. ' £Tery officer, agent, or tsmploy4 of a railroad 
company, who asks or receives a greater sum than is al- 
lowed'by law for^the carriage of passeUigerli or freight, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. ' 

flee Ctv.'Code, SI «0^ei74> 21681, 218M]ai,sm-U0l. 

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S flag., JJanrtogmMter false pewopation. 

S 629. IWMI7 penonatlog another in other caees. 

S 530. Beceiyliig property In a Cnlae duuneter. 

S SSI. VMudnlent eonveyaneefl. 

S 632. Obtaining money by false preteaaes. 

S683. Selling land twice. 

S 634. l£arried person aeUlns landa nnder false 

S68& MockanctiOD. 

S 686. Consignee, false statement hy. 

528. Every person who falsely personates another, 
and in such assumed character marries or pretends to 
marry, 6r to sustain the marriage relation towards anoth- 
er, Xvith or without the connivance of such other, is guilty 
of a felony. 

A mere promlae of marriago la not soflteiBnt-fi^ Moody G. CL 254. 
See CItU Code, i 58. 

529. iKvery person who falsely pessoiiaAes another, 
and in such assumed character, either-* 

1. Becomes baiiorBiixetgr for any party in any pcoeeed- 
ing whatever, before any court or officer authorized to 
take such bail or surety; or, 

2. Verifies, publishes, acknowledges, or proves^ in the 
name of another person, any written instnmient, with in- 
tent that the same may be recorded, delivered, and used 
as true; or, 

3. Does any other act whereby, if it were done by the 
person falsely personated, he might, in any event, be- 
come liable to any suit or prosecution, or to pay any sum 
of money, or to incur any charge, forfeiture, or penalty, 
or whereby any benefit might accrue to the party pezson- 
ating, or to any other person; 

—is punishable by imprisonment in the county jail not 

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227 FAL8X FXB80KATI0K. §§ 530^1 

exceeding two years, or by fine not exceeding five thou* 
sand dollars. 

Paltepgrsonatioo ^ a miqlng a HeUtlous name Is a false pretaase. 
if It influences the obtaining ofmoney ot gpod»—I9 Pick. uBi so, of 
obtaining goods to be sent out of the State— 105 B£as8. 172 : so, of assum- 
ingtbename of another to wliom money is <iae— 19 Pick. 179; 2 Pais. 
Gas. 332; 6 Ck>x C. C.Tl5; 9 Ad. ^ £. 276; Buss. A B. C. C; 81 ; 7 Car. A 

530. Erery person who falsely personates another, and 
tn snch assumed character receives any money or prop- 
erty, knowihg that it is' intended tb he delivered to the 
individaal so personated, with intent to convert the eame 
to his own use, or to that of another person, or to de^tarive 
the tme owner thereof, is punishable in the same manner 
and to the same extent as for laitoeny of the money or 
property so received. 

A ialBo oluDraoter.-^A false repreMntattenoC being agent of aparty 
haTtng ample means Is within the statnte— 6 Oox C. C. 61S; or falseljr 
pretending to bea ceztain attom^^7 Gar. A P. 191; or a certain cler* 
fynum of 8tandinff>-41 Miss. A70: S4 N. T. 3M; or a constable, and ob- 
siining propertyby extortloa-i<23 Pa. StL 253; 7 Gar. A P. 191; contra, i 
Bart».l$l: 4BN.T.470; 4 Hill, 9; or that be was an officer and bad a 
warrant to arrest a per8on--49 Ind. 867; 69 id. 229; and thereby ob- 
taining a promissory note-^ id. 817; or that he was a captain of a 
company, and obtained money on an assignment of his claim for 
bounty— 6 Packer Cr. R. 31; see 9 Ad. A K 271; 9 Cox 0« G. 158; or 
fidaely personating a physician, and thereby inducing the purchase of 
a vaineless medleme-^ Car. A M. 637 ; or by. falsely assuming the dress 
of a eoDege student— 3 Pars. Gas. 833. 'Where a married woman ob- 
tained general credit by pretending to be unmanied— Sayers, 229. 

531. Every person who is a party to any fraudulent 
conveyance of any landa, tenements, or hereditaments, 
goods, or chattels, or any right or interest issuing out of 
the Bame^ or to any bond, auit, judgment^ or execution, 
contract or conveyance, had, niade, or contrived, with in** 
tent to deceive and defraud others, or to defeat, hinder, 
or delay creditors or others of their just debts, {damages, 
or demands; or who, being a party as aforesaid, at any 
time wittingly and willingly puts in, uses, ayows, main* 
tains, justifies, or defends the same, or any of them, as 
true, and done, had, or made in good fadtth, or upon good 
consideration, or aliens, assigns^ or sells any of the lands, 
tenements, hereditaments, goods, chatiieW/ or ot^^r things 
before mestiolied, to him or them conveyed sa afoxeflaidi 
or any part thereof, is guilty of a misdemeanor^ 

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iumclable-^S^Ua. 120:8 Tex. Ct. App. 602; but the sale most be wttli- 
out mortgagee's consent, and witbout notice to the l>uyer->105 Man. 
688. fio.fiilduieiitiy mertgMtDff |i«nonat property t4 pnwmat Its toe- 
ing takea on mesne process-^ N. H. 196. 

532. Every person who knowingly and dewignedly, by- 
false or fraudulent representation or pretenses, defrauds 
any other person of money or propei^, or who causes or 
prooares others to report falsely of his wealth or mei^ctui- 
tile eha^acter) and by: thus imposjj^.npon any person ob- 
tains credit, and thereby fraudulently gets into possession 
of money or property, is punishable by imprisonment in 
the county jail not exoeedixiiE one year» and by fine not 
exceeding three times th^ valus d the money or prop- 
erty so obtained. 

OMaining money by fidse pntHUM^Ilie offeme la eommttfted by 
a carrier receiving the price of trelglifeon tbefUse repreMntstioaof csiw 
riage of the good»-2 East P. 0.672 s orof theirdeliyery->2£tet,80; or by 
a clerk, after his discliaige, collecting a bill of his late empiayer->2i 
Pick. 609; or by a creditor on anew ana valid consideration which Is 
nevergiven— 5 Parker Cr. B. 490; or an emplcurer obtaining money 
from an employd on a false pretense of hlriDg—22 N. T. 418f 11 Cox O. 
0. 65; or inducing another to advance money on a joint bnsineas— 114 
Mass. 826; or where a postman falsely represented that money was 
due— 10 Cos 0. 0. 8d9t or falsely representmg a certain amooat due. 

Mass. 826; or where a postman falsely represented that money 

due— 10 Cos 0. 0. 8d9t or falsely representmg a certain amooat 

and retaining the balance in excess of tlie true amount dae-«4 tnd. 
498; 900X0.0.222; 2 East P. O. 830; or a senrant obtaining money 
from a store on the false representation that it. was for his master-^ 
Phill. 613: 2 Buss. Or. 613; or obtaining good»-12.jQhn. 298: 14 id. 
871: 1 Cold. 333; 12 Met. 446; or where a borrower induces the leader 
to deliver certain bank-bills by f randand. false pretonses— 26 Ohio 8t. 

15: 3» 0. 2 jS^. Cr.B. 96: orwhere an agent obtawed money after revo- 
cation of ^hisagency-^i Pick. 615; or wh«re an attorney Obtained 
money, beieafiiQg to iiis client, by fraud and ^alse pretenseyi, and 
retamed a parttor costs-41 Up. Cah. Q. B. 645. 

Obtaining goods by falsa pretense«.^Four things ate neoesMtey to 
constltate the offense: first, an intent to defcand; second, an act com- 
mitted: third, a false pretense, and fourth, the fraud miist be com- 
mitted by the false pretense^io Pick. 179. -The f taud vast !w auoh as 
might deceive one of ordinary intelligence— 11 Ind. 154; 83 id. 484; 60 id. 
478; 68 Id. 98; 66 Id. 206; 4 HUl, 9; or a person of ordinary prudence and 
cautlQn--5()ind.478; 8.C.lAm. Cr.B. 218: see H Wend. 646; llid.657;so, 
a naked pretense, which ordinary care wbuld avoid, isnos snIBcient— 
3 Met. (Ky,)228; aa where the pretenses were absurd «r Irrational-46 
Me. 150; 3 Met. (Ky.) 223; 6 Baxt. (Tenn.) 232; 5 Clarke, <Pa.) 89; 7 Bug. 
65 : 2 Pa. L. J. 2«2Tl>ut see 22 Pa. St. 256. The perpetraMon of a f n^ 
injurious to the person or estate of another, against which common 

Srudence cannot guard, is cheating->3 Cranch O. C. 441: IHo. 887: 7 
ohns. 201 : 11 id. 87^ 1 Bay, 282; 4J&w]m>. 848: 1 Mass. 137 \J id. 189: 6 
id. 72: 108 Id. 809; 9 Cowen! 588; 9 WendTl87; I Y^flQ; 1 ttcE 244; 2 
Ya. C«k 66(11 Low. OaikX 94; 2 Strange, 947. ' . 

ThdvJataiit*— ThdMmnstha^e been .an intent to d4 
179; 47 N. T. 104;, 80 Ala. 9; ^ Gratt. 912 ; 17 Hun, 636^ " 

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229 wAii$^ ^JOtaQVAXJPVj, §532 

Ktaal defraiadtnff Is not necessaTy, tf the latent be provea— Car. & M, 
£37. Tbd intent mmt be to deprive tbe owner waoUy ot tlio prop- 
erty— I-awK. 1 C, €. 261 ; aa, If It ticprlvta lilin only of posscBsIou itk 
theft— A Tex- Ct, App. ibi I roit. 118; U Tex. 3J<L Sco cfi?e» note im- 
iier I W2. A subaguut coUectJnjf money iluo tSiu prlncipalp kiiawlrvff 
that It was tlie asjtut'a Intent to appropriatt* Jt^aoU not naylnglt over, 
l3 fin£DL€lcot evlOenco of Intent to defnmJ— L'^l Tict. SI3. Intent Is a 
qa«BtioQof fa£t-3 mil. le^j 4 la. Sj S5 Wi^ntt ans; a Bun. eza: la lu. 

57St 4 Deulo, 525; 2 Parfeer Cr. B, laU; 17 Huu, wi; and la Inferably 
from the Rtillty acttlr-iihcrately performed— i:t Weiid. 87; 41 Irliss. 5T0; 
4i N * U. lakjj y AdoL & E. 27] ; b Cos €. €. 41L Neither the ahllity nor 
ttua Inteutlon to ivpaiy will deprive tliQ act of \u crlnitnallty— 1J7 Mass. 
40: li;i id. 48l{ 3£ ii. J. 445; m Mass. Iii3 ; Law H. 1 C. tJ.A; iU Cox C. C. 

The act pedbnned^^It Is not neceasary ttiat the falso pretense 
sboiiiabEjinword&^10Coiaa*4j id-Wij id. 64a. OWalnlng money or 
pratMr^rty l>y tho nso of a falae tokf n is sufOicieiit— HI Uoi C. U. U43; 
^iiiLl a f ikls© ouslne&s card is ft f alao token— 5i> In J. il'-i; see a Wend. IW i 
1^ id. 311; id.8t; 12Juhn3. 231; aDev. luy. ObtaiuLuif gooda on acliecls 
kiioivLu^ it would not be paid Li wlUilii the statute— lit I'lck. 179 j orou 
■A |)Ost-dated ciiect falsely declared to bo good— T3 N. Y. 7a; U^i 
b Cai'. & P, RZ5: or ou a theck, when thcro were no funds In bank to 
mcetlt— 17N. Y.303; Wld.SJl; 17 Uim.liliai sco3 Canip. 370; 1 Moody 
a 0. 224; <J Term Kep. 5<jtj; or in which ho liad no account-47 M. Y. 
303; e pmiik ti«9; 31 lud, 1112; 'i Carop* 370 1 tS Car. & P. Bi5; IJ Cos C, C. 
L OhUtinlug money or goods on forged paper— 12 Blet. ii$ j 4 Id. i'i ; a 
Gray, 125 ; a IlLimph, 37 ; 4 CoiC. C 2^7 ; ly id. aetf; or ou spurloua iiotca 
or coin. Is within the Btatute-2 Mass. 77: IJ Met, 446; <iray, 123: l* 
Co:ca C. Ill; Id. 115; bntseo 3 Car, & k 420; S Cox C. C. 257: hut 
whether so as to nneorrent IjiUa dependa on circiimataQCes— 4 Met. 43; 
Lut the oficnso 1* cumpletu on passing » bill of a bi"akea bapk— 4 Met, 
43: Dears. &Ji. 442. Clieiitin^ hy fiiJse devieea ytvitliiii the hit3itut«>-3 
Crancli U, C, 60; Id, fiJ; 3 ld.441 j :iJ X. Y. 4 IS; 1 Rich. iU: aa by false 
dice— 1 BiUU 335 1 1 L'p. Cati. L. J. 17L». So, seUJug by a laLje label— 3 
Cox 0» 0. 32 1 or by a talso stamp on a gold watch— 1 1 Coi (J. 0. 577 1 or 
by afako aaiut>]e, j.-i v.-iLhiu tlK^ uct— CrCt Aiui. 4:d; li C-jr, ,£ X. 030; Uciil- 
soD,373i or i', ':■•.:;'■!• I r' :- i • ■ :, i r ■ ,. i .! : ■:. : .-^'^jgitas that 

Falap x«p»66iBntation9 as to status.— Any falso representation as to 
status is within the statute— 19 Pick. 179; 5 Dutch. 13; 20 Wis. 217; 8 Cox 
C. C. SiO{ 1910. 608; see 2 Humph. S7; as infaney. coverture, etc., or 
being Investea with certain risht9-r4 Cox C. G. 277: as a minor pre- 
tenumgr to be of full Skso^i "Wnart. U. !«. 8th ed. $ 1149; or a married 
woman pretending to ue unmarried, or e conoer<o— Car. & M. 617; 11 
Cox C. C. 187; 9 Id, 158; Sayers, 229. 

Fretense of weaith.->-Any designed misstatements of his condition, 
by which money or Koods is obtained, is within the statute— 4i5 N. C. 
921 ; as apretense oiwi^alth. credit, or solvency-^l. Wlieel. C. C. 449; 11 
Wend.ftM; 23 13:399; 56 lud. 245; 58 id. 98; but see 10 Vt. 687 : or own- 
ership of specific assets to obtain credit— 2 Pa. St. 163; 13 Wend. 87; 
103 Jtlass. 809; or. negotiable papo^l Mb, 177; or Indorsements— 13 
Wend. 87. So a representation that he had capital— 6 Pa. L. J. 272 ; see 
27 Coon. 6S7; 28 lowa^ 450; SO Ind. 350; 78»i 0. 460; or Is out of del>t-17 
Hun. 366; or any false statement as to ownership of property— 25 Wend. 
S99; 33He.498; ortfaatheisindsituationlnwmchhe was not, or any 
occunrence that; b^Kl no<i hanpeiied— I Cold. ^3j ^s that he was eu^ 
gagea in business, and resldeain a particular pl^e— 3 wheel. C. C. 161; 
or aa to lUii poflscision of money— 2 JPJk. St. ^63; or even that ho is iiv> 
solvent, thereby inducing a creditor to discount his claim— 6 Dutch. 
13. So^obtainintf money on a chattel mortgago on property he falsely 
claims to own— 11 Ala. 233; 1 Mo. 243; or making a false statement as to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§§ 533-4 FA&8B PBIUK»rATIOlP. 230 

▼audita of a morteaff6-10 Cox G. o. fH: ^. * Mr il»| 7€ox 0.a 
126, 131; but seo IdTSIa^ Biit 283s ozi that coAaifikndlfliiilliiotimbered 
—33 Me. 498; Or tb^t n paracolar mortgaffo U a flnfr Uen-il l^iwief Cr. 
B. 142. £zbibl(d[itf lettep^ieadSflrasinesd^ar^ordraftek^aw 
pajrable at a c^teon bank, and ^Lrwnbg aa oraer for moaeyf are false 
representationa of 80(lteiic7--61 m. 06. 

; cau3&.— Tlio f^3o pro tcDSe^ most tw the op&nitEve cauBe 
oi u 11 i , Lei-lCnsli,33; 7AUcQ,54t)E m^tas$.Mi)j 11410.335; 1 Mo. 
24i; .f uiiM jj. 14: &d lad. fl&j 2 I^arlcer iJr. K. l1J7i I Car. Sd R SSJj 5 Dp. 
Call, L. J. N. S. 21 ; 11 Uox C C. 8^; 14 Up. €aji. O. P. Ci^Sj 26 Up, Can. 
Q. Ih 3]2i Id, IS; a Ad. ^ E. ^71; 7 Gor C. U laii, Tbaobt^liLlUK ut tlie 
property must not be ttio rctPQtely ci^iiQecttidi^Lth th^ fbl^M pteteiise 
-2 up. €iiu. L. J. 13y; Deiits. iS: B. 4n^ Law K, 1 C. C. 5l\. But Oi& false 
pretend a need not be tlio extjltisilve motive^ IT 3Lan> 64^; £i, €.2Aia. 
Cr. K.i39" if H ta a part of tho moving- causo It Sa euiflclent— G:2 Darb. 
erii 17 Kan.dl^; S. C. i! Am. Cr* E- 2S9; 14 Wend. Ml{ It It had a pre- 
rjondcriuiua Influrac 6*^145 Mass. 4&h 13 Wcnil. 67 j U IrL 547: 34 iC Y. 
b4: 4 Iiarb, 151 i ^d Qratt. 1^1 L»; &6 MIsg. fllU; 41 Id. 670; 17 J^tn.SU; 24 
Id, 77; 33 N. J. L.445i and a conouircnt promise will not ivitutmllze It 
-!2 dotm. Ifllj (J Cox O. C. 4C7{ 7 la. SPIj ft UL 13j 9 id. lOflj 7 Car. & P. 
191 : 3 Mootly C. C. 254, T!io prupenderatlon Of tbe infine^xce mnat be 
proved— L' Parker Cr. R. VlL 

533. Eyary person who, after once seUing, bartering, 
or disposing of any tract of land or town lot, or, after 
executing any bond or agreement for tbe sale of any land 
or town lot, again willfully and with intent to defraud 
previous or subsequent purchasers, sells, barters, or dis- 
poses of the same tract of land or town lot, or any part 
thereof, or willfully and with intent to defraud previous 
or subsequent purchasers, executes any bond or agree* 
ment to sell, barter, or dispose of the same land or lot, 
or any part thereof, to any other person for a' ralua- 
ble consideration, is punishable by imprisonment in 
the State prison not less than one nor more than ten 

Selling land twice.— Under the statute, selling land twice is an in- 
dictable offense^^85 Cal.470; except where the second grantee Is in- 
formed by the grantor of the terms of the first sale^id.; but giving a 
mortes«e on lands sold Is not deposing of the land, within the statute 

534. Every married person who falsely and fraudu- 
lently represents himself or herself as competent to sell 
or mortgage any real estate, to the validity of which sale 
or mortg^e the assent or concurrence of his wife or her 
husband is necessary, and under, such representations 
willfully conveys or mortgages the same/is guilty of 

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281 SAUP «ini9i|A9:¥lNi; : {§ M5-6 

535. Erery penon who obtains any money or property 
from another, or obtains the signature of another to any 
igrritten instromeut, the false making of which would be 
forgery, by means of any false or f^udulent sale of prop- 
erty or pretended property, by attctibn, or by any of the 
praottcM Isf^wA as vsifi^k fittetio9% i^ffnAti>M» 
prisonment in the State prison not exceeding three years, 
or in tlie county jail not exceeding one, y^ar, or by fine 
not exceeding one thousand doHara, or by both«uch fine 
and imprisonment; and^ in addition thereto, forfeits any 
license h^ miyhold'Sbe^'aiictioneer, and Is forever disquaU 
ifled froo& zeMvihg a liden^^ to act as' auctioneer within 
this State. 

• 596; * Erety comizllBSion zblerchant, brbker, agent, fac- 
tor, orikmsi^ee, w%6 shall *MllfulIy and cbfmptly make, 
or caiurt»'tb be made, to the principal or cbiisigtior of such 
commission merchant, agent, broker, factot, ot'consignee, 
a fats^ statement concerning the price obtained fosr, or. 
tbe -^oaltty or qjasmAty of anisr propefty ^coturigned nt ib- 
truBted to auoh oommission merchaai, agent, broker, fac- 
tdr, > or cotoignde, for ftal^i irh^ be'^i^tjuedigallty of . a 
misdemeanor, and, on conyiotioi^ tl^e:itftof^ sh^ be ^ pun* 
i8hed^t>y ^e hot exceeding fiv^. bub|dred dbUs^, ot im- 
prisoned in the county jail npt^ exceeding six i^oatlixs, or 
by both'sndh fine and imprisoiuaent. ptn* e^ect A^tiX 
16th, 188a] 

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^58^-41 FiTTiir«d«Tiittx>]Hfe«lMfrikoYmxL8. 


S 539. Captain or other omoer wiUf ally destxoying Teasel, e^ 
S 540. Other person 'wlllf aUy destroying vessel, etc. 
S 541. Makhig false manlf est, etc. 

539. £lyery captaia or other officer or person in com- 
mand or chaige of an^ vessel, who, wiihia this S^ate, 
wlUfally wrecks, sinks, or otherwise injures or destroys 
such vessel, or any cargo in such vessel^: or wijUfuJUy per- 
mits the sam.^, t^^be wrecked* ^unli;, or otl^erw^ injpicod 
or destroy ed^, with intent to (i^judicei or.dJelraad.aiiy oth- 
er person, is punishable by Imprispnment in th« State 
prison not less than three years. 

See 1 Wash. C. C. 363; and see Acts of Oongreas, ^rlghtp pig. pp. 

Destroy iiiesi)«|oii«Qt»Tesself(»flerTlf«l)«FiBdliop«sf iMc^^ 
by ordlnaiy means— 4 DaU. 412 ; ' S. 0. 1 Wash. 0. C. 363. ^e iacent to 
defkaud is matofUO^ MclLeaSi.m. Bee c>^eMUVril WhSS^; 9 
McLe«a^5l3: l^gr Beporler K, ^. Iftl; Jll\ri|rti.a 0. 14Ss sm Eey. 

54a EVer;^ pprspn^ otiher than such a? are embraced 
within the Ik$t sectioii^ who h guilty of any act therein 
specified, Is punlshabre by imprisonment |n the State 
prison for a termi not bxdeeding ten years. 

541. Every person guilty of preparing, making, or 
subscribing any false or fraudulent manifest, invoice, bill 
of lading, ship's register, or protest, with intent to de- 
fraud another, is punishable by imprisonment in the State 
prison not exceeding three years. 

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S0M. DMrfvSngvxMtedprcvertrii^ 
SMS. Unlawfol taking of wrecked property. 

64*. IS/^^sy yvf9qn.wh<>. troops wy iWfMked pfop«i*y. 
Of tliepiB9<;a«4a.iJheff«Ql^ ^tfit the 9alyiHpi m4^ ejQ>«ii8M 
chai«ea)^W tb%v0qn h»rn be^n Agreed ^. 09 fwljii^ted, and 
tlie Amonirt tlienol has h^on pAdd tp him, U pfmishable 
by fine «<»l emeed^-one thoqpand doUam, or bj impris- 
oymeiub in tbe Qomnly Jail apt exoeedins one yeac or 
both. ., 

8MPol.Ck^9,SSSttl-W9. . 

545. Xreiy person vrho talses away ao;^ JBPpds from 
any stranded ressel, or any goods cast by the sea upon 
the land, or I0Q114 in, any bay or creek, or knowingly has 
in his possession anygood»'So taiken^or 'found, and does 
not delinrfer tiie same' to tbe siwriff of tbeeonaty where 
they weie ipivid, or jietify him of his Teadiaess to do so, 
within' thirty da^s after tb» same hisYe beea taken by 
him, or haTevome into his pessesiioxi, isgotity of a mis- 

fl— Rfl..qpde^aan» an a. 

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.. ..'' . ';ri 
S 518. Bnrnlng or destroying property Insured. 
iflft. JBegeaWig f tiitflpPoqttwiBmpqlteriBg^Mwaiacp. 

548. Every person who willf iilly burns or In any other 
ttranner ;ih}c^(yr d^tiroyB aiiy t^it^fMinif ^MdSii i»^ the 
tioMr fd^ulraid agaliifi« losb or daoia^ )^y'fiM,'<6lr]by a^ny 
othei^ oafltit^^witH ittt«iiti to <MMiaa'«r' {^i«jikdiod the 
insurer/ ^hethevth€l saiEiie l^thepropefteyof 6i^ In^^ossei- 
«ion of Kadhpetsob, o¥ dfiMtty otheiVl^^pttfiiBhAIA&by im- 
prisomxieM^tf^h^ State p«Ufoi ttotJeimMhati bne itiidrtncae 
than ten years. 

See onte, notes to SS 447, 453; and see ClrVeo^\U9tsr,mh 

» possibflftyilSJ! Mrftadlngis «i«ncitAt:ui3,teei IS^SJT ^^- 

Esp. 137; ^fi4mJ97> Tholntent to defraud must bo Brerredi and w,b 
partleS'«tttalt«5^et nnt-^*^-* in. iV?* fi^ld 4M. Though tbCTo nre 
.fieven^imur^nvl^s tmc s^^mglu crmju— 114 Mans. 2T2. 

649.viBiir«iy)i»ecaDa who presents or cauaea to be pre- 
«ented any^laliM or fraud uleiit cl&im, or 4ny pro&f in sup- 
port <^. Any each cMm, upon any contract c^ insurance 
for the'tpa^tlfittiit cf an^ loss, or who prepares, makeSp or ^ 
subscribes any account, certificate of survey, aflidav 
proof of loss, or otbcr bookj paper, or wiStiiJs* ^ 
to present or use the same, or to allow it to be tf^ ^^ 
or used in support of any such claim, is punisbf'^ \ 
prisonment in the State prison not exceeding 
or by fine not exceeding ono thousand doUft' 

See a$Ue, notes to ^S 447, 4j^ ; auJ see CJv, Code, fr 

False prooft.— To stvc^ir faLsely to tholo»" * 
have been Insured, and t bore by gettlu^ 
statute-1 WbeeL C. C 24J. 





S 882. «*3WtaMie|glitf'sid]r*inauiin?*T4iffiied. 

S SS3. Using false weights or measures. 

S 5M. Btfttfii^B^ false lnHstlii6ttf.;dd«teks or pald^^ 

552. A fal3« weight or in^fV9im44:Pip^}Wi40^ lipeaiiiot 
conform to thB:ifltaiidard miUibUBheA liy tiu^i^wM- o£ the 
United States of America. . i 

SeePoLOOde»)H9SW-ta23. ; . [ 

553. Every person Tvlio .^se^J^i^ wd£^t)0]^j^^a9 
taf»p4ag.ijt[fiU9e» by wluokiiseronotber itdefraiided 
or otherwise injured, is guiHT* of a miftAefiieai6kMr.> 

Use ofikted w«lght8.-/nMi tee of fMBei#tiff]itv>tad nie^lfciivea oil 

representing the weight of an article is within the statote^ Cox C. 0. 
868; id. 2881^111 Aofelfindr doiiertoftttiQca to a fonihaae^^Fhsti * T. 
838; see 9 Cox C. C. 460; so to pretend to have welded It juid falsely 
representing its weight, is a false pretense— 3 F<)st & F. 8^ , . , 

. ■• ; ■yft.u <)) h.- .r: . I :;■ . , j ■ . < ■• ■ ■ 1 . . - 

554. Every person who knowingly mwrkB or stamps 
false or short weight or measure^ or falBO' tore, bn iOi^ 
cask or package, or knowingly selhr Or offers ^'r «al^, 
any cask or {^¥^9^ 450; mark;e4, J^.guUty ,ofT a ^i?!*!©- 

TBSrksaniBtainRS^A baker marking hr^at pyetwefghtjigu^^ 

0. 138; 8o»8«Wng m Wticje With *?or^dj8§al on iVr^J wn^ Cr, 608; 
brafate0Statnporthiae-imtrk-^2£astr:C.8eO.' ^ 

553. ' it'fiitt faales 6f coal, hjiyt and otTj'er commoclitiea, 

nsuklfljl^^iblfd ty'the'toA'.'or fractlotial parts tliereqC^ tli© 

seller irmSt ' give to^ the' ptirchaaer f ull ^eiglitj ^t the rate 

of two thousand pdun'd^ to tho Ion; and in all sales of at- 

ticles Whict are sold'in comroorce hy aToIrdiipob weiglit, 

thes^lh;; mMt giye^^.t^^ purchaser full weight, at tlio 

wte.pi.tliiaeii< the pound; and any pareoix ^v^<^ 

lithi^^^tf^d'i^'j^i^ij^ of atnifideme^ t^PP^roVeSl 

Feb. 16th, 1876.] 

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^pfn?' . wmMJowmmn mmKfmaeam, <4n8 




S 657. JMnOsta sul^scilptloiis for stock of •^Eporallon^. 

IS58. Frauds in prociiriiigoi8aBS9a^oii,6tc^ of co^oxptiOB. 

S 599. Unauthorized use of names in prospectus* etc. . 

iOW. Mlsoonduetefdl^etianfi of atodc corporations. 

iaei; a»ring»lifl&koflLeerovardrnHnflrlili«Beduit> 

S562. BeoeiTing deposits in insolvent banks. 

S66S. Fteuds in keeping accounts inr books of oovporaUona, 

S 56i. Offllcer of corporation publishing fiUse reports. 

I ses. Ottcer of oorporation to permit an fnspection* '" 

%9&k oaber of lanwad cotopaay oomraotlng-debt lft4tg1WhiM •»■ 

cejddliw itf afvalM>)e Ukeaos^ 
S 687. Debt oontntcted In violation of last section net invalid. 
i iok BIreotor of a corporation presamed to have knoirleidfe of Its 

1668. Director present at meetings when presumed to have assented 

to proceedings. // 

S 670. Director absent from meeting* when presumed to have assent* 

' ' ' ed to proeeedtaigs. 
%au Forelgm oorporationa. 
I A72. "Director" defined. 

557. • Bvery penon trbo HigDit th^ nam« of a fietitioiiB 
person to any subscription for or agreement to take stotk 
in any corporation existing ok proposed^ and every per- 
son who signs to any subscttptiott or agreeipient tbe name 
of any person, knowini; that such person l^^ jipt weans 
or does not intend in good faith to coniply with all the 
terms thereof, or under any understanding or agridement 
that the terms of such subscription or agreement are not 
to be complied with or enforced, is guilty of a ^misde- 
meanor. , , . 

The obligation qi actual payttefat is created In attdUes bya sub- 
^BTlnttMiJa npltalatoiSj^^ 

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95a Eireitf ^b^j agenti, o^'tlerk of any coi|>6ration, 
or of any peisoiis proposing to organize a corporation, 
CMP to in^Trease tlio^ capital stock of any cdrporatibtf, who 
knowingly eicllVittfaBy faisev'foiged, or altered l|pok, pa- 
per, Toncbeif, iectiHty', oi* dther inatrttiiietit of evidence, 
to any pubHc etflleei^ oir bda^d atithorized by law to' eiiiin- 
ine the ozgaBisatiott'df Btich coirporatio«k, or to investigate 
its affairs, or to be allowed' an increase of its capital, with 
intent to deceive strch officer or board in respect thereto, 
is punishable bylmpritohmettt in th» State prisoh not less 
than tfaxee DOT mon^tbaiv ten years* 

8ee CUT. C04e,IS »»4»)v t»^9<ft»Me,d77^ 978*' 80e9«aiuL IM.. 

559: ' Every perscAi nrho, without being irathorized so 
to do, stibecrlbes'thenameofiiifiiKyther to or inseHs the 
name of another in any prospectus, circular, or other ad- 
vertisement or atitjotixidement of ati:^ corporation or joint- 
stock associatipn; ekistlhg ot intended to be formed, with 
intent topermll; tlie same to be published, and thereby 
to lead persons to b^liev^ that the person whose name is so 
subscribed is an officer, agent, member, of promoter of 
such corporation or association, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

See Otr. OMle, §9 29S, m; abd t6e ant^, ) S8d. 

sed. Every diredtor of any stock corporation who con- 
curs in any vbte or aetof the directors of such corpora- 
tion or any Of thein; by is Intend et^, either— 

1. To make any dividend, except ;fl^ot]|i the siirplus 
profits arising ff om the business of the corporation, and in 
the cases a,hdliianner allowed by law; or, * 

2. To divide, \^tfadr9w; of in any manner, except as 
provided try law, pay to the stofckholders, or any of them, 
any part of the capital stock of the corporation;' or, 

3. To discofxht or receive iiny note or otlier evidence of 
debt id payment of any Installment actually csdled Iti and 
required to' fclB'paid, 6r with the intent to provide the 
means of msiking such payment; or, ' 

4. To receive or dl^ddunt any note or other evidence of 
debt, with the intent' ^elnable atiy etoekholdet to witA- 

• Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

or, . . 

fi. To receive irom any otlier etook oorpooBatioii, in ex- 
cbaxice for tbe f Imree, notesr l>oiide» or o^er eTidenees of 
debt of \heir own corporation, elutxea ol tlie capital etock 
of McU other cprporatiQQr oip. notes, bon^P* <Kr other evi* 
dences of debt isaaed by each othei? corporation; 

->i8 guilty ol a miBdamfanor. 

Sm CW. Code, *< Co^^po^oot "; and aM aiU9, SS aQ9i W8. 

561. BTevy officer, afent» teller, or idedc of taxy aaT- 
ings-bank, who knowingly oiveidxawr his aeconnt with 
such bank, and thexeby wrongfully <Atain8 the meney, 
notei or funds of .sudli' besk, is gui^y of .a nolsdemea&or. 

QverdisM^g aco9iuit*4>grAMU|kt dUf^r «r oflicet o(aUMik,iB in. 

. 562. Every officer, agent, teller, oi; clerk of any bank* 
and every individual banker, or agents t^er, or clerk of 
any individual banker,, who. receives any deposits, know- 
ing that such bank^ or associfttion^, or, banker is Insolyent, 
i^guntyof^amifldemeai^or*.. j. 

See 4 2:ab,47B. 

563. Every director, officer, or agent of .anycorpora- 

t^pnor joint-stock assoei^tipx^^fWho.knQWingly rctcelFesor 
possesses himself of any jproperty of such.,C9zporatiou or 
association^ otheprise Jtha^ ^payinen^^of fi )][fst.delQaJDd^ 
and who,, wi^h intent to, defraud^ oxuUs to, njake, or to 
c^i^e o^,diz;ect to b^ npade, a full and true entry thereof 
in the books or accounts ^c^.^uch corpoc^t^pn ^r associa- 
tion, and evjpry dir^ctqir, 6.ffiirer,a^ent» ^,n^em^^ of any 
corpoTationorJolnt-stqck ^uasqclation iiYho» \7i% intent to 
de£rau<^ d'estrpys,.altersi ni^tUateSworjCalsifies^ny of the 
b<^oks, papei^i writings, , p^ ^ securities belongixig to auch 
corpgpajtion oiassppiation, or^^^ in mak- 

ipp, t^iy false .'eintrjjesji^ p? oniUs, br QonpuM .j^ c^mitting tp 
make any miaterial entjry xif^^nybopjk of ^49pi^||s^br o^r 
iep9r!^.9r.docTiine^^,:^cjejgt,J)^ such, corporal jpn..o)f. .i^^socia- 
tij9n,,.l8 punish^^Ue, j3yi,Jlp?ipX ^ ^ ,|^^,'.State^ri8oa 

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299 9UAVx^xrtM^^mt>yhttt^itiBli/ M'^Mtfi 

not less than tljzee nor more tlian ten years, orbybnprisoii- 
menf in a eoQnty jaH not exeteeding^ one yeair, and a fine 
not exceeding fire hundred dollars, or by both such fine 
and imprfisenment. ' 

Agent of corporation.— An indictment lies against an agent of a cor- 
poration for making false entries In the corporate l)oolS--n Oal. 615. 
&ee post, S 950. 

564. Eveiy director, officer, or agent of any corpora- 
tion or joint-stock association, who knowingly concurs in 
making, publishing, or posting any written report, exhibit, 
or statement of its affairs or pecuniary condition, or book 
or notice containing any material statement which is false, 
or refuses to make any book or post any notice required 
by law, in the manner sequired by law, other than met 
as are mentioned in thiS' chapter, is guilty, of a felony. 
[Approved January 27th, 1676.] 

Bee CiT. Code, f 816; T&ls sectioii defines several Oisttact oiEenses- 
63CaL64B: 8ee6Al)l>.Fr..247; U id. 234. 

565. Every officer or agent of any corporation, having 
or keeping an office within this State, who has in his cus- 
tody or control any book, paper, or document of such cor- 
poration, and who refuses' to ^ive to a stockholder or 
member of such corporation, lawfully demanding, during 
office hours, to inspect or take a copy of the same, or of 
any part thereof, a reasonable opportunity so to do, is 
£^ilty of a misdemeanor. 

See CiT. Code, ^1377, 378, 882, 888. BofSks to be kept open for inspeo- 
tion~« N. T. 562. The autute gives the stockholder not only tbe right 
to Inspect the hooks hat to take copies of the same— 1 Seld. 8^. 

566. Every officer, agent, or stockholder of any rail- 
road company, who knowingly assents to, or has any 
agency in contracting any debt by or on behalf of such 
company, unauthorized by a special law for the purpose, 
the amount of which debt, with other debts of the company, 
exceeds its Available means for the payment of its debts, 
in its possession, und^ its control, and belonging to it at 
the time such debt is contracted, including its bonajide 
and available stock subscriptions, and exolnslTe of its 
real estate, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

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See Cir. Code, SSw^ 456, 457. 

567. The last section does not affeot tba validity ol a 
debt created in violation of its provisions^ as against the 

568. Eveiy director of a corporation or joint-stock as- 
sociation is deemed to possess such a knowledge of the 
aftairs of his corporation as to enable him to determine 
whether any act, proceeding, or omission of its directors 
is a violation of this chapter. 

569. Every director of a eoEpOration or -joint«toek as- 
Boeiation, who is present at a meeting of the direotois at 
which any. act, proceadingr oe omission of such direct- 
ors, in violation of this chapter^ Occurs^^isdeemed to have 
concurred therein, unless he at the time causes, or in 
writing requires, his dissent therefrom to he entered in 
the minutes of the directors. 

See CiY. Code, SS 309, 317, sn. 

570. Every director of a corporation or Joint-stock as- 
sociation, although not present at a meeting of the di- 
rectors at which any act, proceeding, or omission of such 
directors, in violation of this, chapter, occurs, is deemed 
to have concurred therein, if the facts constituting such 
violation appear on the records or minutes of the proceed- 
ings of the board of direetots, and he remains a director 
qf the same company for six months thereafter, and does 
not within that time cause, or in writing require, his dis- 
sent from such illegality to be entered In the minutes of 
the directors. 

571. , It is no defense to a prosecution. for a violation of 
the provisions of this ehapter, that the corporation was 
one oreated by the>laws oi finather State, gpvemment, or 
country, U it waa one carrying on business or keeping an 
offide therefor wiAhin this State^ 

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1^ raiA.m>ULBirT iKisoxiVinraiWi S ^^ 

572. The term ''director," as used in this chapter, 
embraces any of the persons having by law the direction 
or management of the affairs of a corporation, by what- 
ever name such peisgp are described in Its charter or 
known by law. ^i^ ' 

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.g§^7-8 F&A«mtTLM2C9 TFtCai TO MBBCBlAlMDIBX. 2^ 




S 577. Issuing flctltioxis bills of lading, etc. 

S 578. Issuing fictitious warehouse receipts. 

S 679. Erroneous bills of lading or receipts Issued in good f aitb. 

{ 580. Duplicate receipts must be marked '* duplicate." 

I 68L Selling, etc., property received for transportation or storage. 

S 582. Bill of lading or receipt Issued by warehoosemao. 

I 58S. Property demanded by process of law. 

577. Every person, being the master, owner, or agent 
of any yessel, or officer or agent of any railroad, express, 
or transportation company, or otherwise being or repro* 
senting any carrier,who delivers any bill of lading, receipt, 
or other voncher, by which it appears that any merchan* 
dise of any description has been shipped on board any 
vessel, or delivered to any railroad, express, or transport* 
ation company, or other carrier, unless tiie same has 
been so shipped or delivered, and is at the time actually 
under the control of such carrier, or the master, owner, 
or agent of such vessel, or of some officer or agent of such 
company, to be forwarded as expressed in such bill of 
lading, receipt, or voucher, is punishable by imprison- 
ment in the State prison not exceeding five years, or by a 
fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or both. 

Bill of lading-see Civ. Code, S 2126; Desty's Ship. A Adm. S 217. 

578. Every person carrying on the business of a ware- 
houseman, wharfinger, or other depositary of property, 
who issues any receipt, bill of lading, or other voucher 
for any merchandise of any description, which has not 
been actually received upon the premises of such person, 
and is not under his actual control at the time of issuing 
such instrument, whether such instrument is issued to a 
person as being the owner of such merchandise, or as se- 
curity for any indebtedness, is punishable by imprison- 

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ment in the State prison not ozoeoding fLre years, or by a 
fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, or both. 
See GiT. Code, S 1814. 

579. No person can be convicted of an o£fense under 
the last two sections by reason that the contents of any 
barrel, box, CBAP^cask, or othc^ yessel or package n^n* 
tioned in the bill of lading, receipt, or other Toucher, 
did not correspond with the description given in sueh 
instrument of tlie m«fohai»fise received, If biicfi descrip- 
tion correspotided substantially i^th 'the marl^^' labels, 
or brands upon the outside of sucb, yess^, or package, 
unless it appears that the acemaed knemr thait suok marks, 
labela, or brands we«o mrtnie.' • 

sea GiT. Code, S 1317. 

580. Every person mentioi^4 ii^ t^h^ phapteTfrwho 
issues any second or duplicate receipt or voucher^, of .41 
kind specified therein, at a tio^e.wWQ any fonner receipt 
or voucher fpr the nierciiandise sp^cifi^d in su^ch ^epond 
receipt is.puist^ding.aiid wca^celed^ without writix^s 
across' t^e face of the san^e the word '-difpUcate^" in a 
plain and legible poanner, is pvinisihable.^y imprisonment 
in the $tate prison npt^ exceeding five y^rs, or l^y s^flm 
not exceeding one thousand doUars^.pr both . 

See CiT.Gode,.S 2190,^ ^ / •';•.'.":,' • -j- • •_ 

501, Svery penon mentioned ^n^thi^ 9liapte?P« W^ 
sells, lypQtiiecates, or pledges any merchahdis<^Jfor!\i^if^^ 
any bill of lading receipt^ ot vouQh^..l)a8.^efi.|s3W^'^7 
him, without the eonsent in writtng ibweto of th^pemon 
holdJ[^^t|(^|>illi jtecei^t, or vduchei;,,^^ p4nl4h^la^i>y im* 
prisD|i^ent iiif the St«kjte jtrfson nK>j; e^ee^dli^ ^f^. years^ 
or by • fine not exceedimig one thonscmd dollars^ Orbotfa. 

582 of 8aid;0<^ H rep^^ft* [AjQi^rtytred J^xioSi 9))th; 
in efleot Jaiy 1st, 1874. 

seeicif.^Wdi.'sJitiTVaiis." '" '.'.)'" ..r''.' . .u ^l 

583. The l^tyrp awtion/f 4o,|iat,|^>|(l^^^ 
^y is deiQQ^ded o)f iioM bj^^,.yi?:t;ue o|,prp4^y ^^)Jlf,^ 

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§g 807-a ' UMJUtokftJii HffirbsiBBl. Hk 


iicAXAciauB nrjrnBiss to hailboab 3bidob8^ ibiiaWATB, 


S <f88« Iqjpii^ bigbwasFS, pilTat» ways* and Ivldcas. 

tuts. Imjuries to toU-hoiiises and gates. 

S MO. Iijiiriesta milestones and gulde-boardB. 

I nw U|Mrtt4riMegTiip4i'BM& 

S 002. Tiddng water f]rom.« 

587. Every person who maliciously, either—;. 

1. BemoTes, iaS8t)la6ei, Injures, of des^Toys any part of 
toy railroad, whether for steam or hbirse cars, or any 
track of any railroad, or aiiy t)rancli or branch-way, 
switch, tnmotrt, bridge, viaduct, culvert, embankment, 
station-house, or other struijture or fixture, or any part 
theteof ; attached to or connected with a&y railroad ; or, 

2. Flaces any obstruction tipon the rails or track of any 
tailrbad, otof any switch^ brandh, brandh-way, or turnout 
connected with any failroad; 

—is punishable by imprisonment in the 6iate prison not 
exc^diligflve years, or in the county jail not lesii than 
sbt months. 

InfiiilBi to railroads.— T7niMl7iJl«rl»g on obsttnetton on a nllroad 
traaL la witbin ttils s^ntLoa-^9 Ala. FiS; and th^ obntrDrtloTi must be 
Euoli wito enclanKcr llf(^7 Tex. i:t. App. 4ti2; mul that the deffjudaut 
wB» fmtrtlle^ t/ottif riiiot1v«;3 lhn,[i to Injure the ttaifi Ja t^cj (Iptftufle— 
3 Moody & B. as^i liar 1^ U a dfift'OijO, if the Id Cent to cDrtaQifer tJtM 
lately of pasaenfjc!^ ji nroTc^l, that tha tmEn was a frelffiat tmln— I 
Foat, & V. 37 1 Ijut ie o (1 Cox C. 0. 2U3. Wlliriilly tltrow I n ij an v tbMg uw. 
on. a train, ao jaa to endaiij^er thfl eafcty of pH^eug^rsp 1 j au lodlctabla 
offciiae— 30 J iir. 21 1 ; but If tlaa Intent wfvi mily trj cornmft an Assault on 
a person on the tttilii^ tlie cme Is rjnt flu^ttiLued'-l Fgsi, & F. I(n. Ob- 
Btnictlona or iiilnrit'Si an chauirlrig the Bigiinla i?o ta to j^Tow tin* train— 
I-aw R. 1 C, C. 2S3; or Etretii^hliig out tbo artn* svg a BLgniU^Lil, tJl? of 
tnallciausly placln;^ fltones oa tae traclc, wiililtiteot to lajure ao^ «i4r. 
13 lodlGtmhlfi— fl Co3t C. 0. 293, 

• IS86. ' '!eVery |>^ifson Who maliciousljr 4i^ ;up,Vpmove8, 
displa^M, tti^itt!^; brothemHflte Injures or destroys aniy 

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,4^ ^9M»fmp^.$9fmsm- §S W^^ 

pnblio highway or bridge, or any private way laid oat by 
authority of law, or bridge apon such highway or private 
way, is punishable by imprisonment in the State prison 
not exceeding five y^rs» ^e^opunty jail not exceed- 
ing one year. .*'./. . . i i i 

589. Every peoEKiSrvMiatJitsUMalylnjures or destroys 
any toll-house or.tuQ^pike gate, is. guilty of ^ x{U3de- 

l«fi««*e.- •-"... ' ^ :.'::: ■ x '.'/ .* 

590. Every person who maliciously removes or in- 
jures any mile-board, post, or stone, 6r guidid-post, ot any 
inscription on sucli, erected, upon any high way» i|fi guiUy 
of misdemeanor. 

591. Eveiy Jierson who malicioctsly takes down, re- 
moves, injures, or obstructs any .line ol teleJBpraph, or any 
part thereof^ ojc appurtonanoe . or apparatus oonnected 
therewith, or severs any Wire tbeseof , is guilty of a mis- 

592. Every person who shall without authority of the 
owner or managiBg agent, and with intent to defraud, 
take water from any canal, dftch, flume, or reservoir, 
used for the purpose of holding or conveying wat^r {or 
manufacturtagi agrioultural, miningi or domestlQuses, or 
whoahallr wkiiout like authority, raise, lowerv or other- 
wise disturb any gate ox other appuHenadoe thereof used 
for the control or m^ai^ureniettt of water, or who shall 
empty or place, ^ cause to be emptied, or placed into any 
such canal, ditch, flame, or reserrotr, any rubbish, filth, 
or obstruction t^tiiii free flow of the wat^r, is guilty of 
a misdemeanor. [Approved April Ist, 1878.] 

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'#40*: ic*£ion»o» Mttdrittlr 'M 

^' TITLE XIV. ., ,;.., 

'i'wl kaliiclo\umlfchieflnffeidena,d6ll[ned.'' " " 
S 509. Speclflcafclons In f oUowiog secUons not restcletlTt «fMift M6> 

4,W6., PoIspiMw/Wttte. 
' i 59^'.' KiUin^, mialialiiff, of tortar^ ftirtihlfcTii. 
• 59^ 1tiUln^,ete./bi>dslncem6ltele8. 

S580. KUllngBealB. CBepealed.] 
. I 9j^. B^rpJ|]g]tmUdli|^^eteHivot tkosQb^e^t o^ arson. 

$ Ml. Ttainggnnpowder,etc'.,ln^destroylngori]]jiu^ 

•r«2.' Mlaid•aslil^«e«tofirte1lWd. ' . ' 

fiOS. LlinltAtMifttu)«atIi9oi»«tl«I«M«f(ii6iit6ee4^i^ 

SJO«» IiiJuxlQ9tQt|a9dtoK;flB9Pf*ete.,; 

S 605. BemoTlng, defacing, or altering landmarks. 

S 008. Destroying or injuring jails. 
' i# dn. 0tttti<fliig'te Inltfing'M^dges, dams, «to< . 

-$.009. ilemovlAgliQoysandjl^aeons. 

S 610. SdCasking or removing signals, o^ eXliibitlng £ftlse lights. 

sell. Obstractlngnatigable streams.' 

l-^tft' Depositing sikkid;Aist*-Mo., in RtmboMI Baar. 

i.«a. -ThnwlagovBiawBrdtorilait,iorobai rii o tiM t Aiyi <iil^ • 
, ^ 614. Mposing.TassfQils to bnoysc, 

S£15. iojories to signals, etc., in United Statin sonrey. 
'^^6^ Destrb^^ing Of teafliig'down notices, etc. ' 

S«1T. Ii4iirtiMrorde8tit»ytegtmtttoisstrani«n«i * 

i'tt&i^OiKkilag^^pnblisMBgaeaiadlettBBi:. : i 

$ m ..Dl^CMlDg jiAiit«|i%i ^ tv^^gfapldf wmmi^. 

S 620. Altering 4ele0papl)4c m^saams.. 

S 621. Opening t^eftr^s. ^' : - . 

S 622. iQjorlng works of art or Imptorements. 

$623. Destroying works of literatiiie,ete., in pnbllolfbnrles. 

f 624. Breaking or obstmetlng water-pipes, eto. 

$628. Dnwlng water from works after tluqrXiaTelMen dosed. 

594. Every person who malioioiisly injures or <le- 
stroy any real or personal property not his own, in cases 
otherwise than saoh as are specified in this Code, is guilty 
of a misdemeanor. 

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2(17 suueious visciaxr. . § f^ 

M«ll4loBs mi«4lai&£.^Maltctcitt3 nUacblct la the wUJfal lajxirr Or de- 
EtnicUoLi ol personal property, from ltl'\\ill or res^ntixipnt towartl Itp 

- ownr^^r, or out of aepLrIt tti wanton crtiLltv or re^ensc— 3 Bev. A B. 13<J , 
1 lu Mussi. 40 U a Cuah* 5&a. TliG tsaeucfi u! tlifi oflfeuse is injury to prop- 

- -ci-ty^a l^Tfeer Cr, R, ISA; 23 Ohio St. 265: whetljeF tbo possession ft 
tho property waa rightful or wrongful— 7 Barb. S; B Humph. 37; W lad. 
47a ; 14 Kan. 2tfG; 33Mo. 361 ; or. thoutfh tlio title to the property bo Ic 
^ISDLita littweeu tho pEirtlea— 4 Moouy & R, 43l\ but ico 51 Ina*4TS; 
-and ownership need rotba avcmMl— lul Ma.'^a, &4; 3l! Tcx* GIU and s^co 
43 Id. 43a ; tint an boncst UcJlief In tltlo l3 adef ense^U Kaa. Biiti! b3 IncL 
^37; 14 Cox Ck C 5i esp<n!ial!y ^hcro tlio trespass is tl30 rcjimvaJ of 
fen ces— +& I tid . 38*. So, consent ol the own tjr is a def en se— 21 Me. 84 1 j 
II Tex. 3S3. The Injury must be such aa to impak utiUty-2 ftlet, ^L 
At common luw, the act of tn]uiy must ho done with a breach of the 
peaco--3 Vt. 344; 3 Tex. 312; Hi Iretl. 17; or to the 6C4n(tal of the pub- 
Uo—2 CraucU C. C 2M ; 4 Id. 41^3 ; or he marked by a maUguakiit cruelty 
— C3Iod.47a.. .....'.■ ........ 

■ ^^Dfood. wmdonstitate the offense— d%usS/5S6: 3 Dev. 4&b7i^^62 
Ind.478: 10 Iowa, 115; 1 Minn. 202; 61 Miss. 853; 12 Cox CO. 607} tihe 

. act xavm b9 willful and m»UciouaIy 4oqch-1 Up. Can. Q. B. lj>5. 

The malice— Malice U the gravamen of the offenso, without wlilcti 
It would bo mere trespass^43 Ala. :m; 41 It!. asO: ?i N, C. 2ul: 3 Dutch. 

'11^4; 49 Mlsa, J3l ; 31 Itl. 353; hut boo 3T Ala. 457; U Ga, ISO. Tlior<i luust 
beraalico toward tho owner or possessor of the pro per ty— 7 Ala. 7:^8; 
43 Id. 330 1 44 Id. 380; 30 Ga, 325; I3 Ii^d.^S; 1» Iowa. J 15; 4-PMES3. 331; 
til :S. U, 23; 7y id* (io«; 41 TejL. t22j 3 Ycrg. 273; 3 Holsk. 457: hutfico i 
Tenn, 305; 28 Ohio ^St. 17G; I CJtr, & K.IOS; but It need not ba express 

, m&liee, nor need noy general bad purpose or dcsEsn bo entertained--' 
UPlck. 33Te Met. 410, A mtilicloHa Injury 1* nn Injury commmcd 
wlUfully jind tvantonly and T^ithont cau^a or excuso-m* Cal. 43; fltJld. 
2351 ^ Story, 7; I Bum. S^Jiii id- 6vu; 3 M^on. IQ.*; 4 Id. U5i 5 id, lfi2; 
23 Mo. 287; I'^l Mass. 19; 12 Tci. 46?;. 25 id. ,U So. imiU.Eruatjti cru eUy 
IrrcHpective of special inallco U Eufllcloct. if it shock or ecandalizo tha 
community— 4 Cranch C. C, 433; "23 G a, UK); 2tl Oblo St, I7tj; or if ths 
$i«c l>o done wltli iho spirit of wanton crtielty or wicked revenge— 3 
Cush. 553; 44 ALi. 3^1 . See 5 Parker Cr. B* filiS; G4 Tf , V. 23 ; 43 Ala. 530. 
It is a qnestJon of fact— 3 How, 2lr2i 4 Barn. & C. 247; See 24 Iln w, 652; 
anclmay bo Inferred from faet3 audflr^unistanc&fs-ia Ala. 335; 41 id. 

ip jrtiiM.ff VI 4 -IV. 003; tH 11. \j. ^i, t'i j.i_Li*, 0'2v. xti If 111 Ltu 1.111 trjcu iiu;it an 

Tinlawtui actH-5 Alien, 2; or from the Infltranient used^it Ala. 335; or 
It may be negatived by proof of a friendly porposo— l Car. * P. 5G,i; or 
necessltv— atFGa. aL>5: *i Jdnea, (N. C.) 27(f ; 3 Coi C. 0. 506. if the injury 
Is not wanton, or done under belief of a right, without malice, It la not 
malicious m]schief-3 Dev, A B. 130; 43 Ala. 835j 44 id. JMl; 8 Uumph. 
yi i 10 Iowa, 115; *r4 K. C. 23; 3 Yeirg. 27& 

Offeaso generallf.— It I5 maltc^ona inlschjcf to do any act which 
wili Biistaiii an indictment fof arson— 33 Me. 193; so, setting flro to 
barrel:? of tar belonifiiiif to anothrjr constitutes tho offensf^-S Eawks, 
460; ROt knowingly iuedillltigi,vlLii afire-nlarmbos— 2Mct.21j orcnttlnf? 
a rope attachttl ton Kinucr— IT N, II. 543; or cuttUig oR ft few feet of 
cable— 2 Met. 21 ; or tcarlnef up notes— 1 iJAll. 333; or dischargitigraKiin 
to annoy aslcto person— Pick. Ij; or IndeccmtJy hreaSintf Into & room 
lor tho same porpose-5 D Inn. 277; 15 fa. ftt !j5; or putting Irrifathiff 
snimaaees on a towel, and m a tnh used by others—! "Wheid. 0. G. 430; 
Of omtZiarklos in rum < is malJ clous mischief— 2 Car. & K. if IS: 1 Coi C. 
C. 2SG: 2 Moody * K. 531: but wlilfuilT and maliciously dcatroylnff 
thD Eaddle-haij?) of a ttaveler- 6 Humph. £83' or tcarlny down com— 5 
Ired . :m ; or p uUlng tip cahbaffps, has beeaiieid not malic;l0iis mJschieX 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

|§ 995-7 XAuoious mugexst. 2ftS 

599. a%e sj^ecificatibn of tbe aiste «iitnii6nldd in the 
loUowinff seotkms o£ this cbapt^.U' Diofc intended to xe- 
strict or quality. the interpretation of t|ie ^itoto^nfir sec- 

596. Erery person who willfoHy administers any 
poison to an airmail the property of anetiier, or mali- 
ciously exposes any poisonous substance, with the intent 
that tbe same shaU betaken or swallowed hy any sufsh 
animal, is punishable by imprisonm^t in the State prison 
not exceeding three years, or in the county jail not ex- 
ceeding one year, and a fine not exceedihg fire htmdred 

Hens.— Thomrfa hens are not beasts, yet potsootoff them is Indlet* 
sble-lOS MassrliM; 1 DaU. 83& 

597. Every person who maliciously kills, maims, or 
wounds an animal, the property of anotlier, or who mali- 
ciously and cruelly beats, tortures or Injures any animal, 
whether belonging to himself or another, is guilty of a 

CrnollY to axdniEilB,— A public and scaoAsloiB cruelty to animals Is 
im LnUicmbie cif^n.sQ di2>tiuit from maUcions tnivay to animals—5 
EsmHj30» whetHer iuflkted by the owner or another.-? Aikn. 679; 2 
branch C. C 'mi 4 Id. 4^ ; 41 S. H. 892; tSOtk, IW; 1 £jten,226; 7 Law 
RerjorterM.a. 89. Ittiaabecn made a statutory offense. 7 Allen. 870 ; 
1^ Haw, Pr. 4.15: mUa^a.U; U31d.498; 23UUin.271; 8eelU]tfass.408: 
4 Hun, 441 ; 16 Al3t>. Fr. N. S, :r. Wantoik cra^tqr to animals, whether 
tds c^i^ti ortboso of nnotntij:. Is tndictat>ie St common law— 2 Cranch 
' ^ - -- ~ 'terN. S.W:4' ' 

C. G. 239: 1 Aiken. 224j i 7 L^ut Beporter N. S. M: 4 Cranch C. C. iSS; 44 
If . U. asi; £a Gx 190. 6el}Ti?LCode,Sl9,roM.«(. 

Maliciona misohief.>Amalleloa8 Injimr to any beasts wbtch may De 
the property of another, is incUctahle--dGfatt. 708: 9 Vt. 844; 19 Weiul. 
419; bufaeeS T6Z./B16: 6 0ana, 277; as, for iBalicfoualy>,drivlng cattle 
from their range, 43 Tex.4ef; 4 Tex. Ct. Alip. 649. Cattlemelttdes 

yiauciona inisohief.>Amallelon8 Injimr to any beasts which m 
) property of another, is in(lictahle--dGfatt. 708: 8 Vt. 844; 19 ^ 
; but tee 3 X6z.<Bl6: 6 0ana, 277; as, for iBalicloualy>,drivlng « 

.. jm their range, 43 Tex.4ef; 4 Tex. Ct. Aj|p. 649. Cattlofcd 

asses-rl Mpody 0.0.8; cowa-^ Cowen, SJftSFi tfau. 68; l p HJ^; 
geldhigs-nLeach, 73; pigs-4 IiCteh, €96; 49 vmMU]B^*An, C, 0. 
h; Bteera-2Dey. A 5^ fc; 20 Yt, 5§; l\opTaSi^ajll6; 'gmi. 8oJ; I 
Leach, 73; sna horses, mares, and coltS^l Dan. tS6;5€owen,258: 20 
Vt. 887; ^ Mo. 462: 1 Leach« 72; 2 East P. 0. 1876. DSSw tooiTaloes 
are not cattle— 22 Mo. 457. 

Indicf *■ " 

Oenlo. 277: 44 N. |l Ju2. MAimintf or wounding 
^..«._- r. ti_ a.— TT^^^ ^^ inOictabte aioommr- 

'. 0. 1074; eontrot 1 W^i^eEj 

In^ictabte at oommon Jaw-r3 Dutch. 124; 

janr toi*ootot wouna fij 

one's premises— Id 111. 80, It is a olstinct ~ 

wanton kUiing of aSimsta--? Tex. Gf. Aii^ 

were ti«|Mbsupg u no defense— 19 IlU 80 ; "puc w^ nuuce may^ve neg»> 

tlyeahyiEoilSg^5i&e trespaasixktf aidmai was^tidtoas s^ <|aggi^ 

d by Google 

249 siALioious MISCHIEF. §§ 596-GDl 

tmt to drl^w cmt— IftlQ. SO: ao Oa. 325- 6 JonBS<W. C.) 276: t CoiC. C. 
60A. In raal Ic Lousljr won d tllog a horso it la not neccs&ary to pro ire tha 
ti/*e of siiY ln.=itriiment— 11 Cor C. *J. 125 j ft pcrmsLncnt ln5nrf intifit t>e 
Indlctea— I Car. & K. 53E>; sOt pourlnsi add into tho eyes cjf a marQ^i^d 
blinding h^T is Indictable— 1 ]^loo<ly IJ. (J. -m^ Tlie willful dlajjgure- 
ment or maiming n horao Is indlctable-a Busti, I j S. O. l Green 0. K. 
2?rJ. Tbe wortl wouml mti^it h& tiiken in Ita ordlimry geose— LawB. 
1 C C. 115. Shavin^'tlie inane and cropplnur tlie tail was lield not a 
disflguremetil^— CJ]cve3 8. t:. K')7; coft/^ra.iHtimpli. 89: but drlTlng a 
nail Into the frog of a bof^'s boof is a malmlDg* orsn If curable— Bu^a. 
& R. Itt. 

Malicious killing.— It Is Indictable to maliciously and will fully kill 
nnlmals of auothtir, with IntPiit to Injuro litm— 3 lex, Ct. Apn- 31 ; 8 
Busli. 1 J 8. C. 1 Green C. K,'i'fdi or to wantonly klU an anliimf where 
the erfect l3 to disturb and molest n family— ft Gratt, im. To destroy 
the hoiBo of anotlier la an Indlcf fible offtitise— T l>all. 13S; 1 Tean. 305; 
twit eee & H um pli . 293 x l*l» 2.^5. K m ing a bo rse Wl tli mal ice toward tbe 
bailee cofi^tltvite^ the ofFense^tliough there be no malice to wanl the 
owner^.1 Hebik.2^^; B, C. J Green C. R. 621. So, killing boga In de- 
fendant'a crop, if the fence Is not hog-proof, Is an olTcnse— 3 Tci. Ct, 
App. '22^. Doga are protected- 1 3 Ireti: 33; 2 Ind. 3T7 ; 34 N. H, K3; but 
not In Virginia— n Gratt. 617, A3 to South CaroHua. tho question fa 
Btlll in doubt— l-l Rich, 203: but polnff to a porch and ibhooting » dag, 
to ttio terror of ttio people, Is hid Ic tabic— 8 Gi-att. T&d. Wlmt n dOg 
has previously dono Is no defense for wantonly killing bitn, wheu not 
la^i/ranttt detictu--^ Tex. Ct* App« 475* 

598. Every person who, witbin any public cemetery 
or Imtying'^onnd, killfl, troands, or traps any bird* or de- 
dtroys any bird's nest other than swallows^ nests, or re* 
moyee any eggs or young birds froon any nest, is guilty of 
a misdemeanor. 

599. That section five hundred and ninety-nine of the 
Penal Code is hereby repealed. [In effect March 12th, 

60Q. Bvery perspn who wiUfuUy and xpaUciously 
bum9 any bridge ezceecUng in value fifty dpUars, or any 
buildings snoWf«^6d, or vessel, not the subject of arson, or 
any sta^l^of grain of i^ny ]ua4> or of hay > or anygrowinj^. 
or standitig grain, grass, or tree, or any fence, not t)i«i prop* 
eityr of ^Qob person, is i)nnisM>]e by ^pr^nment in the 
State prison for not le^a Uianone 9or more than 1»u yean. 
K-.-^lwp aA»ffl<9^ hnincdjrtiocta «tf cpro <m the laB4 

the ^iptrSaatk of thel^oe; It wi&heKltntffifeloali i 

— .___. ^ _.__ -^^ _..^. — — ii.ia 

uoQging to ui* 

sk*^ cock, crlW liek* ^-sta^, Is maHoloas mis- 
setting fire to barrels ol tar belon ' 

6(KI. EVery persoii who maUbiotisly, b;^ the explosion 
of gn^po'WdeT 6r other explosive substance, destroys, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

8 602 UAI^GIOUS mSOHIVF. 260 

1^X9W9' dqmB^'Ot injures tbe whole or my ipMt of any 
lycdldin^ l»]r ixleans of ^hicb the life pr safdl^ of ai Inxmau 
being is endangered, is guilty of f^o^j. . 

60tL Dvier^r j^erson who willfally bonunits any trespass 
by either— 

1. Cutting dpwn, dpstnroying, or injuring any kind of 
wood or timber standing or growing upon the lands of an- 
other; or, 

2. Carrying away any kind of wood or timber lying on 
such lands; or, 

3. MaliGioasiy injuring or serer^ng from the freehold of 
another anything attached th^re1;o^ or th^ produce thereof; 
or, ■ 

4. Pigging,' taking, or carrying a%7ay from any lot situ- 
ated within the limits of any in^corporated city, without 
the license of the owner or legal occupant thereof, any 
earth, soil, or stone; or. 

A« Digging, talpug, Qr.cayxyingaway.from any land.ln. 
any of the cities of the. StatQ, laid down on the ma^ or 
plan of such city, or othe?wise recognized or established 
as a street, alley, avenue, or park, withoat.the Ueense of 
the proper authorities, any earth, soil;, or stpne; or, 

G. Putting UP, affixing, fastening, printing, or painting 
upon any property belonging to the State,' or to any city,, 
county, town, or Tillage, or dedicated to the public, or 
upon any property of aii}^' p<eiisdn,"Witboui license ^rom 
the ownei^, toy ndtice,' adirezt&lsnrent, or< dbsign«tion Of; 
or any tiame for any cemmddity, whether 4oTiAX4f c* other- 
wise, or any plctui<e,«ign, Wtferiee intended to caUattea* 
tion thereto;' Of, : ; , - ^ 

7. Entering npbn any lainds owned by any' oUret^peim' 
so» or 5>ersons vth»t&<m bysfeets^or bth«i<^«liell'-fiih* tob 
l^lanl^ or growlhg; Or j^ijuxlift:; .feat^^iililg, qir carryWi 
away any oysters or othet'shell-fli»h plainted, s^onying^- or> 
being on any such lahds^ whether coTsred: b^y water bv 
not, without 'Ifhe. licence i9il(,j^e o^n^r.,or,^^gal,occi:^|{C^t 
tWeof;. or destroying pr rempTing. oi; causing ^ be r«^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


moved or destroyed, any stakes, marks, fences, or signs 
intended to designate the boundaries and limits of any 
such lands; ' 

—is guilty of a misdemeanor. [In effect March 30th, 

MaHDlons Injury to e freahold.— Renl estate, as well aa pergonal 
property J8 protecccd; eo. IE J^ IsirllctEiljlo to tear down tbe roof niid 
diimney of a hoii^o, in tlio peaceable noaacs^Ion of (inotlier— 3 Mo, L!3j 
or to imlawfuUir pull down a buiiiJinsr— * Allrrif 2. In miselilcf to 
bnMtT]!:»s, a malleloijii tiktefit H e.Hi^endJil— 110 M:ir3, 401. Tlio wanton 
destrurtton of propprtsrintbosjEiy tinn^-clandestluelj-and malielousJj'* 
isi a jnlsdRUitianOr— 5 Farker Vr. It. 6Li3, Btrippiiiii ct>pi>er plpe^ or 
fthfefttlng from a hattUB dcinstitutea the offeasc^Kelrnj?, 29- wmriy a 
traveler, t^tiisins to pay toll, gatved down tho tdll-i;riLte and paaaed 
tJiroiigli, tt was timUemo:^ mlsolnlef— BO liad. 2S1. EreaEina: w Endows of 
ahoose—l Dail, ^S; or Lteaklttg tdass in tbe buHdingr^ eoustltutL's the 
offoESC—ll CflBii. 414 ; S. O, 2 L<]a{L C C. 17i?, A pei^on tearluff down a 
fence erected on Tils land n,^lii!!it tT"! ^on?CDt la not guilty of nmliclocu 
m lsehlcr-5[f 111 , •/:' ; 2 C re c ;i C r. F.. tsO ; ^ L :: l^fj , 7 ! 'J. 

Suhd. 1. Trees and timber .—To' coiiBtitiite maliclotis mischief as 
to trees and timber, there i^ust be an unlawful entry— 6 Gray, 349. A 
willful and malicious euttln^ down of trees Is snfflclent^Buss. & B. 
873; or any malicious Injury to trees— 6 Up. Can. Q. B. 213; even if 
ffrdfted on wild stock— 16 Ind. 230; Bnsd. A B. S73; so, as to girdling or 
injurbig trees or plants— 19 Wend. 420; 2 Browne, (Pa.) 249; aomtayZ 
Me. 177. But If a tree be on the division line of the land, it is not ma- 
licious mischief to cut It down— 8 Leigh, 719. Woods Include a field 
overgrown with brush— 5 Jones, (N. C; 3. 

Injury to machinery.— An indictment lies for a wiUfal and mall- 
clous Injury to movables and immovables—lDall. 335; 19 Wend. 419; so 
machinery is protected, although a part of it be missing— Deac. C. L. 
1518; or when taken to pieces— id. 1517; 4 Car. & P. 449. So as to 
plows used In agriculture— 9 Cox C. C. 417; and manufacturing ma- 
terials, and machinery, and the goods in process of manufacture, are 
protected— 1 Moody & B. 549; as the warp prepared for carding and 
spinning— 3 Cox C. C. 295; or the worldng tools of a loom, or tackle - 
employed in weaving— 6 Cox C. C. 198; or a steam-engine for working 
a mine— 9 Car. & P. 241 ; or the scaffold for raising the mineral— 9 Car. 
& P. 234. Injury to any material part of machinery is Indictable- 
Buss. A B. 4ffli as plugi^ up the feed-pipe of a steaoMngine— 10 Cox 
C. C. 146. 

603. The following acts do not constitute a public 
offense, within the meaning of the preceding section: 

1. Gathering pitch from trees on the public lands of the 
State or United States, unless the bark from such trees is 
removed for more than one-eighth of their circumference, 
or cut made more than three inches in depth into the 
wood thereof; 

2. Gutting trees upon the public lands of tne State or 
United States^ in good faith for ^e purpose of manufac- 
turing th^ sam« into lumber or firewood, or preparing 
such lands for agricultural or mining purposes; 

— ^gl^ 

§g 604>7 MALApiQus vnoHor. 2S2 

--unless such acts are committed upon swamp atid o ver- 
flowedi tide, salt marsh, or school lauds belonging to the 
State, or within the limits of the lands granted by the 
United States to this State by Act of Congpress of «Jane 
thirteenth, eighteen hundred and sixty-four, relating to 
the Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Big Tree Grove. 

The Yosemite VaUey grant was not In the natnre of a tnist—6 PacL 
Coast L. J. 106. It was a ilediqatlon to pubUouse, brought about by 
the combined action of the Fedetal and 8tat6 govemmenta— kl. 

604. Every person who maliciously injures or destxoyB 
any standing crops, gcain, cultivated fruits or vegetables, 
the property of another, in any case for which m punish- 
ment is not otherwise prescribed by this Code, is guilty of 
a misdemeanor. 

605. Every person who either^ 

1. Maliciously removes any monument erected for the 
purpose of designating any point in the boundary of any 
lot or tract of laud, or a place where a subaqueous tele- 
graph cable lies; or^ 

2. Maliciously defaces or alters the marks upon any 
such monument; or, 

3. Maliciously cuts down or removes any tree upon 
which any such marks have been made for such purpose, 
with intent to destroy such marks; 

—is guilty of a misdemeanor. 
Landmarks— see 2 Halst. 426 ; 8 Lelgb, 710. 

606. Every person who willfully and intentionally 
breaks down, pulls down, or otherwise destroys or injures 
any public jail or other place of confinement, is punisha- 
ble by fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars, and by im- 
prisonment in the Statia prison not exceeding five years. 

607. Slvery person who willfully i|ind maliciously cuts, 
breaks, injures, or destroys any bridge, dam, canal, flume, 
aqueduct, levee, embankment, reservoir, or other struc- 
ture erected to create hydrauUo power, or to drain or re- 
claim aiQy swamp and overflowed tide or marsh land* or 
to store or conduct water f 9r mining, manufacturing, reo- 

d by Google 

£88 juiMKnm himkxbv. "§ 6(98 

]afliatte]i» «t.a(^onltaial mfrpwaiir ot^for tb* anppky. of 
the inhabitants of any city or town, or any eailMuikmant 
necessary to the sainl»^ or ^itlurr of thttnij or ^iHIIfeUy or 
fmltnionsly ii pafceso r 09ifitm.t» Ue mBd», apy ap^rtttre In 
smch 4ani, ^joanal, . flunie^ aqnaduot, reserrolr, embank-' 
ment, leyee, or strpietnrei wMh intent liio inji;re e« destroy 
the same; or draws up^ cuts, ot injures any. piles fixed in 
the ground for the purpose of securing any sea-bank« or 
sea-walls, or any dock, Q^uay, or jetty, lock or sea-wall; 
or who, between the first day of October and the fifteenth 
day of April of eaclji, year, plows up or loosens the soil in 
the bed or on the sides of any natural water-course or 
channel, without remoylng 8u<;h soil within twenty^our 
honx^ from such watep^onrse or channel; or who, be- 
tween the fifteenth day of April and the first day of Octo< 
bto of pBush 7ear^flhaU.plo<fr npi or loeeeii the soil fa the 
bed. or onr the videa cB snoh* natozal watas-ooorse or duuf 
nel, and shall not BBmOTetfaerefrcNnthe soli so plowed np 
or loosened beio(re:the first d^y o£X)otober next thereafter, 
is goilty. qt a miidemeanorr and npon conTiotion, pnnis]]^ 
able by a fine not less than one hnndced dollars, and not 
exceeding one tboosand dc^lars,. or by imprisonment in 
the county Jail not eaioeediag two years, or by. both ; pnh 
vided, that nothing in this section shall be construed so as 
to in any manner prohibit any person from digging or re- 
moving soil from any such wafter;K}ourse.or channel, for 
the purpose of mining. [In effect April 12th, 1830.], 
, Tho Act of 'April 12th, 1880, amended this section by making the 
offense i^ittUshaolees a mtodemoiatt'-m Faow Coast L. JTTZT ; but, not- 

, - „ ation for a felony 

ntalned, accotdJn* to $ 829 

__ _._ . kit,aoKtnforp^^tlon-^rao. Coast 

L. J. 727. 

6681 Every person who wlUftdly and malioiously 
bnms^ injures, or destroys any ^Ue ot raft of wood, plank, 
boards, or Other lumber, Or Any part theihbf, or cuts loose 
or sets adrift any saoh raft or part thereof. Or eats, breaks^ 
'teJateSk-siaks^'or sets addft any "vessel, Htp giopelrty-Of an- 
otbMr, IsifrndsluMe-by iino) not exceeding fiye hnndred 
Pxv. dona*— jis. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

: 6091^ l^t^lty'p&imiii^ wtid^'^nfilll^ T«iii#f>^'t«fiy* Imm^ 

fnl atHlhdidtyi i» gailty of a^ ]^dd6ln(dail<>t^. ^^ 

^1,0. Every' person who unlawfully masks^ altera, or 
rerfioves 'any ligjit or signal, or wilUull/ exliibits any 
light or signal, wifli intpiii to bring at][y -vessel into dan- 
ger, is punishable by imprisotiment in the Stat^' prison 
not less than three nor 'more than ten yeats. 

•.'••• • : ' ■ •■-.•. -nif ;: . .. 

.6X1. , Syery ge^qn whQ.unlaw|]allypb§tfrp(et9 .^he nav- 
igation p£ finy,|^fkyiga^e<^t(ea)», i^ ff^liif:, o| a vfiiade- 
me^no^. '. - • i, ..; f:- , ,.• <. .•• , .'•» •. . . ..., • ^ 

€12. Brvry perooh iwho i^bstfyrH^ . dttpoiit^, or * pwmitB 
another iii'<hiB ^niptoy to tbxo^ot ftepokttj «ni^ sawdasft, 
Slabs «r vef use Imnber, > la • sny place: triiere it may be 
carried or fali into' tlu^ WatiBid <]tf 'finxiiboldtt Bay^ without 
first havteg oonstiuctodb piers, bnlkhei&dfl^ daiim, pr. other 
^jontiivanoeis, ai^pnwrad' by the Board! fd Supervison of 
Hottrboldt Oooaty, to prevent the Buae from escaping 
into the ehgriTrels of such bay» is guilty of & inis^ameaBor. 

613. Every person who, within the anchorage of any 
port, harbor, or cove of this State, lAto which vessels m&y 
enter for the purpose of receiving or dischatgihg cargo, 
throws ov^i^oaird f rom any vessel the ballast, or any part 
thereof, or who otherwise places or causes to be placed 
in sQCh pica^ harbor, or cove, any obstructions to the nav- 
igation thereof, is guUty of amisdenManor.^ 

6^4. Eveiy i^eiso^ rnqprixiig^ a^y vessel to pr hanging 
on with a vessel to any buoy or beacoii, placed by com- 
petent- authority, In any navigable wate^ of this State, i^ 
guilty of aiipiii^demeanpr. . 

615. Bvenr peraoB who witUaUy inSnres,. 4afaofS, «r 
c>emoiKS aiiya)0iia2« maaomeiilv bupdUlg^ oravfjan^aiAoe 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

fi5B MMMMonoa^Mmma^. §S-Mi-id 

the United States Coast Survey, is guilty of a minder 

^ 6I^''^^-$6tS(mwlioflfit^ti«xmlI^8«!iiMto.'d^^ 
ates^tMJfli Mvrw, btdiiM!tt>^ ^y topf^imadt^Apt, or 
extract from or of any law of the United States or-of this 
States 09JBLa::ffpwMltaim(fihoniiBdi^^ 
met any {daeedn thif iStata^ byilmftlioaUty^ QiJmj iaw 
ol'thaUdi&ted AtiEites (Stttd tfaiS(»Sta[le^'ov{iiyotder«< any 
oooit^ beteft^ie. ea:jg&nitSeA ef tiie tiate.forjiniiidh :the 
PMUEoe wa& to 'xeipain set i^, iqfflm<eha<h1e by Amar itot less 
Aan itirtety »» jnor^Athan 'Cuae inmdsid 'idoUaM,.or (by 
inipiiiontnent in tlie^ionBtgr j^aot motn^ thatit.0Qe month. 

. • • r • , • • ;i < ■ ■ .'J • • T- ; 

63^7. :^yei7,{>eisQ^ who maliqiousl^ j^ujtilates, tears^ 
^efacep» obUtfff^^^ox destceyn any writtei^ /Isw^ument, 
the property of another, the false miffing of >^ha(^ woolA 
be foigexy, is punishable by ifnprisonment in the^tate 
prison for iiot less than one nor more thaik dre years. 

Malidi&Tii dMftraotibn of recoirds of a polfce c6firt-22 ttf!. Citai. C. ." . . •.•/.. I. u . ■ . ; . ■ . 

6Eia' SIv^ p^nrsbtK who VfflfciHy' open6 «t reads, or 
ea«lies to M fehid; ielny sealed ibtter hot addritosiodtc^ %im« 
self r withiiUt' behkjg' kttthorized 8o*t6 d!<y;'eitblefr by the 
writer of such letter 6t'l!rf^i peiabn to wh^ Ml'lsi ad« 
dsMsed, ttD^)tme^ pnsoawba; withon* {tfa^.like attOibr- 
ity» pnlilishad juqr«if <hi»ebn|Mit»0f-i(PBh.2)etteir, Uowing 
the same' t» have, been ; onl^itiiillyi bpeoedi lift- giMity o| a 

61d. SSVtdiyiji^erftdn'whowtiiMllyili^^^ 
of a telegraphic message, Or'^i^yt^art' tli^rebf, ^dlthsBed 
t6 ^totittier petMtti, iHilMi^ the j^ntfiiHlfMi dtwA pencm, 
ati[lBia'^Bt«e«MI «^te:dot]iy'«liela^(i]r'«ideto( ari6miHvis 
jwiMirhallA^' V l9i)^irisM^^ tAietSiate^yriiM>n ib^'bit^ 
MttH^tt^ ye*ny'<a'M''Vb» cettnty'jatt^ft<ytiM»ee4&ig 
one year,'<)r by^edeiiOt'eliettWUaig ilvitrWUMUmid domitiii. 

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U«aM.. MAiMKmwMnnh soe 

620. Every penon who willfully alters the ptapcftt^ 
elleoti or iwm,n\vt( 9^. a tel«gfQph|o meiaiig^ tpr^e .^jwy 
o£ %a9}W»ii8.piipl0Ml>l<» iMi. p^Tid94 ill the .pxepe4|ing 
section. , . 

. 621. Birary imsoBiBotAdoniisdted^itfitb Mty:telQgxapli 
office whd, wiiboot th^ iutboKltr or oonseUt of ^e person 
tO'Whomtiivsaihe may be dltebtedj ^willfttUy opens oiity 
sealed emrelope indoslnga tejegraphlo^antessage tod ad» 
dressed to any other paaa^f with the pnvpose^ leamtiig 
the eontants of wdh asessage^ or who ftaudnl^tttly xepr6» 
seats .anx otiielr peiaoA aid. tiiereby Inrocnres to he da^ 
UriHed to hlnseU any Me^^j^io message addressed to 
sach other person^ with the Intent to use, destroy ,, or 
detain tlie sanve from ihe person 6r persons' entitled to 
receive stidh message, is punisH^able'sis provided In sectloin 
si^t hundr^ and nitieteen. 

622. Every person, not the owner, thetebf, who will- 
fully fxijipres^ dis^sures,' or de.8troy3 an^^inonumeni^ wor'k 
of art, or useful or ornamental improvement within the;iy vUlage, Ijo^niror oityi,,o«E ai^y shad(0 tree^or 
6rnax|M|Qt«]^plM^!gro)4W thf^ein,, whether i^tna^.^j^pi^ 
priyat^ grofmd ^ on ^ny q|treet^ s^awaU:, pr public, pack 
orpla<^i#igalltyof ajp|sdei^<;^ox.. . ■ , 

.62aL>. Bfrtoypessoti wboimaiieloasly <ent^ tears^dch 
faeiBS^ biMBS^^^r.iiijnms any book!, map^achui^ pioture^ 
engiavABg^ 8thtiio^aQlnv.moael»' appaiafus/ oi other wock 
of literature, art, or mechanics, or object of jooniayifty; de« 
posi^te^ iA .09y |2^]ibli0rUbrar|^5ipl^e^« panseuj^^r polleotiim, 
fair,.6re^^hibitiQn»isguilt5f pM^^^ , ,. 

63^- XTeP7» pscBon whaifvttlMly .boMhtf. dlcSiUp^ 
ob9in}ots».o»ii4iure8(ftny pip^.or. A<iin lot qQ«i4ttcibUift ga» 
or wa^r» w Mpv^ wQckS) ei»orted fa^wi|>rt3ji>g«iaw rtWJBW 
wttt^iEML-or inatw^ior any .ai^pprtP^anfMS/ttr »p» e i i aii gW i 
tbcMWwtth owi a mlft d< »grtito4il $k:viiMmmxior., . 

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625. Eyery person who, with intent to defraud or in- 
jure, opens or causes to be opened, or draws water from 
any stop-cock or faucet by which the flow of water is 
controlled, after having been notified that the same has 
been dosed or shut for specific cause, by order of com- 
petent authority, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

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^0 8 

7 .'f. 

MisoeUaneons Crimes. 

Chap. L Yiolatiov of thb x^ws fob tbb FBBiKSTA- 
Tiov OF Oamb and FnK, §§ Q2S-87. 
n. Of oibxb An> Miwowj«ATn»u« OmpinDi, {{ 

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qjLJIOfi .f>P WfiJH, i-:x :i?^99 

. GAMB \^^ifJ> FISH, 

S ^281 , I^trQCtlozi of elk. etc., repealed. ' 
' S 629. fiav^hg game in possession, repealed. 

S eM. "Bm t)t phost>h6riis xm tiaa in c)9rtain cotilitles. ' 

fen; QiuiU,partriclgre|br«r6tue. 

|6S2^. TaU«ff,tro«l(l>yttet8,etQ.^proliailtBd. 
, i 633^ limit of tiq^e for taking ^roat, 

S 634. . ' T^ing sa^n'on, when prohibited. 

S63S. I^of exi>ldsive ^at)stances l^tishlng prohibited. 

f666w rerpimeiit ^watrhraiiceg forrflatOThlng. 

i63^, Fisbway^andiJ^ddra^.PiQiialt^toriifiitvkfq^ 

626. BJveify per*6n vt^ho, in tne State of California, be^ 
tweea the first dat <>* March and the flr«t d^ of October 
in each yea)^,'hiint9, pursues, takeb, kills, or destroys 
quail, piMftdges, or jg^tise, or rail, i^ guilty df a misdei- 
tneaaioff. ^fiv«ry. |)eriK>n who,; in any of (the ^obunii^^ of 
this Staikej at any time ti^ea,- gathers, or destroys tfa^eggs 
of any quail, ptfrtridge, -^v grouse ia guilty of • a misde- 
meanor. ..^vc^y person lylio, in fjus ^taite, b^t^eifiOhe 
iirst day 1 of ^^ni^a^y and th^ &r^t>44y of June in each 
year, bun)»^ pursf^es,. talces,, .kiUs, ok destrpyn doves is 
guiltf^, 0|^ ^ p^f^d^m^^or; ^i^ery |H)i:;son< T^ho^ between 
the Arst df^y of ^^^.y^^ber in •(^qh y^^r ^^4.ttl^; ^st d»y 
of July in the following year^ Jiiinta, piifqueSy ta^es, kills, 
or destroys any tnalo deer, or buck, Ja guilty of a. ^^4^ 
meatioi-. Any person in the State of Calif oi;nia who. ]i^ 
in Ilia poaae&aion any hidea or Bkins of any dQ9fi^|Ql|(, anljer 
lope, or mountain sheep y killt^d between .the ^^Ifd^y of 
KoTember and the first day of July, is gUj^jy of ft wisdia- 
meanor, E^^ery per»on vrho iiball at any tinie i^ the ^tat^ 

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of California hnnt, pursue, take, kill, or destroy any an- 
telope, elk, mountain sheep, female deer, or doe, shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor. Every person who shall at any 
time hunt, pursue, talde,ikil^ #y destroy any spotted fawn 
is guilty of a misdemeanor. Every person who shall 
tak^', kiTI, 61' destrby aily ot the animals mentioned in this 
section at any time, unless the carcass of such animal is 
used GOLpraMrvfid by th^persos takings or slaiylngiit,. or is 
sold for food, is guilty of a misdemeanor. '• Ev^ry person 
who shall buy, splt,*i6ffet ot ext)Ose fbif sale, t^nsport, or 
have in h|s possej^ion^any, deer from yrlxyj^ evidence of 
sex has been removed, or any. 9f the afQ£esaid>.gam& at a ' 
time when it is utalanvf kill the sAmv, - lis provided by 
this and subsequent sectibns, isgu^ty of a tuls^etn^anor. 
[Approyed.^jl^jch Wh, iasS. In effect July X^^f 1883.J 

627. Section .number Six hundred «3i4tw^n«y4even 
of the Penal Cod6 of OMffomiai is herebjr repealed. [Ap- 
proved March 9th, 1883. I^ effect July 1st, ;883.J - ^ 

628< , $ectioa;L number six hundred and tveatytf igbt of 
the Fejaal Code of ^Californi^.is hereby re^p^aled* L*^^ 
proved MiH^cji. 9th, 1883. Id, .eff e<?t July Ut,. 18^ j < . . 

6aSLufiactidn number six huadxed. Mpd.tweAty'-iiiaA of 
itb«£enal Code, of Calif oxiaia ist hereby i^vsaleA* -{Ap^ 
proTfidMarch.9th4l88ar. Inefisct Jiilyl8t,188&J ■ 
' 6301* •BTery)^etsonWho,intbeeoui]ftie^of S4ntaClata, 
Oontfti CMMta, San Joaquin, Sanlta '0ru2, or flbh Mateo, 
tisee ordistrrbates phosphorus ap6n itny'land or ground, 
between the fint da|r of March and the ^Mt *da{y o( !Kb- 
"V^bib^riiiiiiiyyeanisguflt^df tittisd^meanorl "- 

631: Every' ^^'rsp^ Wh6 shall it any tipae net, pound) 
weir,"cage, or trap any qu^ll^ 'partridge,' or grouse, and 
every person who sh^ll sell, bu^,. transport, or jjiye away, 
dt offfsf 6r 'e!sfpose lot haVe lir his possession, an^ 
qti^tl, piartrid]^e,''or grousi) thalt'^ave been snare^^ ' caok* 
tured, or'tbkenlB'brby.ih^axis of any net, jpound, weir, 
eage, di trap, is guilty of 14 misdehieaner; ' l^oof 6t pbs- 

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a$Miii»fr^ftflji(i|cilBa^>pH]Mdg») (w g;totuMI Wttioh shall ki«>t 
show eidd^nod K$£ iMtTing beem tisken^by ?Hl«aii9 oliher thait 
a nofe) pOtiuSti 'ifQir, >(togek or tarapr lOialVbe prima Jkieie fivi^ 
dAm»f in ai»7;pro8«eatdoii fdira Tfaklottion of tihepisdirisibi^ 
of tbii 0«et;ioii,..tliat tba-peraon in 'wbOfee -pdaseBak^iii auch 
qnaU; pavtiiflgQf ongnwseia fOimditoo^i kille^^ or dai^ 
flteeryedtba sama by meanaof a net, pounds weir, cage,- or ] 
txapL ^[AppnMred Marsh 9tli, 188d, ; Xa off eet' July lot; 

632. Btrerjr person Who, in the State of California, at 
any time takes or catdhes any tront ekbept with hook 
and line is guilty, of a misdemeanor. Any person ojr.per- 
sons wh6 snail at any time take, procure, or destroy any 
flsh of any kind hly toeans of explosives is guilty of a 
misdemeknorl' [Apptbved Marc^ i9th, I883v in efitect July 
Ist, 1883.] . ' 

633.. Every person who takes, catches, or kills any, 
speckle^ ^P^ brook ojf saljpaon trout, pr, any variety of 
trout, between ti^ first day of November and. the, first 
day of April, ift the following yea|;< is guilty of a misde- 
meanor. ..[Jn effect Marph §Oth,. 1878.] 

634. (Eirery peison who, between the thirty-fftrst day Of 
AugTMt and tbafirsftl day of October of each y^ar, takes or 
catches^! buys;, sells, or lias ifkihiS' possession, ciny fresh 
salmon, is guilty, of a. misdjelneailor. Every 'person who 
shall set or draw, or assist in setting or drawing, any net 
or seine f orthe piapose of taking or eatehtag salmbb >or 
shad 'in any of tfaeipublio wateos of ihis'Statef at anytime 
between sunrise of «acfa Batstday and«un««f of the foltowv 
ing Sutiday; is gtxilty of a imisdlMo^etKDor; ^ Every' petsouT 
who shall, for the 'purpose af-catehingshlidior salmon^ ift 
BXypuhlid watenot ilibisNState;{fish'w4tli or use any seiner 
or netj the 'laieshes: when 'dvflwn closely togethett^iecnd 
mi^afliiired, -inside "^le knaii Imai isinam'-sf&v^tk -aiildl'Wie-half 
^nchesiin length,1d gultt^of a ialsdemeainar,''and tipdriiooii* 
victlon ahalt ibe flnttdvoi 1«8S thkn jOiitfOiaiiaired lioll^uM? 
or in default, not less than one hundred days in the coun- 

tyJaU. ;:Oiie^lifllf«e«ll mone^^s iii9n«3tod|i«llft^l«r:vlor 
tiodiof^tbe {MTOTJsioiisiof this chiapt»y«biUtl»;p^ft t9r«h« 
iiifomMii, onoHiiwft^ to ti|e JDMriet JkttambyiotiOi^ doan^ 
tjirda.irbiqh iai& aetion Ifi tfiad; «ad OBe*<qi|£W««rfBh»lt'be 
{ftaidin^^d-thepFtohOHmdlsstoB^aiid;; UV^h4xk»Mit»iikieS(k 
he chari;eci> adid cc^lected from tb0^ount>f in whtcli th0 

liibit^e United fl^ateii Fish €otk»&i88idn9t«?<0r^t]i6 Itish 
Commissioners of this State, from taking such flsh as <^ey 
deem , jiece^sary. f of , the purpose of .artifijcis^l Jt^vtehieg, at 
^ tinges. , [4,ppr9ved March 12th, 1886,] . . , 

635. . JEvery person who plap/9S or allows to. pac^ into 
any oi the waters of this State any lime, f^s, tsu;, ,cocculus 
ilidiicus, pr an^ oth^r sabstance daleterious to jQj»h,. is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. And every person who usqs any 
poisonous or explosive substances for the purpose of tak- 
ing' or destroying fish, is guilty df a mlsdi^meanof^ pfo^ 
tidedj that sietwdhst shall '^ot be' deemed a deleterious 
substance. Any persbli who shall datch, tslk^, or natty 
away any trout, or other tfsh, from any dtreata, pond, or 
reservoir belonging to any person or corporation, Without 
the eoDBeot of the own«v thereof, whloh stream,. poitd, or 
reservoir has been stocked with dsh by hatching therein 
eggs or spawn, or by placing the same therein, is gnilty of 
a misdemeanor. [In effect' Aprillst, 187((.] 

636. Sifvery person who sfaali set, nse^ or continue, or 
who shall assist inseiithig, osing, or o^ntinilhiig^ any pound, 
weit; 8e<>*tiett trap, oi any otber €xed or permaneat^ o(Hk« 
tzivanoe for.«atchi!i« ieh in >the' watelrs .of this State, in 
gnUty of a saladeBfeeanor. .Bvevy perapn Who. shall casti 
extend, at set, any seine or net of any kind for the eatch^ 
lnii^.of{ fish, in any river, stseam,- or slougk.of thi^. State 
Which; AhaU exteadnmoiei than one-thiM aoirofis the width 
oi said xiver^ stream* oi^ slough; at the' time and place of 
Bfioh! Aihlngy . ia • gnilty of. ;a n^tdeneaaor. l^»tf pelson 

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SKB . .■ 'QMXK^ijat'maBir- 

'Who, by seine or any other means, shall catch the young 
fish of any flpecies, and who shall not return the same to 
the water immediately and alive, or who shall sell or of- 
-fer for sale any such fish, fresh or dried, is guilty of a 
misdemeanor. Everyj^ersOn coiivibted of a violation of 
any of the prOnVi^jonfi of tjiia ch^ipiter s^^jl J^e pv^uished by 
fine of not less than fifty dollars and noV more than three 
hundred dollars, «rl«a|Miibnment intii^ OQnmry^'jalt ol th<e 
county where the ctfenisd wa^ conitiilttfed'fdr not'leAs than 
thirty days nor more than six nionths, or by both fiJuch 
fine {^i4iinpjmmi^ii4 Ooe-half of. all moneys collected 
for fines fOr^Tioiationri aithe .proTtsloiiSr<rf. tbiB-ohaptat 
shall be paid to informers, and On^43al-f to the- DistHct 
Attorney of the .county in which the section fe pl-os^cuted ; 
all other costs shall be charged against the county ii^ whicb 
the action is prosecutajii .iKothtps jasrthifli^ti&pter sha|l 
be e&niWtt^ to 'proMbit 'Ihe -JJi^^ik €)^tM 9i«h Oi>mfi^i»- 
sioners or the Fish Commissioners of the Statcj of Califor- 
nia from Joking 3uch. fish ii^ tliey shall deem n,eQessary 
for the puipose'Of artificial hatching^ nor at any time^ It 
shall not be lawful f«r any penKm- to buy br sell, or offer 
or expose for sale, within this State, any Idtod* of trout 
(except bifo^ok, trout) less than eight inches In length. 
Any persojf yiolating the provisions of this section is guilty 
of a miad^mean9r. [Approved March 9thy 1883.' In effect 
July 1st, 1883.1':, . . 

Before Afnexftectnt 18^3y pcovj^oos as toferf^^e of nets, etc., 
heia uncon^tif utional.— 97 Cal. 251. 

637.^ TE'very owner of a darii or other oi[)8tructiori iii the 
waters' of this $tate, who, after being requested by tlie 
Fish Commissioners so to do, fails to condtrtict and keep 
te repair sufficient fish ways or ladders dn such daln or ob- 
struction, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

See t>oL Code, & 404G, subd. 23. See 10 Mass. 391 ; 5 Pick. 199. 

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V'«38 Kisossuar»xw cwansbs. ^364 


Sfltt. K«gl8QfeorpM^aD«Bi«iiftof teliBgiapUoiiieMagM. 

S63a. £mplo74 using lafomiatloii from nw^mges. 

S 640. ClandestlDely leaxning the contents of a telegnm. 

S6I1. Bribing telegrftphlo operator. 

f 642. CoUeoUng tdOBp-etc^ at San tnaciseo, wltiioat antboMty. 

f<4S. TioigtionB ot poiiee regolattoas gf San Franrisco hmlwr. 

iUL JSntldog aeamea to assert. , 

1645, Harl)orlng deserting seamen. 

S 64^. Aiding apprentices to ran away or harl>orlng theni. 

S6I7. Tsgrants. 

S€48. bsotogerieliiNilsttngpApermoner. 

i 640. omcecaor flee d^partnwnt Issuing fUpe eerttHoa^oC «smip> 


S 650. Sending letters tlireatenlng to expose another. 

S 651. Requiring apprentices to work mord than eight hours. 

S652. National Guard faflnre to attend parade, obefoitlers^eto. 

S69t Member of Natii>nalChiard«lnsu]K>rdUiatiaii of. 

1664. 4JI>aso of school teachers. 

63S. Every agent, operator, or employ^ of any tele- 
graph office, who willf ally refuses or neglects to send any 
message receiyed at such office for transmission, or willf al- 
ly postpones the same oat of its order, or willf oily refases 
or neglects to deliver any message received by telegraph, 
is guilty of a misdemeanor. Nothing herein contained 
shall be construed to require any message to be received, 
transmitted, or delivered, . unless the charges thereon 
have been j^ald or tendered, nor to require the sending, 
receiving, or delivery o| any message counseling, aiding, 
abetting, or encouraging treason against the government 
of the United States or of this State, or other resistance to 
the lawful authority, or any message calculated to further 
any fraudolent plan or purpose, or to instigate or en- 
courage the perpetration of any unlawful act, or to f aoil- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

265 2Ki^!CX^fiAffV9P9 omexfi^MS. §§ 630*4^ 

itaJte the efioeq^ of, any . criminal . or < p^Qc^on : accused! . of 

See ClT. Code. SS 2161, 2162, 2307. ' ... 

639Lr :^ery.0gaiit».pp9ratorv<^r.«ai^p7^ of: any tele- 
H^pboffioe* who in ai^y w^/ uaea-orapprofvittteft any bi* 
formal^nrCtec^F^d by.hipi fi:om any pnvato message pass- 
ing tbroiigh his.liands, i^)d addrosaed to anyotjser person, 
or in any.otber inanner aoig[u|Tod: 1»y<,Jtiim by reason of his 
trust as sucUi ^ssm^ operalio?r» or employ^, or trades or 
speculates upon any such informatioo<so obtained, or in 
any manner turns, or attempts- to turn, the same to bis 
own aooount, pro£.t, or advantage, as punishable by Im- 
prisonmentin tbe 3l«tt» prison ^t exceeding &ye years, or 
by imprisonment in^utbe county jail not exoe^diiig -one 
year, or by #9^ not exceeding iive thousand doilaEs, or by 
both such 4iie. and imprisonment 

640. Every person who, by means of any machine, in- 
strument, or contrivance, or in any other manner, will- 
fully and fraudulently reads, or attempts to read, any 
message, qt to learn the contents therepf, whilst the same 
is beiUg sent over any telegraph line, or willfully ^.nd 
fraudulently, or clandestinely, learns or attempts to learn 
the contents or meaning of any message, while the same 
is in any telegraph office, or is being received thereat or 
sent therefrom, or who uses or attempts to use, or com- 
municated to others, any information so obtained, is pun- 
ishable ^8 pi^OVlded in sectioii six hntidred and thirty- 
nine. • J • 

641. Every pe^on who, by the payment or promise of 
any^ bribe, induoe^enti or reward, procures or attempts 
to procure vany.^elegf^;)!^ agent) operator, or employ^ to 
disclose any private message, or the ppntents, purport^ 
substance, or meaning thereof, or offers to. any. such agent, 
operator, or .eimployi^ Wj bribe» eompeQsat;ion» ot rewieird 
for the di8<;lo99re /ol any privajtie information recselved by 
him by r^aao^ ol tiiA.true.t as such ageii](;».apetator, or em^ 

Pmr. GoDs^jiS. 

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§§ 642-7 lOBOELLAKKOirB OFFSKSBS. 266 

ploy^, or ases or Attempts to nse any sucli itiform&tlon so 
obtained, is punishable as proyided in section six hundred 
and thirty-nine. 

642. Brery lienon who collects any toll, wharf a^e, or 
dockafi*e» or lands, ships, or removes any property upon or 
from any portion of the water front of San Francisco, or 
from or upon any of the whanres, piers, or landings un- 
der the control of the Board of State Harbor €k}mm]Bsion- 
ers, without being by such board authorized so to do, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. 

See Pol Oode, SS 2384, sttbd. 6| SStT, SOt, 2640. 

643. Every person who violates any of the provisions 
of the laws of this State relating to sailor boarding4iouses 
and shipping-offices in 8an Francisco, or who receives 
any gratuity or reward other than as therein provided, for 
the performance of any services under a license issued 
pursuant to the provisions of such laws, is guilty of a 

See PoL Code, $S 2S6S-a607. 

644. Every person who entices seamen to desert from 
any vessel lying in the waters of this State, and on board 
of which they have shipped for a term or voyage unex- 
pired at the time of such enticement, is guilty of a misde- 

See PoL Code, S 2802. 

645. Every person who harbors or secretes any sear 
man, knowing him to be shipped, and, with a view to per* 
Buade or enable him to desert, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

See PoL Code, SS 2602, 2M7. 

646. Every person who willfuU^rand knowingly aids, 
assists, or encourages to run away; or who harbors or 
conceals any person bound or held to service or labor, Is 
guilty of a nMsdomeanor. 

BevGlv. Code. $264. 

647. Every person (except a California Indian) with- 
out visible moans of living, who has the physical ability 
lo work, and who does not for the space of «en day« seek 

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267 MIRCWlJiANaSOPfl pVTXKSBS. §§ ^8-9 

employment, nor l»bor when employment is offered him; 
every healthy beggar who solicits alms as a bi^iness; 
every person who roams about from plae^ to place with- 
out any lawful business; every idle or dissolujbe person, 
or associate of known thieves, who wanders about the 
streets at late or unusual hours of the night, or who lodges 
in any barn, shed, shop, outhouse, vessel, or place other 
than such as is kept for lodging pnrposes, without the 
permission of the owner or party entitled to the posses- 
sion thereof; every lewd and dissolute person, who lives 
in and about houses of ill-fame, and every common pros- 
titute and common drunkard, is a vagrant, and punish- 
able by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding 
ninety days. 

At common law, all Vagrants may be taken up and bound over to 
good bebavlor-A Allen, All ; 2 liea, (Tenil.) 198; IQSUass. 17 ; 1 MeM«tl. 
503; 6 Hod. 240: but there must be reasonable grounds of susplcionr* 
14 MO. 138 1 2 lid. Raym. 1296; 3 Taunt. 14. A vacant Is a person vbo 
has no lawful means of support— 4 Parker» 611 ; 69lnd. 173. In 
Uassacliusetts, U f s sufficient if he habitually misspends his time— S 
Allen, 511: lOS Haes. 17. Statutes concerning Tagratnts are constito- 
tionai-1 McMuU. 601; 4 Parker Cr. R. 611; and see 4 id. 616; ftBijm. 
««; 14 axay,397; 10» Mass. 17; 6ft N. C. 339$ 49 Ala. 22; 51 00.26470^ 

r.— Statutes concerning vagrants are constitutional— 1 Hc- 

Mull. 501 ; 4 Parker Cr. R. 61 1 ; andsee id. 616: 6 Bina. 516 ; 14 Gray, 397 ; 
108 Mass. 17; 6ft N. C. 839; 4» Ala. 22; 51 6a. 264; 53 id. 674. A person 
who has no means of support, and is not in good faith seeking employ- 
ment. Is ft Twsant-fia Ind. 173; 4 Parker Cr. R. 611; 6:^ Ahk^SfS; po, tf a 
>n]iShit5anymiss(>endk his time, it li 8ulIlcient--5Allen^519;l^ 

must be reasonable grounds of susp)clQft--rl4 Mo. 138; 2 Jud. Baynt. 1296; 
3 Taont. 14. . I • . 

648. Every person who makes, issues, or puts in cir- 
eolation any bill, check, ticket, certificate, promissory 
note, or the paper of any bank, to circulate as money, ex- 
cept as anthiori^ed by the laws of the tJnited States, for 
the fit8% dfl^nscf i^ guilty of a misdemeanor, and for each 
and every subsequent offense is guilty of felony. 

See jM«/, S 654; OIt. Gode, S 366. See Const Oal. art. It, | 35. 

649. Every officer of a fire department who willfully 
issnes, or causes to be issued, any certificate of exemp- 
tion to a person not entitled thereto, is guilty of a mis- 

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g§ 650-4 mBOSLLXsmxuB arrtnxssa, 268 

€50. ET^ry petBotL wh6'knowlh^ly and Willfully sends 
or delivers to another any letter or tnriting, '^liether sub- 
scribed ot not, threatening to abcnse him 6r Another of a 
ctixhid, Or to expose or publish any of ills fallings olr in- 
flrmiiids, is guilty of a misdemeanor. 

€51. Every person having a minor child under his 
control, either as a^t^r'atd or an apprentice, Who, except in 
vinicnltural or horticultural pursuits, or in domestic or 
household occupations, required such child to labor mora 
than eight hours in any one day, is guilty of a misde- 

See Stat 1872. 

652. Every commissioned officer of the Kational 
Qttard, who willfully fails to iattend any parade or en* 
campment, and every member of the Kational Guard 
who neglects or refuses to obey the lawful command of 
his superior on any day of parade or encampment, or to 
perform such military duty as may be lawfully required 
of him, is punishable by a fine of not less than five nor 
more than one hundred dollars. . 

See Pot code, SS ld30, 2018-2030. 

65a Every member of the National Ouazd who,, when 
duly notified, iaili to appear et a parade, or who disobeys 
any lawful ordei^, or who uses disrespectful language to- 
wards htt superior, or who commits any act of Insubor- 
dination, Is guilty of a misdexneanipr, , , . 

6^ Every pajen^ guardian, or other pmo^ whp qp-, 
braids, insults, or abuses any teacher of thapublio sehpo^,! 
i^.the praaefCAO? )iearing of a pupil thereof, U^ goiUy of a 
sqllsdem^anor. . Opp^oyed March 30th, la affect July lat^ 

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OBMIWM. J>SO«»I01HI> .' <J$^ 

. ..:..,nTj4KXYi. ;;.■-•;:. , ■'. 

Gkeneral ProvlaioiMi* • > 

6M. Acts' iiAdetMiAtB]Ja1>iet>^<biedi«]itl^ 

€55. Aet> iwintgliitiift myjet tonetgn law* : '. '• 

657. Ck>nteiDpts, how ponishable. 

858. Mi14g»t)Qn ot pmUabment In (»r^iii cases. 

€09. Al ting in mlsdeoxeitnor. 

€80. 8end!]i|fletttrBi;w1ieii<l6emed complete. > ■ . . ' 

€62. Omission to perform duty, wlieu puQlsliaUe^ 

€63. Attemj>ts to commltcrimes, wben punlsliable. 

€64. Attemp^tocomtaitcriilies,h6wpiikilshable. ' 

€65. Bestricl^dtis upon tire pre<»dixig-SMttons. 

€66. fteconA offense, Imw pnnlshecl sAer «oaTjctiofi ot lotmer of* 


667. Second offenses, liow,pani8lied after conviction of atteijipt to 

commit a State prison offense.' ' ' 

€€8. Foreign conviction for former offense. 

€€9. Second term of imprisonment, when to comm«ii«ts« 

€iO. inijentenQpf.^prisoamenf commenoes,.etQ.. 

€71. Imprisoomept f or ll(e. 

€72. Fine may he added to iinprlsonment ' ' ' 

\€73. Civn rights of convict suspended. 

«M. Civil de*th. 

€7& Umltiitleiis on two precedhig sections,., . ' ' , ' 

C7& Fonoii of convict pafotected. .- 

671. i'drfeltutes. ,.,.■■ ;•''"' • 

€78. Yaloation in gold coin. 

65^ - An ;adt or omisiion wliioh is jnade > puntehato in 
aiffei^nt yrof^k by 4BfferefiLt proarisioits id . tUs CMe, >nwky 
^ ptmiBlieA ^imiftnr -wither loi > istvchi psoiriBiofis^biit. ia Jno 
caM^an itb&imiii^ectunaerjmore than Mfe; <iil& ftO(|«it^ 
tal eut «oflrk1SoiL and; sesMfeeuca undfi^" aUberiaDd^barEira 
j^nMeeutioii iotf thedMinaact idroniisaiDQ iinctet:aiiy otbcpr. 
In the cases specified in sections six hondrtfdaiid.toltff^'- 
eight, six hundi^ and BD^-s^trto, andatx faoadrcdraiLd 

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H 6SS-8 amnttAi. ntovmioira. 27a 

sixty-eight, the puuishmentB therein prescribed mast be 
substituted for those prescribed for a first offense, if the 
previous conviction is charged in the indictment and 
found by the jury. 

Efbct of plea of gailtyls to eonfess.tlie offense ehirged, which in- 
cludes the preTious convictloii* and defendant most be lentenoed for a 
felouy-49 CaL S9S. Bmpcti, S llAS. . 

655. An act or om^sion declared punishable by th|a 
Code is not less so because it is alsa punishable under the 
laws of another State, government, or country, nniess the 
contrary is expressly declared. 

Adjustment of punishment— When an offense la committed against 
two soTereigntles, the first prosecutinfT absorbs lth-97 U. 8. KrT; but 

656. Wlienever on the trial of an accused peisoU it 
appears that upon a crimiual prosecution under the laws 
of another State, government, or country, founded upon 
the act or omission in respect to which he is on trial, he 
has been acquitted or convicted, it is a sufficient de- 

See jKwt, S 1«U> 

657. A criminal act is not the less punishable as a 
crime because it is also declared to be punishably as a 

Zhstancea.— Assault on a Judge— 25 La. An. 632 : 

—1 Dutch* 209; misbehavior or malpractice of oincer— 1 Biftckf . 166; 1 
Burr. 709; misconduct of Inferior jndges-43 Ind. 81? Itbeloas publlca* 
tions of court proceedings— 16 Ark. Ml: 4 111. 409; oonsplraolM to olv 
struct JusUce-25 Yt. 41A: 2 Hill. (S. C.) 282; 2 Pars. Gas. 857; 3 Zab. ^i 
M Ind. 46S; ftand and corruption of solicitors and officers of court-^ 
Best. « 8. 290. 

6S8k "When it appears^ at the time of passing j»n- 
tSttoe upon * person convicted upon indiotment, <^t 
rach pemon haa already paid a line or amffeffed en imprisf> 
omMBtfor tiie* act of which he stands oomrictedf «nder 
an Older adjudging it a. confceiApkr the couxt authorised te 
paseseiKteneo may mitigate the poadsbmentte beimposed^ 
I * IMattellsn of ooe^^See Oestr'a Crtn. Law.s 40 b. 

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271 CONXBAI* PBOYISXOim.. §§4tQ4^Q)| 

699. Wbenever an act is dedated a misdemesanQr* and 
BO pnnlfihinent for ooHnseliog or aiding in tlie.QQQiiaia^ioii 
of aueli aet is expressly prescribed: by lawreyery person 
who counsels or aids another in the commission of suob 
aet is guilty of a nriademeaQor. 

Accesiairtes.— The oSeua^ of being Accessory Is iiominittftd !ri the 
couiicy wbere the ei.iib.stjii]t]:>re acta are cDiisuaiDiatcfl— 13BuijbpU2: JL4 
Mass. 34JT; in which county oaiy can Iw ho Jnaieted— 27 Cal. WU; fil 
How* Fr. 342 ; 1 Parker Cr. R. 2i6i see 17 Ark. 5t>l ; 19 lud. 43L At com- 
mon Imw, a person kkditicd&a prmclpal cannot he canvlcteU on proof 
sIiowiiiK him to be ^i accessory, antl <?— ^D ("aJ. !:?!>: 2ri m. ii^V, 
n Id. m; 5*1 Id. 7a; Si id. i^: 12 Ala. )&«; 1^ Cii^. 34ti; &i Id. M7\ 3Lf Mt£9. 
ijl3: 8 Nek Hi}; 4\> S. H. WJ; ti.^i N. C. Jj7l*; 31 X. J. L. 6.5; tiJ Id. iVJ: Russ, 
& K. C, C, 25; y Cox €, C. 242; 7 Car. A P. 575; I Leach. 615; !>xU Livetat- 
uCo. the offeose ismadesub^tatidva and Jmleppindciit— 4U CaL (21): 56 
U^ $2; 6 m. SOdi 4!J Id. 4E0; U Iiid. 52; 4D lown. 2&i; 12 Iiiui.S-iO; til He. 
g4j 12tiMas9, 242; IS Ohio SL 4iiti; ly Ohio, lltL; 'i6 Fa. St. 2^1; 1i Wla. 
S32; Law R. I C. C, 77: Bell (J. C. 24;(i antl In States w&ere all rtb priti- 
ctpak, ho inoy ho Indicted and cod vie ted as princlnal— H Bnsli,2nr^; 40 
lOwa, iwii 4rilK3:i:J: 37 Pa, St* ItiS: &4ia. Ja7; 5:>Mlc:'h. lOrt; thouglithe 

Srlmo actoT he doad or cscapocl— 3 Urcv, 33.3; Meig??, J^Oti; flcid fiee 24 
to. 473, In Statea irhero there Is a comnion-law jurladktion &^ to 
Crimea, the Accessory can only bo tried Jointly with or after convlcllon 
Qt the i)rh!Clp»l-3 Mass. i2ti; 16 id. 4iJ; 5 Pick. 42^; VI^ Masa. 242; 4 
McLean, 317; Ttiach. C C, (iJ; I Parker €r. R.!24fl; » Watts & S. IS.'^: 2 
Ya.€ait. 211; ABn»h,€S8; llldlHi 15Fia.5<ri: 44lnd, 2i4; and the In- 
fUctjuenl, may charge Mm in one count as princlpalp and the other ad 
aceessory^j^ Cal. 33.^. Aiders and ahettom may he coQVIct«dt al* 
tboiwli l^e principal Ijaa hecn acquitted- lO Cal. dUi '2^ Ga. 2143: '2'J Mo* 
82; 1 Lrcach. 3bO ; 2 Khaw, 370 : Salk. 334 ; Kiiss. & E. C. C. 3i4. Tho prin- 
cipal aad accessory may be Indicted toifrtber or separately, witliout 
refereDce to ps^evlous conviction or acquittal— 10 UaL tifi; 20 id. 439. 
Seei cmte, fiS 32^ 33 ; and see Deat v'a Crlm, Law. Si 40 a^ b» c. Punishment 
of accessories— aee Desty "a Crim., g ^ b. 

6G0. In the Tarious casesin which the sendifig^of a 
letter is made criminal by this Code, the offense is deemed 
complete from the tisie when such lettiier js depositefjL in 
any post-office or any other place, or delivered to any 
person, with intuit that it sha^l be forwarded, 

A8 to mailed libete^^ee 1 DalL 388: 4 JSam. A Md. 95. Posting in- 
decent matter— 11 Blatdif. 346; see 96 V. 8. 727; As ta chaUentfen to 
fljrht-S Brev. 24S£ 6S Oa. 332; I Hawks. 487; 1 Const. S. g. 107; 2 Cam|k 
m; see 12 Ala. 276: and It i», not necessary to prove. that it eve* 
reached its donation— 2 Ciunp. 606. Maliinfir ofller X4 inrUyo*^ DaiL 
«4. V. •- 

661k In additiou to thu, penalty affixed by express 
terms, to eyery neglect or yiolation of official duty, on |;he 
part of pubUo offioersr-Stat^, county, city,, or township;— 
where it is not so expressly pro vide4i:tl^^ piay^ ^ the 
discretion of the court, be cemoyed i>rs^ ^fi^pe, , , , ^. ^ 

SeePol.«o(le.SS641««««9' t. / 

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^ ^^^4<. <3iwxM&&Js PBornnoaB> 272 

'' ' <G62. ^Nd^p^KKMi la puoisrliiabld for*, an omiaaitMi t6 pfer- 
fdite aH'iElot'/^licare nibh aot:liaa he»m p«rfiotmfiA .by 'an^ 
<)ieirer |>6i«dfi sMing, iw hi» t>elm)f , »id oomp^tesuk bx iatv 

tb'^rf^rtott. ••• • ■■■ .'•./=. I. ..•,••.,;.,,.,.. 

663. Any person may be conrieted of an attettipt to 
coinmit a oriinet altl^pugb it appears on t'^e trial 'tb:aV ttie 
ctime/'intendM .o£ kttej^tdd yrm, perpetrated by Wch 
person in piunm9.nee of sclcb attempt, unless the courti in 
its discretion, dischax^s.tbe jury and diriects auch person 
to be trieA' ^or sucb fcrimo,- ^ 

6GA, Wery person wbp ait^tnp^.to bomlmit any crime, 
bui^.f^, or i^ pieyen^ed dr intercept^ .in tbe peippetra- 
1;tai|.ti!er0bf^, i^ panishable, where no. provision. is iuade 
b-y law £or the punishmehi of siich atte^i^ts, aS itoll<^ws: 
[.i^'-ii tlie olfBtise,so attempted is' piiJiisliable by impris- 
bnzhet^t in the State prison for fl^e yeartB, or more, or by 
imprisomnent in<a county jaiJ^the perison guilty of, such 
attempt; is puhishable by >imprisoi!im0nt in the State 
prison, or .In a county Jail, as the case may be, for a ter^i 
iiot exo0edifig one-halt the longest term o^ imprisonment 
. pcesoribed upon a conviction of the^ Q^^se so attempted. 

2. If the offense so atteni^ed is'puiiishable byimpris- 
bn^ent 'ill the State prison' for any term less rthan five 
yeafifl, the pei^on'^zlt^f of saeh atttoipt is polniahable by 
itiipHsonthefnt iii the^ odunty Jatt fovnoi more tkalb one 
yeiar; '" '••■■' . •-'' . • • ." '.''•-i ■ • • . 

3. If the Pflense So atteii^pied is ptmishablfr by a fine^ 
.the offender dopvicted of such attempt is punishable by 
H fin^ not eitceeding 6ne*half the largest fine whieh' may 
beimpoMd upon a conviction 6f the offense so attempted. 

4. If the offense so attempted is punishable by impris- 
onment and by^dne^ tfaid offender ^conviofteiA of su^li at- 
tcdhpt Jhay be pititlisbed Iff b6th iiii{yri80&iliisttt> and flnev 
nof exceedinst one-half -the longest tem of > iiiipvisoBiikettt 
ttnd biie^Mf tK^ iai|;^ flub trMeb may ^e^imposiML'iipbn 
a conviction for tfaooftense so atienlpted; ' > «< t 

Attempts Indnded In SS 216, 217, 220-222 *#• itot InetaiAodlla t&ls 
sectioii. See Desty'8 Grim. Law, S 12. 

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273 CENifiKAL I»ltoVxSIOKi' « §§ ^H^-^ 

665. Tbb last Wo sectidiis do not protect a persoi^ 
who, in attemirtilng 'unsuccessfully to commit a crime, ac-; 
complislies tlie commission of another Si,nd difife;rent 
crime, iJt^ether jgitkieT or less iri guilt, from suffering 
the punishment prescribed by law for the crime com- 

666. Every person vrhp, having beeii conyiotad pf any 
offense punishable by imprisonment in the ^te prison, 
commits any crime after such conviction* JJ9 punishable 
therefor as Ipllow^: t 

1. If the offense of which such per^n i^ subsequently 
convicted, i^ such that, upon £v Awt conviction, an of- 
fender would be punishable b^imprisonnient in the State 
prison for any term exceeding: five years, puchp^roon is 
punishable by imprisonment in the State prison not less 
than ten years. 

2. If Uie subsequent offense is such ^hi^t, upon Si first 
conviction, the offender would bo puni^^hahle by in^pris?, 
onment in the State prison for five years, qv sxiy lesn 
term, then the person convicted of such subspqueu^t of-: 
f ense is punishable by imprisonment in. the State prison 
not exceeding ten years. 

3. If the subsequent conviction is for petit larceny, or. 

any attempt to cpmmit an offense which, if commlttedi 

would be puzushable by imprisonment in the State prison 

not exceeding five years, then the person convicted of 

such subsequent offense is punishable by imprisonment 

in the State prisoii not exceeding five years. 

Second idoiiVlctioii.— A statute proVi<ling that a second conviction 
for petit larceny make» thopartr fuilty oC • f elooF is not at pott facto 
^5 Cal. 433; 43 Mass. 413; SOraU. 738. See Const. Provisions* «f»^ 
page 18. 

Increasod p'QTiishnient^Inrrc&^t^d punlahmont may be lmpofl«^ 

for a BijLj^cgiknt 4iff [!£i^L}— 45 Cuh 4J^: 17 IiL W^i'A DalL £S»; &Itawle, 
M8i trielf.fej Id, li?; 2 M-^t m\ 3 li. CBBs » Gratt. 1V\\ 4J Md* 485; 

fS: 16 id. «2; 2i Id. AKfl\ 1 ftr r;;. ^ n^ i^^j; || i,] ei?; I EoDt, loS; l^hUa. 
fi8S| li U^38. iti<d; anfi ilkiH \ri'A ut,t bit jbnttitis ihiii ftutt^ cwice in' 
jgoptirdy* nor Ji ft pMnk.ljjJi::!! ilic iJj^t tillen-ie'— IT tziJ, Ui^ A 
mevftc^ilvtctloa^if the jirlnr flitlynso Isntirflf lent, wltJiDut BCJitence— I 

U2 i 6 %Mt, m. Sec Hmte. i Gink, 

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$§ 667-9 GisysBAL pROVisiOKd. 274 

667.^ Every person who, haying ^n convicted of 
petit ikrceoy, or of an attempt to cpmmit. an offense 
which, if perpetrated, would be punishable by imprison- 
ment in the State prison, commits any crime after 9uch 
conviction, is punishtdble as follows: 

1. If the subsequent offense is such that, upon a first 
conviction, the offender would be punishable by impris- 
onment in the Btate prison fbr life,' at the discretion of 
the court, such' person is punishable by imprisonment in 
such prison during life. 

2. If the subsequent offense is such that, upon a first 
conviction, the offiender would be punishable by impris- 
onmeut in the Btate pris6n for any term less than for life, 
such person is punishable by imprisonment in such prison 
for the longest term prescribed, upon a conviction for such 
first offense. 

3. If the subsequent conviction is for petit larceny, or 
for an attempt to commit an offense which, if perpetrated, 
would be punishable by Imprisonment in the State prison, 
then such person is punishable by imprisonment in such 
prison not exceeding five years. 

8ee«n<e, S6M; «CaL432. 

668. Every person who has been convicted in any 
other State, government, or country, of an offense which, 
if committed within this State, would be punishable by 
the laws of this State by Imprisonment in the State prison, 
is punishable ^or any subsequent crime committed with- 
in this State in the manner prescribed in the last two sec- 
tions, and to the sam^ content as if such first conviction 
had taken place in a court of this State. 


Rale different in Kew Tork— 1 Parker Gr. S. 645. 

669. When any person is convicted of two or. more 
crimes before sentence has been pronounced upon him for 
either^ the imprisonment to which he is sentenced upon 
the [Second or other subsequent conviction must commence 
at the termination of the first term of imprisonment to 

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275 OBNB&AL vaomsiosa. §§ 670^ 

'Which he shall he adjadged, or at the tesmiaatioii of the 
second or other sahseqaent tenxi<o£ imprwiupent, as the 
case may he. , '. • .v. 

Pnnishment.— hnprlsonnrent conunencoB on convlctlQn and sen- 
tence-HiS N. Y. M»; ^ But.(T#iin.> 6S9i Imiolaouneiis AH a taodnd 
conviction commences on a tormkiation of tbe first term of sentence— 
S CsA. 135; 49id. 468: 5 Ddy, ITlTirMet. 68l» ftl^. 318; 4i U&. 279; 18 
Ohio St. 46: 45 Mo. 931 r 13 Fsk,&t 631; I Va. Ca^l^UJ Brown F. G. 
980: 1 Leacb. 411 i LawR. 3Q7&. 379: lmtB66 11 lnd.«S9,as in caae of 
pardon or roYersal of sebtenc^^U Ubu fifilj Kev< Ui 4 Sswle, 9i»; 
te Gray, 618. , . 

670. The term of imprisonment fixed by the judgoi^ent 
in a criminal action commences. to run only upon the 
actual delivery of the defendant at the place of Imprison- 
ment, and if, thereafter, during such term, the defendant 
hy any legal means is temporarily released from such im- 
prisonment, and subsequently returned thereto, the time 
during which he was at large must not he computed as 
part of such term. 

671. "Whenever any person is declared punishable 
for a crime hy. imprisonment in thei i^tate prison for a 
term not less than any specified number of years, and 
XK> limit to the duration of such imprisonment is declared, 
the court au:^horize4 to pnmounoe judgment upon b«!^ 
ccmviction may, in it^disGretioo. sentence such oHw^ 
to imprisonment during his natural life, of for any. num- 
ber of years not less than tl^at prescribed. ' 

Panishment tor crime is find ought' to be largely In the discretion 
of tbe comrt~-66 Oa. IM5: 58 idi 200; and tbe queetion as to wbat Is 
witbin the Umits of t|ie law is fior tbe judicial diSjU^lon--6 Call, 245. 

672. Upon a conviction for any cringe p^nisl^ble by 
Imprisonment in any jail or prison,' in relation to which no 
fine 1b herein prescribed, the court may impose a fine on 
the offender not exceeding two hundred dollars, in addi- 
tion to the imprisonment prescribed. 

Fines in cases where tbe statute is silent— 1 OaU. 488; see 8 Gcfte, 89. 

673. A sentence of Imprisonment in a State prison for 
any term less than for life suspends all the civil rights of 
the person so sentenced, and forfeits all public offices and 
all private trusts, authority, or power during such impris- 

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I)l^^ranchi8ement.-€3 pa. St. 112; 2.Le]9]i,724; 27 Ark. 469; 6 91ackf, 

'^74.' ' A-^|>^t8ofi (^entenbed to ini^rlsblitneiit in the State 
prison for life is thereafter deemed civilly dead. ' 
• ^ 675^^ The prov^ions of the last two preceding sections 
miiBt not hh construed to render the persons therein men- 
tioned,in(Jompetent as witn^s^es i;p6n the trial of a'cHoi- 
inal action or proceeding; or incapable of making and ac- 
knowledging a sale or conveyance of property. [Approved 
March' 30th, in effect July Ist, 1874.] 

.676. The person oi a conyict ^entpnced to imprisonr 
mept in the $tate pifison is under tl^j^ protection of the law, 
and any injury to his person, not authorised by law, is 
punishable in the^ame.mauner as if he was not convicted 
or sentenced. ^ , , ... 

' C^onVicts can be punished only accordlngr to law— 34 Conn. 132; 4 
Barb. 151 ; 52 N. H. 492; Buss. A R. C. G. 20; Lelffll 4; O. S94; § Cox CO. 
449: 6 Jur. 243; and for any excess or Tiolation of punlsbment those in 
^hitSBMtmi)fii£h*lQBikD^AOiUSi . . ' ^ 

677. No convfction of any person fo^ crime works any 
lorfeitttf^of any property, except in tfaseii In which a for- 
feiture is expressly im^sed by law;> and an forfeitures to 
^i^'peepSd of this State, in'IAie nature of a deodand, or 
^prh^re an;^ penon shall flee from justice, are abolished. ' 
■ 678. ' Whenever in this Code the character or grade of 
an offense, or its punishment, is made to depend upon the 
value of the psoperty, such value shall be estimated ex- 
clusively in United Statseis gbld coin: [Approved March 
3(yth, in effect July Isi, 1874.] 

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S7y xnioflmMBr ifw^^mfimB. 4| €81r4K 


S «1. IfopenoDinmWMl^lalMKtaataigiaooiiTtfUai* 

S 682. Public offenses, bow prosecuted. 

\ 68S. Crtmlilal action Vleflnfed. 

4 684. Parties to a criminal aetifiii. 

I 68k Tbe |»aE«j.ptP09eoat^ knowa MiAsfen^iiiit. 

5 686. Rlffhts of defendant in a cilniinal action* 

S 687. Second prosecution for the same offense problblted. 

1688. Kopewottto i>e a witness agairisyMiwlf toatrimliialiwtlMi, 

or tobe mmecessaiily pwstntiied.' 
I 688^ No person tp be 4iaiiyicted bat upon Twrdlot.or JodfOMnt. 

681. No person Cat! be pnidslied for a ptilill^ offense, 
except npon a legal conviction in a conrt having jorisdio- 
tion thereof. 

Bee poitl^ 689; Const. Cal. art. i, 1 13. 

Sente&o* most be preceded by convtet!dii^l6 Ark. 601 i 1 Caiiies,72: 
J4 Me. J»|; but it does not always follow oonTtstlgn^U Pic|L 88 1 17 id. 
296: 8 Wend. 204. Bmntnary convictions are reflated by statute— i 
Parker Cr. K. 86; ^bloh most be strictly foUlowea* imless it f 


e; ^bloh most be strictly foUlowiSu unless it is merely 
dun. 410. In summary convictions. Jurisdictional facts 
vely apnear-T BaH». 488$ « Johu. m*, 1» Jblms. 19; 3 


ti.4l0. _ ^ 

mwt afllrmatively appear-«T BaH». 488; 4 John 
Me. U; 14 Mass. m-, lo Met. 222; 2 Teates, 475. 

682. Bveiy public ofifonse iniut be pvosecttled by in- 
dictment or infoADatlon^ except^ 

Lr Where proceedings are had- for the vetixmil 6{ 'civil 
offloor» of tb« State. 

^ Offeoieet ttritisg inrthe milltlA wiien ftx at^tnul wfrie^y 
and In the land »ttd nawtl forces inlimei <6f w«c, or which 
the 8tato may ieeeip, ^with th« consent bf CkMvgMiiSi' In time 
of peace. • - ■ -.♦••■ . ■.' • >.' '•. 

8. OS^n^eft Yiried In tfustfces' and Police C^t|t1». flh ef- 
fect Ap£^:9th^ 1880.1 . . ; 

ProeeettHena.-^netmei' tlie Coostltiltlen nw the Codei>feUMt8 tbe 
Hon by UidlttiBent of any ofltese. inchittlnir lDieaenieaoer»^fi8 
-^^ - — ^ " "^, tutd Jurlsdlctioti otet mdictments for 
~eatee beingr exeioilte as to intsdemean* 
:eiind--68T3al.4a. See OonstTCaLlfl 

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683. The proceedings by which a party charged with 
a public offense is accused and brought to trial and pun- 
ishment, is known as a criminal action. 

Wood,4k . 

684. AcKl(ii!tiEA»cM(mfsp«6MeaMlhthetiaine6 
people of the State of California, as a party, agt^xu^t the 
person charged with the offense. 

685. The pMi^r^ ite o s e c tt ted in a erlndiial action is 
designa^ in this Code as the defendant 

686. In ft eiimiBailaotioii the defendant is «itttledr* 

1. Toaspeedy and^ptBtbliotriaL 

2. Tb be atlow^ counsel as In civil actlcns, or to appear 
and ^fexiA,^p«nqn and with counsel. 

dk To produce witnesses on "bis. behalf, and to bf» ^n« 
fronted with the witnesses against him, in the-presenct^ of 
the court, except that where, the charge has been, pre- 
liminarily f^yanilfiftd before a committing BMigistrate* and 
the testimony ta^cn down by question and answer In the 
presence of the defendant, who has, either in person or by 
counsel* cross-examined or had an opportunity to cross- 
examine the witness; or where the testimony of a witness 
on the pav^ot th^ pcDpte^ who is unable to give, secnrity 
for his appearance, has been, taken oonditlonally in th* 
Ukemannevin .tfia presence, of the defendant* who has, 
either in person or by counsel, cross-examined or had an. 
oppefto4^:tp evoM-examhae the witness, ithe depoeition 
of fnah . wl^pMsa nay be:read, upon ita being satisl^KstosUy, 
shown t<^tilie^«onrt tha^be ia dead 4>r inaane»:<ox oaanofr 
with due diligence be found within the State. 
. Swi4'X' '^wn\nMng jjqann samnoBed for $SbB tnpa* Imtnpt «vi- 
pttin^ied, Ik not aepriratlon of right to public ti1sl--«C«L4dl. . 

Swbd. S. The deposition taken by the cominltthiff inairtstittee mj 

or lafltae, or esaaot te^wa-^OfOTO^^ tf p^dncy. ie <#«tMl., 
cttUf^'^^'^ttWMM^ffi' ^-31^ SeTMiSM **^* ^»Sit »o*' 

n%Mi,^ue8rtakeh in manner andforai» ana b cerSffied as rMtiive<|. 
bflMS. The two sections aro to be taken to jNw^mal«Ke--64Ca077{ 

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Me jMif, If 80 and 1213. and notes. The eertiflcate mnst set forth act- 
ual complunce with all requirements of the 8tatate-6 CaL 659 ; a mere 
inrat is not admissible-^) id. 675. Query: Is tUs section consUtn- 
ilonalf-MGaL67A. See Const. CaL art. 1, S 13. 

687. Ko person can be subjected to a second prosecu- 
tion for a public offense for which he has once been pros* 
eouted and conyicted or acquitted. 

Jeop>fdf>— tTeopardy nttHcbes when a party Is once placed upon hlB 
trlit Before a cmup et ent con r l. ou .i v it,l i a ijidk im€ uti nn il an ac qui tt al 
tweifQro the ]ury or & Cl\scharsfi of ttio lujy without coascDt of prisoner 
—4 Cal. ^n-, 5 M. 27U: as iiU <ti7? 48 irt. riHt S Blatcbf, S^^t J5 Ark- 2blj 
1 B&ll. 69L; 3 Brer. 421; IH Coim. 54; 3 Cu^li. 212: Ark, IdFJj 7 l^a. 
•e22; 3 Hawks, ^t; 2 HfUst L7:>; 17 H^ti, Al^i 7 Mo. Uii 19 Irl. liKli a 
gmedea & ILTSl; 3 Tex, 116; I 3waji.l4; 2 Tvler,471; fl AVenU.G^O; T 
Port. 187. Sen CoiM. Prov. Art, t, S U, oflif, |>. 17; ^tJ see Deaty'a 
GoQSl. CaL art. I, ! U, viid tjot^s. 

688. Ko person can be compelled, in a criminal action, 
to be a witness against! hioiseil^ dipr can a person charged 
with a public offense, be subjected, before conviction, to 
any mt^«esirai^ tliatt is ^4e^iBiitf^P}ltlaiB detention to 
answer the charge. . 

Defendant' need not be a witness In his own behalf— 36 CaL 5X2: and 
hlsreMial.nettocf^udlceiilsctte-'Aid.a; »ta.BBtl\ andisee Const. 
ProT. atae, p. 18. He is to be free from shackleaand bonds— 43 Cal. 167. 
The common-law rule obtains-6 Batg. St. TrtlSD72n»244; 1 Leach, 36. 

689. Ko person can be convicted' bf si public offense 

unless by the verdict of a jury, acce|>ted ^tid recorded by 

the court, or upon a plea of guilty, or npon judgment 

against him upoxi a demurrer in the cisd ;nentioned in 

section one thousand &nd eleV^n^ or upon a judgfnent of a 

court, a jury having been waived, in a criminal case not 

amounting to felony. [In effect February 25th, 1880.] ^ 

If defendant does not plead. Judgment may be pronounced agalnsi 
hUn-28 CaL 365: 29 id. 663: Bee post, S 1011> and notes. 

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Of tbo Wwv^putUm of FnWa 0£to«#Sf . 

Gba7^ I. Or LiiWFui* BvszsT^iroE, §§ Gd24. 

n. Of xhx ]j(tbbvsmtion of vhb Ofhobba ov 
Ji79iiiq9, §g 697-^. 
.mL SBcrmtrrir xo K^bp tqb Pbacjb,. {$ 701-U. 
. ^» Poj^s XK CiziBS Aio) Towns, .4ia> thboi 

4-TTBia>iJrOB AT BXPOSSD FliAOStf, {§ 719* 

, V*' 6o^pBW«iOK pr BiOTS, $S 723-33. ., . . 

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iitmwwtkwmvu0im §§ 

or UiWtVl* B98ISTANCB. 

S633. B7 the party, iQwl^at cases and to wl&atextevt. 
f 694. Ifty other psuiles, In what cases. 

692. Lawful resistance to the oomxnission of a pablio 
offense may be made— 

1. By the party about to be injured. 

2. By other parties. 
See ClT. Code, SS 23-26; 43-60. 

693. Besistance sufficient to prevent the offense may 
be made by the party about to be injured : 

1. To prevent an offense against his person, or his 
family, or some member thereof. 

2. To prevent an illegal attempt by force to take or 
injure property in his lawful poaaesaion. 

JSubd. 1. Foroa and reaifltance.— The rl;;^bt of rcststan^e H bo^ed 
on tiei-esstCY— 27 CaJ. 5TL It Rtisaa wLcre one muniiesUy Intends to 
commit a felon j on tlie person » liaijItaLioti, or proiierty of AnoLtiGr-# 
lO-A-a, lS8i 20 Idl mi: 32 Id. MJ: S Hush. 4^1; '^J Ala. 'iSi fl Biiijh. 3121 ft 
MicJi. i50; laGa, 19Ji I Ohio Bt. m ThatJi. O, C. 471; 3 W;ih!i. C. C. 
*1S: 15 Ohio Bt 47* Its rules extend to the relations of parent ftint 
child, liusl>aQd and wife, iruifiCer a.acl HEirv:i!U, und brg^ther aud.iL^ter — 
]S aa.7Dll 17 JUiwFfBT; 8mich. 1{^0; S5> liuL 4\fl*, m Id. i>i\ 30 Mli^. tilO; 
l^OhlOiSt SiH; I Wis. 16S. Tha Liw of Sttlr-ilefeJise docs not reqtili*© 
an^ to seek lh« pro Lection of the law— 3 Hun, 71t>; aee 7L 111. 1:^3; 3 
HiiTi, 7tS! * Orvjf. 4i»l ; 23 N. J. Etj. ':;>l ; fiS Me. ilCt. See letiatiiit/ i0eer, 
antdt S !»' fi«» Btiiity'is Crlm, Lii w, 1 31 and notes, S ^J is'- 

j9tf6<f. 3. Protection of property.— The law of resistance extends to 
the defense of the habitation— 1 Car. A P. 319: and the owner may use 
force necessary to repel an assault-8 CaL 34 i ; Addis. 246. So, an un- 
welcome Tlsltor may 1)0 ejected by force, without calling in a magis- 
trate-^ Barb. 262; 2 Met. 23; 6 Barb. 608; I Watts <ft S. 90; 1 Post. & F. 
416. It extends to the protection of property before taken, but not to 
its recovery after it Is taJcen, unless it can be retalLen without undue 
violence— 11 M. H. 540. lilegal official action may be forcibly resisted— 
8 Pick. 133; 11 Price, 235; see 123 Mass. 420. See Desty's Grim. Law, 
S 76. and notes. 

RMisting treipass.— The owner of property In possession of the 
same may use as much force as is necessary, to prevent a forcible 
trespass— 8 Oal. 341; but no more force than Is necessary— 59 Ala. 1; 
life cannot be tiOcen in resistance of a mere trespass— id. 2 Halst. 220; 
4 Mass. 391; 58 Oa. 35; 23 Ala. 28; 24 id. 67; and If life be taken, it is 

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murder or numfllfluffhtflr, ajceordInK to the clrcumstmiceji— 4 Mass, S91 j 
17 lowft, 133. A bare fear of destt-iidtion to property, or of loaa of ILTe, 
or^reatbortily tkami, lanotfiumcieiifctd jtistlfy—43 CaL«T; t Greene, 
(lowR* A.'A; 41 Oa* fli?7; 4J Id. tiO^J; flo. whftu a phsaceablo trsiapasstr l3 ot- 
dereJ awaj acHi rloufljiot 1^0 lniiTit'd[aLt-l^\ siiid the owiiut- lull La liJm. It 
la m urilpr— 10 t>i Ji3. A tenant mtkv fosNisibly (srcvcTit ii former tenant 
from r^^nipvlng wludoii^'s phic*?*! Uy nlTnlnf a noiisflcUiTlng lila piiort^n- 
ancr— 11 K- H.-'HO: and see 4 Aliens 3l(J; binEatcnantlrjcommoncaanOt 
Teinovfl il\& v^fitii of bis. cotccarit-^ A»Uen, ^'^16; nor preveot tbe re- 
XQOviLl of Ilia pfoperty— 4 Cu^li. AST. 

694. Any other' persdn, in ft1d<>f def«flficj of tbie person 
about' to be injured, may ibake resisjtaiice stifaclent to 
prevent the offense. 

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mi'a m vMM Txm T of oFncBBS. g§ 697'^ 


or THB iNTXBPnDmoir of tsb officxss of justice. 

S 697* IuMfV6litkm^ OifltoetSf i& ^tliiit tiMos. 
S eee. ^«MiMi8 Mtbig bi their aid juitlttedi 

697. Pablio offeiuieB may be prci7«ntod by tbo inter- 
▼entlon of tbc» offlcem of jnstiee t 

1. By requiring secunty to kebp tbe peace. 

2. By forming a police |ji .cities ajod towns, and by re- 
quiring their attendance du exposed places^ 

3. By suppressing Tiots. 
SiMLl. 8eepo«<»S706. ' 
3ubd,% Beei)dirr,S720. 
Subd.9, 8m pott,liSn,mr938. 

698. When the officers of justice are authorized to act 
In the prevention of public offenses, other persons, who, 
by theit command, act In their aid, are Justified In so 

See jwf<, SS 817, 723, and ante, $e87,i^bt6. 

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S70L Iofpn»itip|i.ofthrea|«iQ«ap8aDSO, • 

S 703. Szai»lnaft|Qn of complalnanl; 8Q4.wi|ai9Me9. 

S 703. Warrant of arrest. 

1 1M. FroeeedlBgs«icbar9e8teItkgo(mtiorerteid* ' 

S 705. Person complained ot .^I^on ta l)e discl^^rged. > . 

S 706. Securil7 to keep tbe peace, wben required. 

^S 707. Effect of giving or refusing; to give security. 

'S'706. i^anon committed fornot giving secorltr* 

S 709. UnAertftUngtobeflteainttlerk'solDoe; 

S 710. Security required for assault .committed in ooojrt. 

S 711. Undertaking, when broken. 

S 712. Undertaking, when and how to bo prosecuted. 

S 713. Evidence of breach. ; 

S 714. Security for the peace. 

^01.. An information nmj be laid before any of the 
jnaglsirates mentioned in section eight hnndxedand eight, 
that a person has threatened to commit an offense against 
the person or property of another. . 

Secnrity to keep the peace.— A wife may pray surety of peace 
against her husband— 87 lud. 353; 24 Ala. 672. A prosecution for surety 
m. peace is a criminal proceeding to prevent, but not to prosecute 
crime-4 Blackf.440; 16 Ind. 175: 26 Id. 106; 49 Id. 341; and when not 
otherwise provided, the criminal practice act governs— 16 Id. 175. The 
constitutional provision as to Jeopardy does not apply to this proceed- 
Ing— 26 Ind. 106: id. 141. A complaint Ls not necessarily bad for alter- 
nativeness arising from the use of *< or " instead of '* and "—8 Ind. 458; 
10 id. 170; and see 11 id. 312; 4 id. 561. 

702. When the information is laid before snch magis- 
trate, he must examine on oath the informer, and any 
witness he may prodnce, and must take their depositions 
in writing, and cause them to be subscribed by the parties 
making them. 

The qnestipn to be tried is, has tbe witness just cause to entertain 
the fears expressed in his affidavit ?— 26 Ind. 141. An affidavit of a party 
who ** swears as he verily believes " is good— 21 Ind. 225. 

703. If it appears from the depositions that there is 
just reason to fear the commission of the offense threat- 

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287 Baoussnr «o nraer tbm psAcb. §§ 704-0 

ened, by tlw pe»6tt so iitf dnii«d agtitittit) ihei magistrate 
rnuBt iBsne a warrant; d^redted generally t6 the alieriff ef 
the ooiinty>..9r any opnatable; marshal, or polhiemaA in 
the State» reciting the auhstanee of the infonnaitioB, and 
commanding the efficer forthwith to arreet the person in- 
formed of and hring him hefore the magistrate. 

704. When the person informed against is brought be- 
fore the magistrate, if the charge be controverted, the 
magistrate most take testimony in relation thereto. The 
eridence most be redndkd to i^ting, and rabeoribed by 

705. If it appears that there is no just reason to fear 

the eemmlMlon of Ihe oflfense alleged to have been threat- 

ened) the person complained of most be dischaxged. 

7iiat nuoa t« #Bet.~Tlt» nuwtkm as to Jttrt eteoM to f emr Mlateft to 
tbe time of lustitatioo of proceedlnga-Sd Ind. 378; 4a 10. IM. Xbe stftt- 
ote glTOs ad tight of ftppieSl-ia ]£(dr438. 

706. If, however, there is just reason to fear the com- 
mission of the offense, the person complained of may be 
required to ^nter into an tindertaMug in such sum, not 
exceeding fiVe thousand doTlars, as the magistrate may 
direct, with one or more Sufficient sureties, to keep the 
peace towatd the people of this State, and particularly 
to wai4 the informer. The undertaking' is valid and bind- 
ing for six months, and may, upon tbe renewal of the in- 
formation, be extended for a longer period, or a new un- 
dertaking may be required. 

707. If the undertaking required by the last section 
is given, the party informed of must be discharged. If 
he does not give it, the magistrate must commit him to 
prison, specifying in the warrant the requirement to give 
security, the amount thereof, and the omission to give 
the same. 

708L If the person complained of is committed for not 
giving the undertaking required, he may be discharged 
by any magistrate, upon giving the same. 

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IS 7fl^:^4 epOFwrr TO K««r(9!B9«X40B,. 288 

7QP, /l%6.j994^JM[o0iiimftlMfilea>l>9P^ettf«i»t^ 
^t^&alSiiQ^£|f.tHqlerk>of tlieooiiiMy. .7 .; : 1 
'7I0i ' A'pttrfliMi who, in the pxeMnce oi'Si^eotaAi''&t'mkg^ 
latnittf^ afl0Miltft*oif threatens to assault anochei*, or to 
commit an offeitte against his persoti or pibp^rty, <»' who 
contends with another with s,ngty words, may 1t>e ottered 
by the. cou|rt or magialtrate tp glye secuxity, a^ in ^bis 
chapter' provided, and if he refuse to 40 so, may ^0 fiQJJX" provided in /^ection seven hundred an4 seven, 

7XX, Upon the:: couvietioiL ol> the person infoormed 
against of a breach of the peace, the undertaking^^ Is bro- 

71;2. Upon the district attorney's prQduQing;evideii06 
of such. conviction to the Superior Ciourt of the county, 
the court, must order the undertaking to be prosecuted, 
and liie district attorney must thereupon commenee an 
action upon it in the name of the people of this State. 
[In effect April 12th, 1880.] 

713. In the action, the offense stated in the record of 
conyiction must be alleged as a breach of the undertak- 
ing, and such record is conclusive evidenco of the breach. 

714. 8eou4ty to ke^ the peaoe^ or be of gQod behav- 
ior, cannot be required ejEoept as prescribed la this 

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poLW nr wwnimi'flBQwrHs. §S-3Q8^9!^ 

(mAJiW¥^ ifv; 

roucx IS ozziBS jnx>'«owMi; axujvbbib aitbnbancb at 

S7I9. Oigiml2itltmBiidregc^atI<nibfl^e|K>Ue6: 

S 730. tottQ^ to jprdMTVe the pence at pablio meetiOKS. 

719. The oxgazkMtkm wivS >x«ffalAtloii of th% police) hi 
the cities ftii4 tpyfpA 6f ilds State, id goyemed by speeial 

720. The mayor or other officer having the direction 
of the polled of i city or town must ordefaforce, suf- 
ficient to preserve the peace, to attend any pnblio meet- 
lug, whifSti he is stt^iildict that m btoadh iot thft peada is 
nasonably appMhtandad. ' 


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on '09^ XIQIflk 

S 729. Power of ihexlirinoVeM>i]^]]i^'tcJ8tBtBac^ 

S 724. Officer pycwUt^ to oowt tbe niune oCreslsterSi^ete. 

S 725. Qovefoor to-order out miUtary to ^d In executing iiroeess. 

S 726. Magistrates and'offlcefs to comnumd rioters to dUpenle. 

1 7n. :atoai!t«eiAote»9tf<iii^7<>»Bfft(<UweH!9,, 

I 7a8.,v(^Bicefs,wboi^ay,(^deroi|ittliemSUtar7. 

) 729. Commanding oiAcer and troops to ooey the orddr. 

S 730. Armed force to obey orders of wliom. 

STSl. dmittaitjQftliettoopf, 

S782. QO)femorm^4eclare.»coQnt7.1na8tateof inaurectlon. 

S 733^ Siagr revoke tbeprpdUunation. 

723b .Wbtoik a aherifl or trtibet paUio-offloar: antli^rized 
to execute process finds, or has rdMDn tOai^r^ODdt that, 
resistance will be made to the execution of the .piooess, 
he may command as many male inhabttaataof his county 
as he may think proper to assist him in oyercominfi^ the 
resistance, and, if necessary, in seizing, arresting, and 
canfimng the persons resisting, their alders and abettors. 

AnthorltF *o aireet— The moflL^trnte may not aaU arrest pffeDderai 
but bf) maj antboriio others to make the arn&st, and tnay flommcm all 
CltUexia proacDt to cotne W h\a aid— 4 Pa. Iv J, 31 ; 3 Bam. ^^ Adol. HIT; 
A Cat, db P^ £54; &]d. 4JI ; and C(» refosa to ulc] an 4l3ic'i]r la trying to 
•appresa a rlot^ is iui offetise— 1 Bay, a IB; aedO^Mo. ^68 j Atld!^. 277j 1 
C*tf'. A M. 3H. It Is tlift duty of every ckl^eu to ctideav^or to anp]>r«a 
a riot, And tlielaw wlli proteet them In so doing— i Yeatrjj^ 4 S9; eco 3 Pa, 
lAtJ;n45\ 4 Id. 31. Atuustahle t>i bound to iiSfibLi tj^st emJeavora to 
Auppre^ an affiray— 4 Car. A P, 3^; « id. 743 j Hyaq * M. 132; but he 
GMuaot arrest for an affray doe dooo In Jjis presence^ with o a C a warracit 
—flame cases. A prlTratP person Is not jiiatffled lii arrestiiiff an aHiiayer, 
unlfss the affray la still contlTSuErigj or la about belpj? rt^newecl— 10 
Clark & F- 2S; S. 0, 1 Lead. C- C. 177. Any person rnay suppfesa an Of* 
ftiiy , but bo cauDot of lili* own nnthorliy arrest after tbo aftniy Ja cjf er 
^11 Johiw. I&6, An officer mAy call on peratma to &ld Mm In t he ct^ 
cut I on of his dntles-J Bay. 316; l U&rs. U, 8. Ee|f. 263; I YeAt«4, 419; 
fi WhMt. 4JTt C^r, & M, 314. PeAce offl0Qta^-6e« potlj | ST7. S&e anfe, 
S 6in, eulid. 3; SS 7til,730- 

724. The officer must certify to the court from which 
the process issued, the names of the persons resisting, 
and their aiders and abettors, to the end that they may 
be proceeded against for their contempt of court. 

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'SOI MUBnanaum ^visnnB. '§f^t2fSffJB 

729. nii«t^)MiiMtothe'g^ir«mtottettli«<^ 
of ODj coiinty is not sufficient to enable the sheriff to ez- 
ecotd process delivered to hixjl; be must, npon the appli- 
cation of the siietiff of the' county, order such poiikion as 
shall be sufficient, or the Whole, If necessary, of the or- 
l^anized ITatlonal Guard or enrblled militia of the State, 
to proceed to the assistance of the sheriff. 

726. Where any number of persons, whether armed 
or not, are unlaWfuUy or riotously assembled, the sheriff 
of the county and his deputies, the officials governing the 
town or city, or the justices of the peace and constables 
thereof, or auy of th^em, must ga among th^ persons as- 
sembled, or as near to them as possible, aM command 
them, ixi the niEune of the people of the State, immediately 
to disperse. 

See onter ! 607, subd. 8. 

727; If the persons assembled do not immediately 
diapene, sooh magistrates and offidtos most arrest them, 
and' to that end. may command the aid of all persons 
present^ or within the county. 

86»Mttk S 128, «od noteu 

728. When there is an unlawful- or riotous assembly 
with the initont to ooxnmlt a felony » of to offer riolence to 
person or property, dvtd resist by fwr^e the laws jof tlio 
State er €i tfa« United States, and the £a^ Is miule known 
toth« gor^fnoc, by aay^iMtlee.of tbe Supremfr Court, or 
the judg^ oi the Superior Cottrt» or sheriff ^f the oounty, 
or the niayor or ^def ol police of a elty, br the president 
of the board of soper^itdis- of the ottiea and ooonties of 
Saenun^nto ' aad Sau Fsanoiseo, tho goTemos may issve 
sn order dlieoted to the commandinjgt officer of a diiFfisiiao 
<nr bvigMAeof the^vgnniaad Naitioinl Gilatfd^ os enrbUed 
militia of ' tiie Stat^^ to order hiscommand, trench* part 
thereof as inay be necessary, intoactive si9nric4»and to 
appear aft a time and place thereinF specified^ toaid the 
cItU a«thaiiti|9s.iin supiiresslng .Tiolenoe and'enfocoing 
thelaWB. [Eu«fftetJLprill2thvl880;]i 

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ti^7imd npSivx^Soiar-So^^S. art* viU, 11^ ' 

729f. Th^ prg^ii^'4. I?'atio^alGu?urdor;enroUea,j^ 
ti{^ or 9ucli portion thereo;^ 9^ shaU be called ui^p ,|iB.ciiye 
service^ as provided iu section seven hundred and twentiy- 
eigbt, must appear, at tbe tii^e.and place a^pinte4t ^ully 
armed and equipped, find ijrit^ not less than forty rounds 
of ball cartridge to each man, if infantry or cavalry, and 
with not less than twenty rounds of j^pe, canister, or 
round shot, if artillery. 

, . 730^ When, an anne(d force is called out for the pur- 
pose of suppcpssing an unlawful or riotou9 assembly, or 
arresting th.e offenders* iMui is ]^cedun4e?.tihe.t^nporar7 
direction of any piv^ o^cer, aa provided ix^ scietipn seyen 
hundred and thirty-one, it must obey the ordora in rela- 
tion thereto of such civil officer. . : ^ 

731. Whenever any )siQxtion of the ISTatiotial Gutfrd, or 
enrolled mililaa, shall hav6 been called into active serrieo 
to suppress anlnsurrecfcioik or zebellion, to dispesse a mob, 
or to enforce the execution, of the laws of this. State or qf 
the United States, it shall be competent for the command- 
^r-ift^hief , or Cor the general acting in his stead, to place 
Buoh troops under the temporary .^ireiBtton of tlMiniay<»r 
of any 4dly, or of thepresidentof the board of s^per^soni 
of the eities and counties of SacraxnenliO and Saa flraa- 
ciscD, or the p^cson aotJagin iki^t<cBpaclt7«>.of the aheiiff 
of. any eounty* or of. any marslml of .the United States; 
undU, in the tipinion «f such oiyUofilaef, it shall beoome 
neoesaary that the troops so oaUed outahaU fire ot chaige 
spen\any mob ov body, of persona asaoinUsd to: bnialB 0r 
ledst thallu;vB#atteh,oittil.offioevahflll giyea< written order 
to that effedfta the inpfliior offioispiroaent ineomxpandcl 
anchtroeps^ who will at oneeproeeed'to eanrtiT (hittihaiodr- 
• der^ aQd* ahall direct. .tiio:firipg and mttdok to eeate * only 
whdnBoishmob or unlawful atsjetaldy ahalL hame, been 
:.di8pHBBad, or whenadrdered to do^pby the-|^zbpeB civil aa- 
thority. No officer 'Who has bbtn called iMttqauataiH the 

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99a is&ttiximtioTk di* At6tA/ ^ §§ 732-3 

ciyil authorities shall, under any pretense, or in compli« 
ance with any order, fire blank cartridjires upon any mob 
or unlawful assemblage, under penalty of being cashiered 
by sentence of a court-martial; provided, that nothing in 
this section shall be construed as prohibiting any such 
troops from firing or charging upon such mob or assembly 
without the orders of such civil officers, in case they shall 
first be attacked or fired upon, or forcibly resisted in dis- 
charge of their duty. When the commander-in-chief, or 
general acting in his stead, shall call troops into active 
service for the purposes mentioned in this section, and 
shall not place them under the temporary direction of 
any civil officer, the conmianding officer shall use his own 
discretion with respect to the propriety of attacking or 
firing upon any mob or^unl^wfcil Assembly. 
Governor as commander-in-chief of militl^-Const. CaL art. ▼, § 5. 

732. Mni«n the g^refobt i» sliti«aed:thd;tlliep^i?ecution' 
of civil or enttdaai p«o<5tes liaB be«fi loh)lbty^ Resisted in 
any county by bodies of men, or that combinations to re-, 
sist the execution of propesa by force exist in any county, 
and that the power of the cpunty lias been exerted, and 
baa noi been sufficient to enable the officers having the 
process to execute it, he may, on the application of the 
officer, or of the district attorney, or Judge of a Superior 
Court of the county, by proclamation, published in such 
papers as he may direct, declare the county to be in a 
state of insurrection, and may order Into the service of 
the State such number and description of the organized 
National Guard, or volunteer uniformed companies, or 
other militia of the State, as he deems necessary, to serve 
for such term and under the command of such officer as 
he may direct. [In effect April 12th, 1880.] 

733. The governor may, when he thinks proper, re- 
voke the proclamation authorized by the last section, or' 
declare that it shall cease at the time and in the manner 
directed by him. 

See Const CaL art. t, S &> 

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RBMQYJ^jOir tjmfjfy f^USBBS, 

TITLE n. ^ 

Of JucUoialProoeedingB for tbe Re]iUKv:«l of BvCtiHo 
Offioenby Xinpeaohi]],eatov otberwi^e. 

Chap. X Of Ihpeachmbnts» $§ 737-63. 

H. Ov THB Remotai. of Civil Officbbs otqbbi- 

WI8B THAN 37 tBiPBACHMBMT, §§ 758-72. 

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X|IPSA€maBN!i;9r M797S 

fur. OOlMnllaliltotDiiBpeicliBiftuti. 

S TV. AitlolM of Impeachment. 

S7li. XhMoCfteavinff. Senrteeoadeteodflal* 

i 74L BerrtoefliowiiuMla. 

S 742. Proceedings on f aQure to appear. 

S 74S. Defendant, after appearance, may answer 6r demtne. 

S 744. If demn#rei^ is oy«rtaled, defendant mast answer. 

I74S. Senate to beawOn. - 

S 746.' Tw>4blrdsneoe6sai7tD#,<cimid«tloiL 

S 747. Judgment on conviction, how pronounced. 

f748. The same. 

S74flu Nature of ^ludgmsnt. 

S 790. Effectof Judgment of suspension. 

S 75L Impeachment disqualifies until acquittal. Vacancy, how Ulled. 

S 792.' Presiding ofacerwhenfiieuteBiAnt^oremoir is impeached. 

1701; Impencliifieiitapta har toiinditetmento '■ 

737. The governor, iteu tenant-go v6tnor, secretary of 
state, controller, treasurer, attorney-general, surveyor- 
general, chief justice, associate justices of the Supreme 
Court, and judges of the Superior €k)urt8, are liable to im- 
peMdiment fo^nny' AUtidemeanov in oAce. [In effect 
Pe%nia^ ISIih; 1880.] 

Xa^pMfllHnflBt,/idiontf)iflottoMtoiwt.OiL'artfclir,9M. WbHefhe 

latdM may jprorViiat*iB 6sl« 29(K ;A pnst^llnr Ju^^ i» liaMafor pre- 
yentliighis associate from delivermg his oplmon— Addison's Trial, 114, 
161;^rc. 4 DaU. 225; Porter's Trlal,6L Judges cannot He Mttovtd bJF 
ffttv tforranlo— 43 Ala. 234. 

738. All In^achments xnust he by resdution adopted, 
originate^ in, fLE^ 9ondacte,d by managers elected by the 
Assembly* wlio must j)repare article^ pf imj|;)eachment,, 
present them, at th.e bar of the Senate»,f^nd prosecute the 
same. The trial must be had before the Senate^ sittUig as 
a court of impeachment. 

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The trial.— ▲ member of the House, voting for the proseeation of 

tides must be presented to the Senate, and a constitutional quorum 
of the entire membership must! reoeiye tiiem— 12 Fla. 653. See Const. 
CaL art. iv, S 17; Fed. Cons?. aStt'^lTl itViWdri 

739. When an oiB<!er Uf iispeacfi^ by the Assembly 
for a misdemeanor in officd^ tiuf ftvtiiclev of fittqwaftllmlUitt 
must be delivered 'td* the pr^idehtbf the Senate.' '^ ' 

740. The Senate mtast assign a day for t6e TsmfAng<it 
the impeachment, and inform the Assembly^ thidreof .' ^e 
president of tbQ^^nate ijglast cause a copy of tbe s^iclea, 
of impeacWeiiii witb a notice to appear and answer t]^, 
same at the time and place appointed, tol)6 served en.tiiep 
defendant not less than teU'^ays before the day fished for* 
the hearing. ' . i . < 

741. The service must be made upon tbe defendsiit 
personally, or if be pannot, upoh diligent Inguiry^ be to(^ 
within the State^ the Senate* upon proof of that faci^ mfi>y 
order publication to be made« in suoh manner as. it may 
deem proper, of a no|iice req^uiringhim to i^ppearat a«peo- 
ified tim^ an4 place and answer the articles of impeach- 
ment. ■] 

See Pot Code, S 259. 

742. If the ji|efendai»t does joftk appea^T) tbo 8«4kat%r 
upon proof of service or publication, «8 ps^vided m^% 
two last seetioifts^ laaj,^ its. own motion. or -for eanse 
shown, ^ssign aJdothet day for hearing the impeachmen|i,' 
or may proceed, in the ftbsenee of tbe defendant^ to trial 

See &5 CaL 290. \ 

74'3. 'When the defendttnt ai)pears, he tnay fij wttlihg 
object to the sufficiency of the articles df Impeachiineni;, 
ot h^ may answe): the same by an oral plea of not guilty, 
which plea must ber entered upon the journal, and puts in 
isiiue every material allegation of the articles of impekdh- 

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TIC If tib»4))i]«etlaiiPto4i]io «tiffiQtoiii^ 
of topfwahpwwtfc la .not atiBteanedilicr'ft nt^jmif^'iof ttbe 
membdiB of' the fiMMHIcil wba.boMd t^ iOtflpameqIa .tbe d9- 
fendax^^ must be .oc4e);ed,ifQrfl^w<it^,to ^o^i^wi^); t^e ajrtioles 
of imye^MiW^olii* If iid then pleads .gtU^t^« pr xef vuies to 
plead, tbe. ^nate in^st xe9(|er juclgpexxt of po&yictlon 
i^gainat. hi^po^ If lie plead not; goiftyp; i^e ^nate must, 
at suoli time aa if may appoiat, pro^ce^ t^ ,t):^ the im- 
peachment. . , .1 . . ■'.;■, 

745. At tlue time and place appdpited« aoid be^oi^ the 
Senate poroceedB'to act en the impeaehm^nt, the Becretary 
must admhilster to the pceaideat etthe ^aatei and. th)d 
president of the Senate to- each of the memhi^rs of the 
Senate 'then present, an oath tml j and impartially to 
hear, try, and determine the Impeachment; and no mem- 
l>er of ihe Seimte can act or vote iipon the impeachment, 
or tipon any qnestion ariahig thereotif, "Withimi having 
taken snch oath. 

Fonn of oath— Gbase's Trial, 12. 

746. The defisndant cannot be eon^oted loa' impeach- 
-ment without th^ eonci£rrence of tW(><4^ifdsof thcimem- 
bUraeletPted, voting by ayes and noes, and' ifi two-thirds of 
the membecs elected do not ooncnr in a conviction, he 
must be acquitted. [In effect February 18th, 1880. 

747. After conviction the Senate must, at such time as 
it may appoint, pronounce judgment, in the form of a res- 
olution entered upon the journals of the Senate. 

748. On the adoption of the resolution by a majority 
of the members present who voted on the question of ac- 
quittal or conviction, it becomes the judgment of the 

749. The judgment may be that the defendant be sus- 
pended, or that he be removed from office and disquali- 
fied to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit, under the 
State. [In effect February 18th, 1880.] 

A removal from office for an offense committed is a part of the 
JQdiEment— 1 Leg. Gaz. 455. See Const. Gal. art. It, S 18. 

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790u If Jodgment of sospeitetoii it givvn, eie defend- 
ant, dtffing the oontinoance therCMif , is dlsqiialiAed from 
receiving the flalarj, fees, or emolmnents 6t the office. 

751. Whenever articles of Impeachment against any 
officer subject to impeachment are jilresented to the Ben- 
ate, such officer is temporarily 'suspended from his office, 
and cannot act in his official capacity nntil he is ac(^aitted. 
Upon such snspemiion of any officer other than the gov- 
ernor, his office must at once be temporarily filled by an 
appolnhntent made^ by the govemorv iirith the advice and 
consent of ihe' Senate, tintil the acquittal of the party im- 
peached; or, in ca6e of his removal, until the vaoattoy is 
filled at the next election, as required by law, 

AU th« 'ftinetioxia of the gordmor ore enfetaely sospoided dwSog 

752. If the lieutenant-governor is impeached, notice 
of the impeac^ent must be immediately given to the 
Senate by the Assembly, that another president n;i^ be 

753.. U the offense ior whkh the defendant la con- 
victed on impeacliment is aleo the subject of «n in#9^ 
ment or inf Qtttiation, the indietmentr or itefontuiliion. i» not 
barred thoreby. [In effect Febmary.l^h^ VSff^} . 

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OTBnanSBrVUlf JIY IMFAMWflllT. *St9#9-9 


or THK 'MElk6TAti 6# CXTIEi OFlVOBBS 6'riiBii^nni 

S758. Aecnafttlon to 1)6 presented by the ^n^ldltlr7. 

S 790. Form of accusation. 

9im, itototniifeByttd4to«li»(llBtitet»tt9mey»iuiaoonrierTa^ 

S 761^ Fsooesdlngp if defendant does not appear^ , 

S 7S^ . J>efendant may objeqt to or deny the acoosation. 

S 76^ Form of objection. 

S 7M. Manner of denial. 

S 765. If ol^ectkihs oveiwiIed» dfifnndant mast atatwag. : . 

S 766. Proceedings on plea of gnllty* refusal to answert ato, 

S767. Trlalbyjury. 

S 768. State and defendant entitled to process for ly ltnisi es. 

S 769. Jn^sment upon convid;ion, and its form. ' 

S770. Appeal, JMvrtalcMu DeCandant to be snsptoded aii<l VMail^ 

S 771. Proceedlng8.for the remoTifl of tL district iftttbrney. 
S772. Bemdtal of pid»Ueof&CeM by summary proeeedlngk 

758. An accusation in writing f^gainat any district, 
coanty^ townsbip, o'- municipal of^cer^ for willful or cor- 
mpt miscQuduct in oi&c6» may be presented by the, grand 
jury of the county for or in which the officer accused is 
elected or appointed. 

Bfttnoval from offlae.— The po*or to remoru la tai Incident of the 
power io apHlBitt and is mnd^ hO^ e^ptnssi^ by tiie Coiutltutioii^t G&l. 
m; lei- S22; 14 I(L 713; .^*l CaL 3; but it Ij; limited to tbnsa oOlcers wfoose 
term l9 notprovidfidfor by tba Cotk^tUutlcn— ^ C^K l!i4} (} Id. 2;jl; 7 1<L 
fillJ; Bca B B. Mou. 64^; or decilared by law— fl C:d.291. eoaqauBtltu- 
tlonal oIDee^r caunot be diviosted of h\& ofllca otberwljSD timn aa pr^ 
scrlbc<l hy llio ConstUutLon— :^ CaJ. ]!ici; 7 JcL fdy. Tlie govtrnor can- 
not remorp » notary public bpfore hi-? svliolt? term of office has ^xplrtnil 
&Citi*2^l*, bot jia ^TKU^io Lax-callef^tor may Ijo dOi}rlvert of b^oBice 
before tba eipltation of hl:i tenu—U CiK IS; rpp SJ^ld, 79. Ttoo Le^is- 
iB^or^ can fllK^bdit wn o^ca, or extend mid abrtdjiptbti t«rm.iit ulefliaara 

Form of information and ds r orte ^ H J ^tJ 1 Alfen,'aig. ' 

^91 \ ' "the acc WtiOH miisi st^te' tbel 'o^ens^ c&ar^^, in 
ordinary kiid dodcide language, and wltbbiit rit>6trtion. • 

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760. The accusation most be deliyered by the foie- 
man of the grand jury to the district attorney of the 
county, except when he is the officer accused, who must 
cause a copy thereof to. be served upon the defendant, 
and require, by notice in writing ot not less than ten days, 
t]llirh«t'a$rpeari»el(n».tbe Siiperios<Con^<«il t|peeQ^pU^» 
at a time mentioned is tbs notlioei and answer the accusa- 
tion. The original accusation most then be filed with the 
clerk of the court. ' \ln effect April l!2fth, 1880. J 

Ml. Tile defendant miistlippeaF at lab* liim»apiioi»te4 
in the notice and aidswer theaccusaiitti; ilfil«B0 fenr smn^ 
sufficient cause the court assign another A&yidt tliiit pti^ 
pose. If he does not appear, the cquit may proceed to 
hear and detexnUne the aoensation in his absence. 

8ee65CiaiS90. » ^ • 

762. .^7ha>. d^end&iit may answer the accusation either 
by objecting to the sufficiency thereof,, or of any article 

' theMiH «r by denying the truth of the aaiiMS. 

763. If heptijfspts to the. legal sufficiency .of the accu- 
sation, the objection must be in writing, but need not b6 
in any specific form, it being sufficient if it presents inteU 
tigfbiy the grounds of the objection. 

764. If he denies the truth bf the accusation, the 
denial may be oral and without Oath, and must be fil- 
tered upon the minutes. 

765. If #0. objectlpa to thesoffioiency of thct accusation 
Is not stuitiEUned, the defendant must answer thereto forth- 

766. If the defendant pleads guilty, or ref usaa to an- 
■inrer the aoousation, the court must render Jndgmeht of 
4KMi7ietloi;^f«aiii8thim. If hedepies^eioieiittenchaised, 
the cofurt must immediately, or at msph. t)n9iei» tt may »p- 
pohit, proceed.tQ tngr tln^ smvj^lok, * 

767* ?hd ttiaH, mi|4t be by a ju^, and condpoted in. all 
respeets in the same manner ^ the trial of a^ indictment 
lor a misdemeanor. 

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801 oTHBBwmnAWTzmsMviraMT, §§768^72 

76a TA» didtriet alilQrp^y Mod the dafaodut ane r&. 
spectively enUtled to-swOi prooeM as may He necessary 
to enforce the attendbanca of witnesses, as upon a tzial of 
an indictment. 

769. Upon a conTiction, the conrt mast, at sucb time 
as it may appoint, pronoxmce jndgment that the defend- 
ant be removed from office; but, to warrant a remoTal, 
the judgment must be entered npon the minutes, and the 
causes of removal most be assigned therein. 

770. From a judgment of removal an appeal may be 
taken to the Supreme Court, in the same manner as from 
a judgment in a civil action; but until such judgment is 
reveped, the defendant is suspended from his office. 
Pending the appeal, the office must be filled as in case of 
a vacancy. 

771. The same proceedings may be had on like grounds 
for the removal of a district attorney, except that the ac- 
cusation mast be delivered by the foreman of the grand 
jory to the clerk, and by him to a judge of the Superior 
Court of the county, who must thereupon appoint some 
one to act as prosecuting officer iu the matter, or place 
the accusation in the hands of the district attorney of 
an adjoining county, and require him to conduct the 
proceedings. p:n effect April 12th, 1880.] 

772. When an accusation in writing, verified by the 
oath of any person, is presented to a Saperior Court, 
alleging that any officer within the jurisdiction of the 
court has been guilty of charging and collecting illegal fees 
for services rendered, or to be rendered, in his office, or has 
refused or neglected to perform the official duties pertain- 
ing to his office, the coart must cite the party charged to 
appear before the court at a time not more than ten nor 
less than five days from the time the accusation was pre- 
sented; and on that day, or some other subsequent day 
not more than twenty days from that on which the accu- 
sation was presented, must proceed to hear, in a sum- 

Fmr. Ck>Dx^96. 

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§ 772 OT^iiftWWH tmks bit tmf^tAtmtmin^, ' S09 

mary niftBnBr, th& aecaBtttton, aiid ^rvM«kic« <fteted in 
&upport:of tbe same, and theanswer and •evidctoCe'offefred 
l>y theipartj accased; and if, on sn^-ttearing, it appears 
that the charge is sustained, the court mu8« ^Eiter a d^ 
cree that the party accused be de(prived of |)is office, and 
must enter a judgment £or five hundred dollars In favor 
of the informer, and such costs as are allowed in civil 
cases. j;ni effect AprU 12th, 1880.] 

RemoTai by sammarj proceedings.— The Legislature Is Invested 
with power to provide for the trial for misdemeanor of all civil offi- 
cers, except those specified in thos Constltation'-45 Cal. 216; and to 
vest Jnrisdiotion in such oonrt as It may desij^ate^id. Before an offi- 
cer removed from office and fined, under the provisions of this 
section, for extortion, the conrt must find that the fees were know- 
ingly, wiUf tiUj, or corruptly taken-^ Gal. 648. A corrupt motive ia 
essentlal-e B. Mon. 171; r Leigh, 709: 15 Wend. 277; 2 Doug. 426: 1 
Term. Rep. 653; 28 Up. Can. Q. B. S76; though passion or party nreju- 
dice may constitute corruption— 2 Term. Bep. 190. The ezistenc^of a 
motive may be inferred from the acts or circumstances— 24 Minn. 158; 
1 Salk. 380; 3 Doug. 327. See ante, S 518; and see Desty's Grim. L»w, 
S 82. e^ teq. Private persons have a right to institute inquiries Into the 
conductof ofiLoe-hoIaenh-4t CaL 229. 

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808 PBoo]w>pra0, to cowserwssT. 

TITLE ni. 

Of tli9 ProoeecUnca in Criminal AotiLoiui Prose* 
oQteol by Indictiikeiit^ to tike; CAommitmetrt, in* 

Chap. I. Of thb Locaxi Jttbisi^ictiok ov Pubuo Of- 

"pBNSKS, §§ 777-95. . 

TIONS, §§ 79M03. 
nx Thb l«#OftMA«»>!r,§§ 808-^9. 
rV. Tttfc ^V'abeAKt of Arrest, §§ 811^^. 

V. ASBBST, 3Y WBOSt AfifD HOW MADB, §§ 834-IU. 

yn. Examination of tbb Casb and Disc^argb 


bwbr, §§ 86d-8a 

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g 777 LOdAii jimiBDicTzoH* 86i 



S 7T7. . Jurisdiction of oflenaoi committed in this State. 

S 778. Offenses commenoed withont, bnt oonsommated within tliis 

S 779. Wlien an Inhabitant of this State is concerned in a daei oat of 

the same, and a party wounded dies therein. 
f 78t. Iieatlng the State to «f«de tfatf statate agalnit dneUng. 
1781. QlfaDse committed ptitlj in one coontj and partly in aaotber. 
I 782. Committed on the bonndary, etc., of two or more coan t ies. 
S 783. Jnrisdiction of an offense on board a vespel or car. 
S 781. Jurisdiction for kidnapping or abduction. 
S 785. Jurisdiction of an Indictment for bigamy or incest. 
S 788. Property felonioosly taken in one connty and bronglit Into 

f 787. Jnrisdlction for escaping from ptiao^, 
S 788. Jnrisdlction for treason committed out of the Qtate« 
f 788. Jariadictlon for stealing, etc^ property, ont of Strte, and 

brought therein. 
f 790. Jurisdiction for murder, etc., where the Injury was inflicted in 

onecoaiity> and th!e patty dies oat of that connty. 
f 791. Of an Indictment against an accessory. 
S 792» Of principals who are not present* etc, at commlssioo of the 

principal offense. 
{ 79S. Contlction or acquittal In another State a bar, where the jorls- 

dlctlon is concurrent. 
{ 791. Conviction or acquittal in another county a bar, where the 

Jurisdiction Is concurrent. 
1795. Jurisdiction of prize-fight. 

777. Every person is liable to punishment by the laws 
of this State, for a public offense committed by bim there- 
in, except where it is by law cognizable exclusively in 
the courts of the United States. 

Jnrisdlction generally.— State tribunals have no power to punish 
crimes against the laws of the United States as such ; as in fUse swear- 
ing before register of land^)fflco-88 Cal. 150: 4 BlMdrf. 147: or under 
the national bankrupt act-i5 N. H. 83: but see^lM Mass. m It is 
only when an offense is also an offense against the State laws uat State 
ibunals trhave Jurisdiction-3d Cal. 150; and see 64 He. 881. So, there 

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Is a dbtlQetlon between cmmterfeltlng and clrcolating eonnterfelt 
coin— 10 Law Beporter, 800. The former is an offense direeay agalnit 
tbe sovemment; the latter id an offense against the State, and may be 

Don&lied by the laws of tbe State-34 Cal. 183; 5 How. 410; 10 Id. &<iO; 1 
l>ong. (Mich.) 207; 3Head.26; 2 Tread. 77(j; 2LawBcporter,g2; bntsee-3 
Mo. 421; and dis. opln. 5 How. 433. Kzchisive JurlsdJctlon is uniformly 

attendant npon exclusive legislation's Mason, 91 ; and see 34 ('al. 183; 
9 Feteis,281 ; 5 How. 410; 14 id. 14. That the defendant wlU be liable to 

Srosccntiou in the courts of tbe United States will not exclude Juris- 
iction In State courts— 8 Ind. 436; so. State courts have power to try 
for murder a soldier in the military service of the United States— 6 
Parker Cr. B. 143. Congress cannot confer Jurisdiction on State courts, 
and States liave nd power to make offenses against ibe United States 
laws cognizable in tnelr courts— 34 Cal. 280; nor can Congress confer 
on United States courts Jurisdiction to try Indictments'found in State 
courts— 5 Parker Cr. B, 677. Tbe authority of Congress is limited to 
subjects peculiar to the Federal government— 1 'Woolw. 17. So, robbery 
committed on land is not punishable by any act of Congress— Ucmp. 
411; State tribunahr have no iurisdictlon to grant relief on the unlaw- 
fol imprisonment of a United States officer— 5 Dutch. 409; or on h(U>ea* 
corpus, to take a person out of the hands of a United States officer— 40 
Barb. 84. When Jurisdiction is wholly derived from the statute, it 
cannot be enbuiged by presumption or by implication— 49 Me. 412. See 
Const. Prov. ante, page 20. 

Cannot be conferred by consent.— Consent cannot confer Jnrts- 
dletlon to try a party for any other offense than that ctuvged loathe 
Indictment— fiO Gal. 448: 4 Parker Cr. B. 386. A party may waive ob- 
jections to ttie Jurisdiction in a criminal case— 5 Hun, 808; so. 
wliere a party voluntarily submits to the Jurisdiction, judionent will 
not be reversed— 49 Mo. 432. So, where a conviction was Iia4 before 
a de facto Judge, his acts are valid— 17 Wis. 621 ; so, the casual an<l tem- 
poraxy absence of one of toe Judges does not impair the validity of 
& proc6edingSn-3S N. Y. 431. 

Aii , i .on*— K tlie const Uut],Dn conferi appellate Jnrts- 
diitiuii. ^iiii ij J iiL . ..0 1.^ provided for taking tbe iippe&t, the case may 
1>Q iiTouifLi E m* oun. writ of error* orttie comt may t rnmo itu appropriate 
WTit-5i CaL m; b W, im \ 3 id. 217 ; 24 Id. 334. It atl iw: Jil -5 hi criminal cas- 
M OQ qiic3£lon!^ot law rdone — 2 I4i. Axt.TLl-. ^ Id. 24 ; niid uot until after 
sentence or judgtsBtit— id. U[t; Id. 1^7 ; H la. 34{} : '£1 UL D. The Supreme 
Cotir^ bs3 not jdridiblotloii of a erliuliiEkl cose Involvln'T tUe validity of 
A tax, etc.— 30 CaL ffia : nor liiia It of n losi^er t^radti nf otTtrKe than felony 
*-l Cal. 138: IJ. I(>5; Md-^SW; 01d*&Jj 30 Id. IflT; .?> ' ' !7; 89 id. 469; 
SO id, &a; 3 1 liL 565. Thero la nil ntisoliit** rlfc^ht >ai from the 

MTUjlclpttl Cilrainal Ccmrt to tlis County Colli i le mode and 

miE!^3iu of fiMrKMii aro ni'fjvickd— 41 ii-x\. HL'n. ih. . n a criminal 

cast* «.:■" I- !■'■■'■•'■ ■:'■!'■ ■•■'■ .,-,.M ■!:;,■ ..L us well as the 

del^L- -i.-ii^-^ ^-•■. ■-. ^■- ■ — ...-.- ._ _^J. 

Power of Legialatare.— The Legislature may estabUsh crimtaial 
eoorta in addition to those specified in the Constitution, and give 
them concurrent Jurisdiction— 69 Pa. St. 0; 41 Tex. 64; or it may es- 
tablish special courts in cities and towns— 76 N. C. 33; 65 id. 879; «« Id. 
' ^ SoAhe Municipal Crbaainal Court of San Franclsoo is a constita- 
* oonrt-JtfOaU U7 ; 41 id. 129. See Const. Prov. QtiU, page 19. 


Ooitfts eensraUy— IMstrict Courts have Jurisdiction over punish- 
meats for extortion in office— 45 CaL 200. See generally Const. CaL 
art Tt. Connty Courts are courts of general jurisdiction, and all 
Intendments are in f avdr of their proceedings— 27 CaL 66; 41 ^ 189. In 

** ' .— - . ^ is final except in cases of excess 

«ajiuwu«uvir*^ir v/w. -m^j m, iw 90. A JuStidejS CQIttt bItS UO ^Ztra 

terxltoflal jtolsdiction— 4 Kev. 412. The repeal of a criminal law does 
ftofe openmTio bar tne pnniahment c^ an offense undei! the law nniem 

Intendments are in f avdr of their proceemngs— 27 CaL 66; 41 ^ la 
all cases of misdemeanor its Judgment is final except in cases of c 
of lurisdfietion-*^ CaL 4i9; M & 98. A Jnstieejs Cowt bus no 
.. — .^__*-, M — ._j..xj-_ A ^y — A,n, mi, 1 ^4 « criminal la^ 


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§g 778-9 JjQOLfi JUBISDICTION. 306 

Olflbnses lyy resident aliens.- A resident alien Is amenM>le to tbe law 
of tbe place la which he lives, even In cases of treason-^ Wheat. 97; 
Wbart. St. 'Hi. m; id. 185 ; 10 Cox C. G. 603 ; so as to resident Indians— 
27 Cal. 404: 6 Peters. 618; 3 Wall. 407; 1 McLean, 254; 4 Kan. 4!>j Ifl 
Ark. 419; 1 Btewt. & P. 827 : 1 Abb. U. S. SH; 1 WoolW. 192; 64 N. C. 
614; 3 Yerg. 256; 1 Abb. y, 8. 877. 

778. When the commission of a pnblic offense, com- 
menced without the State, is consummated within its 
boundaries, the defendant is liable to punishment there- 
for in this State, though he was out of tb^ State at the 
time of the commission of the offense charged. If ho con- 
summated it in this State, through the intervention of an 
innocent or guilty agent, or any other means proceeding 
directly from himself, in such case the jurisdiction is in 
the county in which the offense is consummated^ 

O^enses com mi tied abroad-— A person Is respoaslble pcmally Kvhea 
In* irt [ibrcfai-l, to both the Federal anrj hlg Stato govt I'll men c— lit I Mass. 
1: 2\'a. Cy,a. 1;:^; a l>uUrii, ;wi; lij Wia. :f -i; biitK^^Qias to cxtrrt-tarrito- 
rlal JurisdlctSoii of fitiitLJ— aMicb. !f::J; Z Hayw. Mij jiiiat.ce:iPaii{erUf, 
It. ^M. As ti'> con^ul^ nnfi minlstcrd rcsJiJcnt abroad-U liUitclif. ii'4; 
Init it in liniSteU to ptMi^ona ovyfitc^ nUoganDce to tiio Unlteci SUHns*-ll 
Opla. Att-t>eii. 474; m in cases of perjuiy— :i I'a. St, liU; 41 lU. 4i>; or 
biffamy coiuuiitleil nbioad-; Cox U. V. Vo1i\ Deal's. 047; see 1 Hun. CI U; 
22 Ai-i£. AG.^; 55 Ala. Hj.i. Wo As tt> f or,;,'£ii'y coinrRUtctli abroaU, Lhy uirenso 
may l>e cliarged tu atiy toutrty iuto wiilfh tbo offcnflcr may come— 7 
Car, & P. 65tt; llusa. A: R. C. C. 11 J. So In erases of murder— lltiaa. & 
It. C. C. 2^4 i 1 Car. & K. 'J*J3 ; 11 Cox C. C. 193. 

OffenMS committed out of tba Stats.— WLere a.n oitenae was com* 
nUilod by prOi'uratloEi of a rcsklont of another StatOt tbo non-rtsideut 
can bo puntshec] if JiurtsdicEioii can boob[aiued of bis por.soti— 3J Conn, 
USj tontm, ai M. j; L. bS. So> iQCJtiii!? an a^sjut in. uuutlier tonnti y tQ 
cominlt ptrjiiry— 11 Anen, 3431 or Riving poison lu oim JutLsdletJon 
wbicti opcrac^ii In aaather- ■% Onia St, \Z\ ; or whcro a p;*rty orlKiuiitea 
UnuiaJuififl ill one country, tviitcbatfecta aatr&ain In anotliar— 3 Wood 
ifelLfi%| aGQ4 riarn. iS: Aid. ITS; or whera a per:^OTi Hboota frotuouo 
iicie of A boundary Hue, and VI takes eut^ct on tbB oibcr slilo* be ii i b-* 
spon.sLWe in tJ^a iuriiKliction wliero tbo effect la produced— 2 Sum. 4^■5iJ 
II N.J. L. lidi iUf M;i33. 1; au^l sco (foncraJly— Ul Couii. ll-*; 4 East, iti4. 
So wliero i\ inaj'n}u;3 was-^olpanlieriin ttio middle of a river between 
two SiniKS. tinj oiiVnse is coTniziible In i!io latter State, the former 
notclaliuluj Jarbdlcaoa— 3 Met* U^y J 334. 

LiaMlitr of piliMlpaL-A non-resident principal is penally liable for 
acts committed bv bis agent, as In obtaining Koods by false pretenses 
-1 N. T. 173; U N. J. L. e9( S Oenio, 190; 1 Met. <1^«>1( 6 Qox G^^. 
260; 4 id. 198: SO, as to the author of a \}X»\^ ricfcTSM; 7 East, 6»: os 
a thief' aendinff stolen goods to anothei State for sale—ua Mass. 480 1 
Of sending lottery tickets for sale-T Seigi A B. 460< 

779i When aH inhabitant or resident of this State, by 
previdus appointmeni. or engasemei^t, fights 9^ dtie^ qir i^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

a07 ^UOjqfAI. JURKDICTCION. §§790-^ 

Goncenned as seKS^nd tfaer^n, out of the jarladictiod of 
tl)is.6t^t<9, an4 intUe duel, 2^ wound is iniOUoted :UiM>n a 
person, whereof he dies i^ this StatQ, the junsdietipn. of 
the offense is in the opunty where .^he death .happens. 

780. When an inh&bitant of this State leaves the^ame 
for the purpose of evading the operation of the proytsions 
»f the Code relating* to dueling and challenges to ^ht^ 
widi the intent or for the purpose' of doing an j of tiie«Dts 
prohibited therisin, the jurisdiction is in' tihe county . of 
which t^ offBeoder was isim inhabitant •when the -offense 
was committed. 

SUt« &iudI^ai>l&~Thatiphr C. C739a; 3 Brev. 24|; {gonst. S, C. IOC; 1 
Hawkff. 487. The ofitenae is conwiuous, and 19 friable i^ tbe State 
where jtbe challenge issae(V--dS^Ga. 83^) 1 Hawki3,4d7; 2 Gan^p. 506; see 
12 Alxk. 27(>; and tlus, wheUieritreacues Its aefitioation or not— 2 Camp. 


761i \Vhen a public offense is committed in part in 
one County aiid in part^^ a^iother, or the ^cts or effects 
thereof coUBtituting or requisitd to the consummation of 
the offense occur in two or more counties, the juiri^diction 
is in ^tJjer county. , , > 

Ooneorreait jari8di^tiou.-^TIie plaice of trial Is tlie pla«e of the 
consHBtttatdon of the offenst-^ Barb. 427: 3 Piclc. 304 ; 21 Wicndt 633; 7 
Bei^ Sk XL 469;: tbomgh a eoHCurrent ^arisolctlon exists in the place Of 
conimenoingtbefiffeuse-^Dall. 888s 19Ind;42U 17 Ark.6<il; I'Oampb 
219; 2 Id. 506; 12 Lew. €. C. 150; but attempts to (ionimlt crime are CO0- 
nizable in4be pSaoe of the tittemp&^26 Gai. 493 v flee 9 Cox O.C. 497; 
9nd;io in case of ionspiriujles— 1 8alk. 174; 2Xd. Bayin. 1 167 ; 4 FoBt. A F* 
68; or id the. place where nriact-was done by any of tiqem in further- 
ance of their design— 3 Brewst. 575; 2 Stark. 489; any overt act by 
any of the conspirators beliur d iieucwalHOf the ,coQ4pihu}f by aU-rr23 
Mass. 430; 8 Brewst.' 675; 48 Hd. 321; irfed. 47irirArk;661 ; iTlJev. 
388; U iBlatebf. 166:7 B1SS..175; 29Iia. Aa. 354; 54 Alakr£34:'53i(r.'407; 83 
01.291; aSerg. A s.. 22Q, As where one signals in one county for a 
robbei^ in anottier county-^is Nev. '386. Thejplace Qt coh8uminati6it 
isthei^eeuliarfieat of the- crime In libel—? Ben. 1; and in obtaining 
money b> false nretenses— 51 Ind. 413; see 1 Dentson, 651. See as to 
** Arson/' 44 €aC 495. If a party in one connty, intrusted ^itb woo- 
erty of the owner, afterward takes It to another county, he is not nable 
In the former cennty, nnless the intent to embezzle was conceived 
there— 61 Cal. 378. See £uB£ZZ^8HSNT,an<e„§503. 

782. When a pabUc offense is committed o;|^ the 
bomKkMT? of two pr.mQfe;CQWit<ie^„9E within. fiTe,h^n4?ed 
yarilA thjeieol* the jurisdietion ia in either county. • . 

Boundary line.— A crime Is perpetrated on the bpqndary. between, 
if perpetrated within five huncUea yards thereof^? K. Y. 77. See a& 
to*'Ano]i,*'44Gai.49S. < •. . . 


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S§^ 783-4 LOCAL JUBISDI0TI02Y. 1^ 

783* "Wlieii an offense is committed in this State, on 
board a vessel navigating a river, bay, slongh, lake, or 
canal, or lying therein, in the prosecution of her voyage, 
the jurisdiction is in any county through which the ves- 
sel is navigated in the course of her voyage, ^r in the 
county where the voyage terminates; and when the of- 
fense is committed in this Stiate, on a railroad train or car 
prosecuting its trip, the jurisdiction is in any county 
through which the train or car passes in thOvCourse of ' her 
trip, or in the county where the trip terminates. [Ap- 
proved January 28th, 1876.] 

O^enHfiflon boiiriS t(?s set 5.— Congress caniiofc confi^r Jortsdledoa cm 
Stiktu romrtB. yet Stats coui^t^ may cxerclso jur I reliction In. cases 
BuliiorliiiaU by its l^w^f^^n^liifnb proliilsltccl hy con gre-s?=i loyal lP,qLata[laii 
-5 Wbeat, 27; SJLiiw Eeiiorter. 2&5j set? lii Petei^,5iJ>Si hL b^. A8 ■ 
role oSc Elites cJtntiiltteLl on filiipboard uto ro^i^aLtla hy tha noveriiigii 
towhoai (liO(ibipLiL'loiig3i-'7 Ct>i(;. t!.«l; rtcHl hyRtJitini?aortba Uislted 
St«.te!9 tbo FeiLoml tom'tsbavo JurJsdldLiyii of all: {jlleiiieij coiitmiU^cl 
on Uie blgb bcis, or In anj pliinitt out of tko jnrlsdletlou tit & Btiite— ji 
BiatcUr. H; 1 Craficb, ^T3: I We^Ii. C. C.4^i I Sum* Ib^^: as lii ai) opeji 
roficli^tena In n foreign rouniry— 4i WliCEit, IHi 6 BMcbf, 1^» Tbo local 
lurlsUlctlcm of a BUtti eaiteutla to tb.ei (lij^tajiica of a cannoii^bol; from 
loi,v-wat(jr mark— 7 N. Y. 'isJ&; seu IJ Met. ii.HT, A vfj^^fU i3 Hubi^^ct; to 
Lbo Uw3 and control of a eocntry it vistta; TMlcb. T,f;ii 8 Id^ tJJUj II 
Wall- 4%; 6, €* 2 Green Cr, It. lul. Witliaiit a apeclttl statute mrtsdic- 
tioaoTcr Jnjurld,* upon tho bl^^tiEcas Uoes nob cxEsc in tbeVedpral 
coiirta-4 Da I L 427^ i Wnsb. C. C. 44}^; 2 CiirL 44ti[ uorlu tbo eourts of 
ASt&t«^2T N. J.l^m^; 2 Va. Cei^, 2(t.^. Bee 2\i Miss. £1; 2tl Mi^, im. 
^W hero a ciluio ^aa couitnttterl on a canaJ-boat, It iQiist. bo allosfecJ and 
proTedibatthe Loat bad paftseil throufrb Bomumrt of tbocomily in, 
wblcli tbo Intllr-ttuf nt U faund-iil Hdvb* 2^L Wticre watsra whero 
ib# tUlct cl>U3 aiHl llow^ ara luciosdd by 0. iiuigo ol lalaiida and tba 
nudn £bor«. tbey Jire wiibUi the county— 3 1'arkerCr. R> I9y. "Or lyliuc 
therein In tte prus«ctitlon df her voj eg©/* cooatraed— 3 Uilb 305. 

784. The jurisdiction of a criminal action— 

1. For forcibly and without lawful authority seizing 
and confining another, or inveigling or Iddnappiiig him, 
with intent, against }iis will, to cause him to he secretly 
confined or imprisoned in this State, or to be sent out of 
the State, or from one county to another, or to be sold as 
a slave, or in any way held to service; or, 

2. For decoyitig, taking, or enticing away a child un- 
der the age of twelve years, with intent to detain, ^oid con* 
ceal it from its parent, guardian, or other person^ having 
the lawful charge of the child; or, 

3. For inveigling, enticing, or taking away an unmar* 

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909 uooaim jUBi^DierioK. §§ 783-^ 

Tied female of pieylotui chaste ehaiacter, tinder the age 
of twenty-^Te yeart, forthe ptirpose of prostitution; or, 

4. For taking away any female, under the age of six- 
teen years, from her lathei^ mother, gtiardian, or other 
person haying the legal change )Of her person, without 
their consf nl, either for the purpose of concubinage or 

— is in the county in which the offense is committed, 
or out of which , the person upon whom the offense 
was committed may, in the commission of the offense* 
have been brought, or in which an act was done by the 
defendant in instigating, procuring, promotlhg, or aiding 
in the commission of the offense, or in abetting the par- 
ties concerned therein.' [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

SMbd.l, S6ean/tf,S207. 

Sutfd.2. See ante, SS 286, 207, 278. 

Subd.i. fiee<«ile,SS208,267,278. 

785. When the offense, either of bigamy or incest, is 
conmodtied in one county and the defendant is appre- 
hended in another, the jurisdiction is in either county. 

786. When property taken in one coimty by burglary, 
robbety, larceny, or embezzlement, has been brought into 
another, the jurisdiction of the off^ise is in either county. 
But if at any time before the conviction of the defendant 
in the latter, he is indicted in the former county, the sher- 
iff of, the latter county must, upon demand, deliver him to 
the sheriff of the former. 

Propertf brauglit iutQ aatttlior oonnty.— T^hlBSCcttoD nutborLzpaa 
tr]<8J la LU^fcmnty to which the property Is bronghtt wbeti tb^ pro|h 
trty *■ liai bct-u t^kjca. by laitfny " tu anoLbt'r famitj'^Li Pac. C L. 
j,Ael; but It ennnot bo eaUl tbflt a tlikf commits n new Inrceny 1q 
e^ery county tniouirt^ TTbUih be pn^si^a with tlnj sl!>kin propecty— a 
id ML WJK'uevfcir wn nST^'uso U bt^gun. In ouo trmmy ami completed 
bi lumlh^r, XUq vt-nne ur.\.y ba Inld in. cittier; ecj, l^rreny l.i puaisttiLbl^ 
In uiTCOUDri' IciivLi1i;1i xUa EOodA:Lr& LtDULrht'4ii (J^I.G4ij; 4:1 llL 33?; 
|*)Ala^^t if Me.^H^ 21 bl. 14; 4li iil. 1^1; H Cu&h.4^: 7 Mot. 47A; 9 
la. JSii 10 wasB, !fU: Iti N. V. a-lJ; * Pitrfeer Cr R.'iJS^S; 11 Weiid. 129: 7 
Lejgb, 70S; 11 Mlcb. ajii ; 7 Colil. 331 ; 4T Mlas. UTl : S Nov. 2m ; bO, as ta 
cili^c«^«m«at-41 Bnrb, fMtW W&od. m\ 49 Am, Hi Z Stewc. m; 4 
Kbn. m; 1 liar. A J. 34ft; VI Mo. 4oJ; &o Mn, 22^; i D^iitsOn, 2H»; Ru4S. 
& B. C, C. 6ij; 3 liOs. & l\5Liti* but Fng lOiJ Miisfi. 1 3 but ii,u:ro ic^cOptlap 
of ibe propeity does hoc kUtij jurLiOJciiiTO— il Cal. iTf-, wltlJfJME proof 
id UtQ &.Ha<i>rtatloa^;2i Jliinr] . v#. Tba rule u o^berwu^ &i Common law 
-H Coi V. Q, 2a. flee 9 Gruy, 434; ^ Wend. ««. 

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787. Tlie juiisdJLctiou o£ ^ dio^lMil aptioB loi; <90<¥^pimg 
from prison ia in any. coni^t^^ .qf t^^ ^^UutQ« Jn e|t€^ April 
9th, 1880.] ,: : , o >f 

788. The jnilsdiGtion of A cHmiftai action foi^ ti^adon, 
when the overt act is cowioitted otitof the State; fs in 
any oonnty of the State* [In effect April GthV1880.] 

789. The jurisdiction of a criminal action for stealing 

in any other Stat^'the property of another, or receiving it, 

knowing it to have beien stolen, and bringing thd same 

into this State, is in any county into or through , which 

such stolen property has been hifought. [In effect April 

9th; 1880.] 

Larceny in other State.— As between the fi^veral Statea, ju rfsrl lo- 
tion exists at common law in the &mm liatoijTblcl) the stolen property 
Is brougIit-1 Mass. 1 16: 3 Stewt. V2:] j 2 lliu^s. 14; a Gray, J : I DnmU l^a; 
1 Hayw. 100: 1 Har. & J. 840; 3 Conn. Ihui i4 Mirb. lfl«; 3U Mlsa. B^; 28 
ni. 178; 35 Mo. 229; 9 Nev. 48; UIoiv.i, 47sl; i Oieg. llfl; II OliJo, 436; S4 
Ohio St. 166. And In some States ic u Leld upt to c^isl wELbout n etat- 
ate-5Binn.619; 14 La. An. 278; 2 Jotin«?.47i; la.iT'A; 31 >'. J, L.RJ; 1 
Neb. 11; juid each -statutes are cougiUcit{Qna(^4IImiiph.4GU ]<iIiicL 
378; 67 MO. 59; but see 49 14. 181; ^ Gray. 4Ji, Sea tmie, 'i ii)1, and 

790. The Jurisdiction of a criminal action foi* murder 

or manslaughter, Tvhen the i»jary which caused the death 

was inflicted in one county j and the party injured dies in 

another county or out of the State, is in the countywhere 

the Injurjr was inflicted. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

Oonsammatlon out of State.— Where a person assinlted In one 
State went to another State and died there, the charge is not coffnlx* 
able in the courts of the latter State~3 Dutch, 499; see 7 Mich. 161. 

791. In the case of an accessory in the commission of 

a public offense, the jurisdiction is in the county where 

the offense of the accessory was committed, notvfithstand- 

ing the jprincipal offense was committed in another 


The act of Oongresa punishing for murder does not embrat^e an 
accesiBoopy baforo^the Caotr-fiemp, 481; but sep 2 Blaficjjf , ^. A per- 
son who, out of the State,.beoomesan accessory bcfore*h«/^ tOftXel- 
ony committed wltbinthp State. cannot be punished by the laws of 
lDdian»-19 Ind. 431. See ante, %i 31, 32, and notes. 

792. The jurisdiction of a criminal action against a 
principal in the commission of a public offense, wl^en 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

811 vocaij jTTMSDionoir, 85 793^ 

each principal is not present at the commission of the 
principal offense, is in the same county it would be under 
this Code if he were so present and aiding and abetting 
therein. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

793. When an act charged as a public offense is within 

the jurisdiction of another State or country, as Well as of 

this State; a conviction or acquittal thereof in the former 

is a bar to the x>rodecntion or indictment therefor in this 


Bar to prosecution.— The district In which the trial is had mnst 
have been ascertained before the conunission of the erime-^ Blatchf . 
860. Wliere an offense Is committed against two sovereignties, the 
first one proeecntmg ahsorbs it— 97 U. S.lOfL It is no defense thai the 
parties were wrongially arrested in one State andtalLento anotheiv>21 
Iowa, 4B7 ; see 6 Parker Cr< R. Wl, 

794. "When an offense is within the jurisdiction of two 

or more counties, a conviction or acquittal thereof £n one 

county is a bar to a prosecution or indictment therefor in 


Trial as a bar.^A trial In one county i3 a bar to a trial in every 
other coanty«-43 lU. 397 ; 89 Ala. 684; 7 Cold. S3I. 

795. The jurisdiction of a violation of sections four 
hundred and twelve, four hundred and thirteen, and four 
hundred and fourteen of the Penal Code, or a conspiracy 
to violate either of said sections, is in any county, Arst, in 
which any act is done toward the commission of the of- 
fense; or, second, into, out of, or through which the of- 
fender passed to commit the offense; or, third, where the 
offender is arrested. [Approved March 7th, X871.] 

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1 799''802 coMMENCiNa csoonal. actions. 812 



S 799. Frosecatlon for murder may be commenced at aoy time. 

S 800. Limitation of three years in all other felonies. 

i 801. Limitation of one year in misdemeanors. 

S 802. Exception when defendant is out of the State. 

S 803. Indictment found, when presented and filed. 

799. There is no limitation of time within which a 
prosecution for murder must be commenced. It may be 
commenced at any time after the death of the person 

Statute of limitations nppLie^i ta oS-^ns^a perpetrated before its 
mssfl.gQ fL$ If ell iLi to aubiiequeiit offeti<ie3-3 McLean, 89; id. 469; 2 
Criinrli, 3ri: 5 OmDcLi C. C. Ti- 2 Pars. Cod. io3; and to common-law 
offoiiatB-l CriificU G. C. JS.>i 3 id. CO; 3 W. 44:2; contra, 2i Tex. 61: but 
tf it extend') the tEme for flncling an tudlttiii4;nt, ft does not apply to 

§re\iPQa crrnit.s— ,>^ K. V. 3m\ S7 Id. 473; 55 1*! . l»3; id. 495; id. 613; 49 N. 
. 33^ 47 Ui. f^ii; 1>U Id. Am; L^ Id. 4^; 'J4 id. 20; tf id. 463: 49 Barb. 
IBU The Rtifttuto beglua to run on thu (Iav of commlttinfir the offense 
—26 Tex. ^2. I b bJg^iv , 1 1 runs from thQ \A^m ous marriage, unless the 
statutes tiiake tho4?rliiiD contlDOQUS— 61 Fa, Ht 428; 82 Anc. 205. Con- 
Citmf^tu!! wltMioUllciE^ of propertf Is not ji uctnEfQuous offense— 98 U. S. 
i,'56, Tlierc) iB no Llmliiation within whiuli to i^rosecute for murder— 44 

800. An indictment for any other felony than murder 
must be found, or an infotmation filed, within three years 
after its commission. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

See 12 CaL 294; 44 id. 99. 

801. An indictment for any misdemeanor must be 
found, or an information filed, within one year after its 
commission. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

802. If, when the offense is committed, the defendant 
is out of the State, the indictment may be found or an ih- 
formation filed within the term herein limited after his 
coming within the State, and no time during which the 
defendant is not an inhabitant of, or usually resident 
within this State, is part of the limitation. [In effect 
AprU 9th, 1880.] 

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:8I3 ooicMEMCSHi».«miQV4f' actions. :, .(gi^p? 

Abienfio from State-— The time tUflt th» detenflant nuiy be out vt 
the StsttQ La no piu't of tbe LLmltattoo— 19 €^. 3^. So, "Rtsht or conceal- 
ment suspends thonmniCLg of tlia Matute— 5 Cmnrb U. U. ^', Id. 116; 
5T IiuJk nh 4 Day. 123; It iioed not bo apeclally pSeaded— U WalL 168; i 
Day. 123^ 3 Crunch Cr. €* 4il! 5 Id. 7S: 2 Low, iibT; 29 W. II 274 i 2^ Pa- 
st. £5^^ rontra.^rar^t^r Cr. R. 2?]1 j 74 N. C. nii; 4 Oil. 335; lOHtJiapli* 
S3j e Ind, 4£W ; 7 lowii, 409. It devotvoq on tl^u proaocutloii to abow Cho 
Qfc^nse within thd atatiitory peirlod— (? C^. 'i?lft; IBIJ. a,"i; I Stewt. aiSi 
1 Stti^vt. A P. iOB; 4 Dtiy, J!JJi J^ Pel 6t 2,^fli Ilusa* A E. O. 0. 36n; 
bat tbe nroseentfon may prove* without a-ireTTing it, thnt dpf^mlarit la 
within tno ntattite— 17 WjilL ITia; 3 MLLt^uu. 4^u j ana gee 5 Cruucli O. C. 
II: 39 Me* 112; & CoTTfln, 053; 2 Para, L'juj. 45cr; 10 Hunirfh, C2: a Blackf* 

803. An indictment is found, within the meaning of 
this chapter, when it is luresent^ by the grand jnry in 
open courti and there received and filed. 

Wben o«aies to ran.— Aft^t* oonafmenceiiMnt bf legal proceedings 
the statute remadns silent till final ludgment on the merltsr^s Brewsc. 
194 ; 6 Jones, (^Ta) 221 ; 6 Id. ff-^ AlarjgS; and dlsmistal of the actl«b 
does noereTive ftt-tl9 Bnsb» 142. Thoiighin^ctaient spuat be found to 
preyent the bar of the Btatute, sentence need not he within the llmita- 

PSS. GO]».««JWf. 

U'- :v..;i 

•..■•'■) ' "'u; mi.. ■: t , 

>n ♦-,).. :...'. 

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SS-CiPe-S fir^QtttaiAxicnf. '614 



S 806. Complaint dellned. 
S 807. Magistrate deflnecL 
S 808. . Who are magistrates. 
S 809. Filing inf ormatiOB. 

806. The complaint is the allegation in writing made 
to a court or magistrate that a person has been guilty of 
some designated offense. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

ProsecntlaQa in Federal comrta.— Tlie limitation In tbfl FeiSfitAl 
ConsiiLQLtQii, vt prospc tit tons to Indlctmetiia by tlia grand Jury, 
appUealo Fudoral prostctitiasis— 2-t Ala, f>7:i; I Rich. 85; 3W Wis. f2!i: H 
Vt. fl7. Sett Const. D. S. Ainclt. art> v* But crimes iwiiJu-st tno 
clactlvG francljilstj CEin bo prosecuted hy iDfoj-'nifttlaiii— sco llev, etat, 
U* S. & l(J22; or for mlsflenieaoora wtitcfi rto noc iirvcludo tho iierson 
coavittea ffoxa Ueiiiif ^ T^itness— 1 GnlL ^3 I C-ent, L. J, 205 { I Sawj, 
Tfllj 17 Wall, 4iMJ; la id. J^^. See 13 Wall. 531 j 3 Pill, 275; 15 JVank. Ke^. 
325. As for vlQlaJlon of the revi^niie !a.vv— 21 Int. Hqy. Htic. 14S. Sareritf 
tif;-:.:.l-.hv ht ■:■,.. -i Li'^ ;'V i. .= ;r. jii.i^e a €iim« lafamou*— S Cowea, 

Brosecntion in State conrts.— The Code anthorlzes a proceeding 
by Information only when a defendant has been examined and com- 
mitted— 6 Pao. 0. L. J. 528. Where, after conyictlon upon information 
for grand larceny, a motion in arrest of Judgment was made on the 

ground that the court had no iurisdiction to try the offense without 
an indictment, AeM» properly denied— 6 Pac. O.X. J. 819. Where an 
act reduces a felony to a misdemeanor by a repeal, notwithstanding 

such repeal a prosecution under it may be maintained in accordance 
with i :»9 of the Political Code, but it must be by Indictment and not 
by inf ormation— 6 Pac C. L. J. 727. 

Extortion In office— Any priyate citizen may make the c^iiplaint 
agahist an ol&cer— 45 Cair2l6. See 43 Cal. 229; see tmte* S 701. ^e pro- 
ceeding by information is opposed to neither the Constitution of the 
UnitodTStates nor of this State- 6Pac C. L. J.fiSe. 

807. A magistrate is an officer having power to issue 
a warrant for the arrest of a person charged with a publio 

808L The following persons are magistrates : 

1. The justices of the Supreme Court 

2. The judges of the Superior Courts. 

3. Justices of the peace. 

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4. Police magistrates in towns or cities. [In effect 
March 12th, 1880.] 
Subd.2. SeeSlGaLS76. 
JSubd,*. See 89 Gal. 706. 

809. When a def emdant has been examined and com- 
mitted, as provided in section eight hnndred and seyenty- 
two of this Code, it shall be the doty of the district 
attorney, within thirty days thereafter, to file in the Supe- 
rior Court of the county in which the o^ense is triable, an 
information charging the defendant with sueh offense. 
The information shall be in the name of the Pe<^leof the 
State of California, and subscribed by the district at- 
torney, and shall be in form like an indictment for the 
same offense. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

The Informatioii.— So far as Its structure Is concerned, the Aatoe 
rule» apply aa la caao of mi Indliiimifcit,— <iij Ala. 3^5; 3D La. Au.Aai; 
Tei. €t, App. UOli; Id. 2ii; Law B. '2 Q. B. 40. The same certainty U 
reouJr&cl in cbitrgEng offt^iisea as in £im Indictment— lli ind. 4U4; 14 id. 
425: 23 Id. til ; ^ id. 4l»; 51 Id. Ill; and it iiiu^t contain all the fiitbstan- 
tial rsQuJTements of an ludlctracnt— 7 IiicT. 1554; 4 id. 377. An liiTornia- 
doD frtJI iJe^ Bt common law, for an cxlilbitlon Tvlilcb tends to corrupt 
moralaors^ock Imuiianl ty— a Day, lUJ; and It nui;^t Btaro act!) of In- 
decency or Immorality— Id* If it la for an oScuso cre4ited by stat- 
ute, It la smftlcleiit if it 1;* in th& Un^uago of tlio statute— U Conn. 
43T. An infuniiatJDiv for hf^in^u common cheat iuii!it Rt^ta partlfiular 
acta— 1 Cldp. (Vt.)i29. Ifltbtiforiklirsit oaenne . i t nee d n ot allege that 
ltlsloraflr£COfreii£>e— 9 Conn. £(Kl. If for additloualpunlshiuent, It 
aliotiiil 3Ter previous convlctlona— 3 Met. 403. It la sumclent to alicgo 
tbat tlie convict bad been discbarged by a ]>ardon— 3 Mot. 4ii3; but leee 
21d.4Qi!:S. It need not all t^go th^t ba Informs under bis oatli^ 
Br^yt. 132: but wlicro it cbarged that ho verily belleTCd defendant 
committea tbo offenso, It waa bcl<l bad on mntfon to quasb— 31 Ind. 
Slfli. Tho prosec ntl nc attorney i.s a ion h aiitborizeU to amy ncl— 1-2 Conn. 
101; 29 Id. tes; 38 N, II. 314; 1 Dana, 6^5; 2 Ld. Kaym. 1472? id. 130T, 
There muat be first a complaint snpported by oath, showing t>iabable 
cause^ folio wed hy arres^t and e:!camiJiatlon, and sl ^insc of ttia InfurmA- 
tlon<^l .^bb. U. S. 4131; 1 Saw\% 7Dh It camiot be amended by addLnjit 
chaises— 1 1]ianar fi^; and objection to the filing, or a motion to qtia^h, 
m&3f DO mAdB In case of variance with the presentment—:^ Oratt. 555. 
TwsT mi? tM AOteaded by the courts or by a |adge at chamtHrs— ^ K. 

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S 8ll. Examination qf the prosecutor and his wlt^osscfl upon €he ln« 

' ' ' fonnatlou. 

S ttS4 < IkepMittons, wh6t toettttaln. 

1 814. foimofwanrant 

S 815. Name of description ot the defendant Ifk the warrant^ and 

* statement of the offense. j • - 

S 816. Warrant to bei directed to and asecnted Vf peace oi&cer. 
S 8IT. Who are peaoe officers. 

% 818. TO Whitt pe^tce officers warrants atl9 to. be <lu«cted. 
S 819. Same ; and whisnand liow executed in another county^ 
S 820. Indorsement on tvaxTaut, for service' in another HH>nntr. 
I 821. Pefendant to be taken before the magl^trikte issulng^ the "wazw 

rant, etc. - 

S 822. Defendant arrested for ifilsdeineanor fa tesiot^ qoun^i to be 

admitted to bail.^ .-,> ' 

S 8Sft ' Proceedings en! tdUng- MpO^ from the defendant fn-'soeh cases. 
S k24. "V^^en ball is not given. ' When magistrate wbd ls«u6d "waznnt 

' oaAnotflot. 
§:8^ ^odehiyiJltal^a&defevid^tbefoir^.ma^lstTate. 
S.62& Proc6e<Ungs where deitendaiit 14 taken before another ma^^ 

S. 837., ,Prji>ceedthgs tor Qileiuids tifabte in imoth^ /^ 
S-828. Itetgrof'Offlcer.1 ' 
5 829. ■ ^dmlsaloB^tobaii,' - ' 

. 8li-.. Whea jm iii£oriQ&tiQa is laid iaedisae a nuigtAtrate 
of the commission of a public offense, triable wttLin 
the county, he must examine on oath the informant or 
prosecutor, and any witnesses he may produce, and take 
their depositions in writing, and cause them to be sub* 
scribed by the parties making them. 

Proceedings.— The proceedings are regarded as contlnnoos, unless 

formally adjourned— 29 Mich. 173. An information not supported by 
oath or afflnnatlon will not authorize a warrant of arrest— 1 Abb. u. 
S. 481; 1 aale 6 D. 4M; 1 Q. B. 889. See 54 CaL 103. 

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S17 , WtABBI^^ OB 2SBBBT. §§ 8I2-U 

Q3^ The deponM&a must Bet forth the facts stated hy 
the prosecutor and his witnesses, tending to establish the 
comm&sion of the o^ense and the guilt of the defend- 

813. If the ma,gi^8^te 1^ satisfied thecefrom rthat the 
offence complained, of has been committed, and that there 
is reasonable ground to Iselieve that the defendant has 
committed it, he must issue a warrant of arrest. 

83.4. A warrant of arrest i» aa hh^s in writing, in the 
name ol th^ peppiej signed by a magistrate^'^QQ^Qanding 
the arrest of the defendant, and may be substantially in 
the foUowixkg form; " 

The People of the^iatatt of California to an^ eherif, con- 
stable, marshalt'^ pplicisman of said State, or of the 
County of — -*•• * 

Informatkm on.oajfcb hairing been this day laid b^ore 
me, by A. B^ that the odme of — ^ ( designating dt>. has 
been committed, aiid ac^tising C. I>. th^teof^ yoU are 
therefore ^commandikd iorthrwilii iaastest the above named 
G. D. and bring him .b^foDs meiat Cnaaung 4he place), or 
in case of my absence or inability to act, before t^e^> near- 
est or m0^ iaeoessible .magiatoate ia .thiSi county. 

Dated at v this -r^-^-^ay of ;, eighfteeu-^-^. 

Befotre whonttabe t»ten.-ria caso ot- ha ab^enoe jor dlsal^ilily to 

It of tbe Justice issuing the ^v^vrrant, tlio prisoner shall, oe taken be- 

>re another magistrate, and a dlr^ctloa to wait Offleet must %e Inserted 

the warrant-^ Gad, 134; £14 Id* 103, Tlie law,..Qf the State governs 

to Its legality-2 Watts, 165. ' 

815.. The warrant must cpecify tl^e name of the de- 
fendant, or, if it is unl^nown to the magistrate, the d^ 
f endant may be designated therein by any name. It must 
also state the time o^ issuing it, and the county, city, or 
town wliere ii is issued, and be signed hf the magistrate, 
with his n^me (jf office. ' 

Validity of'.— It is Invalid if It "does not slate the Sp*6cltfco'fleBse—l 

r»._^__«^ « ,«-. o ,..- ,n,.. .Txr t>i r«. « n^ljm giOp. W; 6 4d. 178; 

. J name-lft Anen. 403; 
aMQQdya.e.'Mi; . 

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8X6; The wartant most befLiieotAd toand esoecutod by 

a peace officer. 

To wl^om 4iroct6d-*]d Wif. 900; 7 Car. ft P. 24»5 Tbe Qft$ttria97 be 
described by name of Ills office— I Barn, ft C. 288; 2 Dowl. ft B. 44. 

817. A peace officer is a sheriff of a county, or a con- 
stable, matshal, or policeman of a toTmship, city ortown. 

818. If a warrant is issued by a justice of the Supreme 
Court, or judge of a Superior Court, it may Ijie directed 
generally to any sheriff, constable, marshal, or policeman 
in the State, and may be executed by any of those officers 
to wliom it mdy be del ivered. [In efEedt April 12th, 1680. ] 

See M Gal. 103. 

819. If it is issued by any other magistrate, it may be 
directed generally to any sheriff, constable, manhal, or 
policeman in the county in which it is issued, and may be 
executed in that county; or, if the defendant is in another 
county, it may be executed therein upon the written di- 
rection of a magistrate of that oonQty, indorsed upon the 
warrant) signed by him, with ids name of office, and dated 
at the county, city, or town is mttde^ to the fol- 
lowing-effect: "This warrant may be executed in the 
county of " (naming the county). 


820. The indorsciment mentioned in the last seotion 
cannot, however, be made unless the warrant of arrest be 
accompanied with a certificate of the clerk of the county 
where saeh warrant was issued, under the seal of the Su- 
perior Court thereof, as to the official character of the 
magistrate, or, unless upon the oath of a credible witness, 
in writing, indorsed on or annexed to the warrant, prov- 
ing the handwriting of the magistrate .by .whom it was 
issued. Upon such proof, the magistrate indorsing the 
warrant is exempted from liability to a civil or criminal 
action, though it afterwards appear that the warrant was 
illegally or improperly issued. [In effect April i2th, 1880.] 

1^1. If the offense chars^ed is a felony, the officet 
making the arrest must take the defendant before the 

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319 WABBAMT OF ABBBST. §§ 822-6 

mag^etxaite who issued the warrant, or some other maji^ 
trate of tiie same county, as provided in section eight 
faundred and twdnifcy-foux. 

One arretted for a felony, to procure ball, must be taken before the 
magistrate who^ issued the warrant, or some other ma£;istrate, in the 
same county— 5« Cal. 103. 

822. If the offense charged is a misdemeanor, and the 

defendsnt is arrested in another county, the officer must, 

upon being required by the defendant, take him before a 

magistr^e in that county, who must admit the defendant 

to bail, andiake bail from him accordiBgly. 

See 54 €al. 108. In flxihg the amount i)f bail, the sole purpose should 
be to cause the appearauce of accused to answer the charge— M Cal. 75. 
Admassioh to ball, in all but capital cased, U a rlgh| of accused— 19 Cal. 
Ml . See Const. ProY. antet pa^e 15. 

323. On taking the bail, the miagistrate must certify 
that fact on the warrant, and deliyer the warvant and un- 
dertaking of bail to the officer having charge of the de- 
fendant. The officer must then discharge the defendant 
from arrest, and must, without delay, deliver the warrant 
and undertaking to the clerk of the court at which the de- 
fendant is required to appear. 

824. Xf , on the admission of the defendant to bail, the 
bail is not forthwith given, the officer must take the de- 
fendant before the n^agistrata who issued the warrant,, or, 
in case of his absence or inability to act, before the near- 
est or most accessible magistrate in the same county, and 
must at the same time deliver to the magistrate the war- 
rant with his return thereon indorsed and subscribed by 

See 54 Cal. 103. 

825. The defendant must in all cases be taken before 
the magistrate without unnecessary delay, and any at- 
torney-at-law entitled to practice in courts of record of 
California, may, at the request of the prisoner after such 
arrest, visit the person so arrested. [In effect AjpiiX 9th, 

826. If the defendant is brought before a magistrate 
other than the one who issued the warrant, the depositions 

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gg 827-9 WABBANT OF AKBIST. S20 

on 'Which the warrant was granted most^ b« aeait ttb>that 
magistrate, or, if they cannot be procured, the Iproseeutor 
and his witnesses must be summoned to gite tfai«iv 'testi- 
mony anew. 

Rights of prisoner.^The only rights that he can e^ct are, that the 
affidavits shall be transmitted, or that the prosecutor and his wit< 
nesses be summoBed; to tes^y.aaew— 19 CaL 1^5. 

827i When an information is laid before a magistrate 
of the commission of a public olEense triple in another 
county of the Sitate, butsho'vring that tine defendant is in 
the county where the inf ormbtion isliid; the same pro- 
ceedings must be had bb prescribed in this cha|>ter, ex- 
cept that the wiarrant must require the defendant to be 
taken before the nearest or most accessible magistrate of 
the county ill which the offense is triable, and the depo- 
sitions of the informant or prosecutor, and of the wit- 
nesses who may have been produced, must be delivered 
by the magistrate to the officer to whom the warrant is 

828. The officer who executes the warrant must take 
the defendant before the nearest or most accessible mag- 
istrate of the county in which the offense is triable, «nd 
must deliver to him the depositions and the warranty With 
his return hidorsed thereon, and the magistrate must theh 
proceed in the same manner as upon a warrant issued by 

829. If the offense charged in the warrant issued pur- 
suant to section eight hundred and twenty-seven is a 
misdemeanor, the officer must, upon being required by 
the defendant, take him before a magistrate of the 
county in which the wartant was issued, who must ad- 
mit the defendant to bail, and imn;ie<[iately transmit the 
warrant, depositions, and undertaking, to the clerk of 
the court in which the defendant Is required to appear. 

Tb ptotxvn bail, the prisoner mnst "be taken before the magistrate 
who Issued the warrant, or some other magistrate of the same couular 
~64Cal.l03. See onto, S 822, note. 

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iatttfdTi'HOyrMifl^tt. '-'^^B&l 

arrkst/by whom and how madb. 

S 834. Jbrestdeflnedf., .^^ Vliott^ tuiaide. . 

S 63S» How an trrest Is ttiade and wliat rettraiAt aHtmed. 

S 686. Artists tjy* peace officers. ' -• 

S 877. Arrests by private persons* 

1836. MaglstrattesmaTOFddranrest;. 

S 839. Persons making arrest may bilmmdh assistance* 

S84*. WhealiietiprwfeiiwrfcBmad©. i. • « 

5 841. Arrest, how made. 

S 842. ' Warrant must be shown, when. 

S 843. What force may be used. 

S 844. Von bad window^ ttt^ 1^ bibkdti, Wheii. 

S 845. Same. 

S 846. Wea{»onsmAy be taken trompenuHitf'arrestedt 

S 847. Duty of a private person who h^ loade a^ arrest. 

S 848., Duty of officer arresting with warrant. 

S 849 J Perscia attested Wffihdttt a waarrant^o be taken before a mag1s> 

tnite..;Iii£Dnpaddn.tobetied. ^ 

S 850. Arrest by telegraph. 

S 851. Same. , ; 

834. An arrant is taking a pterson into custody, ih a 
cade^iid^fiKI/Ii^- manner authorized bylaw. An arrest 
may be made by a peace officer or by a private person. 

Antatf "Wh^ illegal— An.arrest will not be avoided by^mere cleri- 

cal at formal errors m the warrant— 98 Mass. 4; 8ee49 Barb,8&; 8 Rich. 
17, A warrsUit tQ»r bo void as tp thej parties. Dujt voidable o.uly as to 
the offlcer-2l N. 3.-262; 1 Xead: C. Cm When absolutely volai the 

officer caimot excjo^e himself— 20 Yt. 3;21^as whe/o it is dated oii Sun- 
day— 13- nam. 3Z4i!«r where it has nosdaM HaVW.4Tl; ap He, 366; 5 
Ired.72^ 1 East f. C-eh. ft, § 58; but a waf^ Or scroll i$ 8ufficient-34 
Me. 210; &Watts, 311 ; 49 Ma. 188j fr Jur. 442; ,T Q. B. 232, 

VciKftily of arrostr— •'fd make ftri itrrpst ¥nt(cl, the nilir-pr iniiat '►'^ oH' 
mgtia m tho pspx uium c»f i> tiQty— 13 Cox t;. C siii- VVIitro an m"rt?.st 
h rniiiic) beyotitl tin? lui-bdlcfeitHi of the* iiitisistr.iif^ who iHsuerl tUt^var- 
T%M% U Is fileniiJ— <i.5 N. C. 327; "5 lil. SOflj qf fiiit,^ldo ctf tlif^ al^^tlFt of 
tbooiMfei^l CtJim. 40; 4 1*1, liU: 7 13. 4M; I JlEiiS. 232. T\'heroa fugi- 
tive was arrcirUnl 1u anatli'^r Stati?, though the arrpst Is lUi^[*lt la 
not &pmind lor his dlsehar^ mt Itakeas tttrjiUi—\^ Tn. BLm* Beo 4 

— . --^ *"^ 5 1 El E! fjFireiisa churned IQ t ti e traTi-ari t ' ^ ^ 

psul-^U J^lb. 1, JISIS, %^here n Pe 

bbGu discharged !jy auia^l^truts, aai ciHi^t^rcimnDtro-arTc^t lilm without 

FBTliflr Cr. K. 2S3. Whem tEie! crirensa churned Iq ttie ^aTiiUit IH Hot a 
Eubjffcff Of nirest, It Is IKpjiuI-^U 1, if. 215, %^here n person liaa 

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11^885-6 AfOflmi^ now warn. 822 

a new wansnt— 30 Bsrb. 900, disapproTing 6 HIIL 849; Imt aa offleer 
may re-arrest a person after yolunnmly releasinff bim-O Met 289. 

835. An arrest is made by an actual restraint of the 
person of the defendant, or by his submission to the cus- 
tody of an officer. Th^ defeiMlsnt most not be subjected 
to any more restraint than is necessary for his arrest and 

Arrest, how made.— No manual touching Is necessary—lS Oa.392i 
it is sufficient if the party be within ibe power of tbd officer and sub- 
mits to the arrestr-^fWend. 81ft: 20 Ga. 171; 18 N. H. 196t 1 Car. A P; 
153: Moody & M. 244: contra, 2 N. H. 318: Bsap, <& C.) 4$3; B»ld. 230 » 
3 EDfir. (Del) 416; id. 668. It is the duty of the party to snbmit-4 Allen. 
N. B. 440. To inform defendant that he is arrested, and to lock the 
door, is sufficient— Cas. t. Hardw. 284; er to. inform him, and touch 
him only with the flnger-1 Salk. 79. 

836. A peace officer may make an arrest in obedience 
to a warrant delivered to him, or may, without a warrant, 
arrest a person— 

1. For a public offense committed or attemi^d in his 
presence. ^ 

2. When a person arrested has committed a felony, al- 
though not in his presence. ^ 

S. When a felony haa. in fact been committedf a|id he 
has reasonable cause for beUeving the person arrested to 
have committed it. 

4. On a charge made, upon a reasonable cause, ef the 
commission of a felony by the p^y arrested. 

5. At night, when there is reasona}>le cause to' believe 

that he has co^miitted a felony. 

Subd. 1. Offenses committed ia presence of QlBoer*.^ Hsr. (D^.> 
005; 19 Ohio 8t.248: 2 HiUTci. C.) 619^ 8 SeiK- A S. 47: 71 Dl. 73; nmw, 
Pr. lOU; 8 Wend. 384 ; 9 Car. & P. 474: £1? & B. 188: or even attSf, it 
danger bas not ceased— 7 Cox G.G.3&; and see 71 JSL 78; limited, )6N. 


Subd.2* For felony-12 Cnsb. 246; Id. 615; 71 HI. 78; Cald. 291; 1 
Lead. C. C. 195; and such ^iilsdemeanors as cannot be stopped or re- 

dressed without immediate arrest-^ Fost. & F. 859; 4 id. fOa; but for 
crueityto animals, he cannot arrest without a warrant-^ Lans.84; 2 

Subd, 3. Ftobable cause.— An officer may arrest on proi>ai»le 
groupd of suspicioxk and without a warrant-^p^kL 430; 14 Oray» 65; 
Humph. 53; I Moody C. a 634; see 46 Oa. 86; and to Justify Urn, it 
Witt not be necessary to establish the guilt of the iMirty-49 Ind. 06; 1. 
Am.Cr.B.60; so* of a constable-I 'WheeL G. C. 187. Acons^uemay 
airest on reasonable cause of onsplcilcin, or for breacher peace In hi» 
presenc&-67Pa.St.80! 9Serff.*B.47. So, a peace ofl;icer» f or reasoxk- 
able cause, may arrest for £^ny<— 19 Ind. 56; o Humph. 63; Cosh. 281. 

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323 JUStKBST, SOW HADB. '§§ 837-9 

Be cannot anMt for a etlme proved or aospocted, niUesa It be a felony 
-13 cosh. 1M6; Id. 615. Contra^ 5 Ear. (BTu} M9. 

Subd, 4. On charge of felony.^ A peace officer, on reasonable cause, 
on a charge of felony, can arrest without a warrant, but a private per- 
son cannot^l Poug. 359; 1 ];*ead, C 0. 194: but he Is not nound to ar- 
rest merely on representations that he is a thief— 5 City H. Bee. 4. 
Here manner. In a man acoused of crime. Is not probable cause-^ 
Mich. 299. Befnsal to arrest-see ante, & 142. Warrant to be directed 
to, and executed by, officer— see €mtet S 816. Who are peace officers— 
ante,n«n. To whal to be d^cted-oate. SS SIS^ 819. Paty on arreslr- 

837. A private person may arrest another— 

1. For a pnblio offense conunitted or attempted in his 

2. When the person arrested has committed a felony, 
although not in his presence. 

3. When a felony has been in fact committedj and he 
has reasonable cause for believing the person arrested to 
have committed it. 

3ubd» 1. Private penK>as«— It is the duty of all persons to nse all 
ns to arrest one committing a breach or the peace— 4 City 

lawful „ , ___ 

H. Bee. Ill: or an alEiay— 1 Boot, 66; but he is not lostlfied without a 
warrant, unless the affny is atill contUiuing, or there ia reasonable 
ground to apprehend its renewal— 10 ClarirS F. 28; 8. 0. 1 Lead. 0. 0. 
177. But a pmate person caanot, of his own authorily , after an ailray 
or breach of the peace— 11 Johns. 486. For misdemeanors, after their 
commiasion, an arrest can only be made on a warrant-^ Puker Gr. B. 

Bubd. 2. For felony.— A priYate person may arrest, without war* 
rant, one who has committed a felony— 1 "Wheel. 0. G. 101: 8 Wend. 
850; 11 Johns. 486; 8 Packer Gr. B. 249; 17 How. Pr. 100; 12 Ghs. 818; or, 
on suspicion, with good reason, where a crime has been actually com- 
mitted--40 N. T. 46St 8 Wend. 8S0; but It must be a felony whleh may 
be tried In the Statec-^l Barb. 91; as for an escape-48 N.H. 877. 

Bubd. 8. Beasonable cause— see 40 N. T. 463; 8 Wend. 360. May 
arrest on inrobable cause— 82 N. J. L. 70; 3 Wend. 360; 8 Berg. A B. 47; 
6 Blnn. 816; 66 Ind. 464: 2 Dot. 58: 3 Jones. (N. C.) 434: but to justify, 
~ !i9emu8tbelnfactcomndtted-40I}.T.493; 61Pa.8t.858; U 

Barb. 410s 2 8dw. IT. P. 9 

838, A magistrate may orally order a peace officer or 
private person to arrest any one committing or attempt- 
ing to oommit a pnblio offense in the presence of such 

Ma^atnte tnay, on his own view, and without a warrant^arrett a 
party for a breaen of the peaoe--5 Gify H. Beo. 96. 

839. Any person making an arrest may orally sum- 
mon as many persons as he deems necessary to aid him 


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§§ 048^1 AS&E8T, ^OW HAI>4 S26 

' x^\f 01^ making an«9t— On arrestliifr lie iqar iiiB» fb« prlMner 
to tbe county Jail, or before » lostice qf tliepe>e c ;'8fiei»AB,4y; 
orotb«rinilSMinM;eT-12a«.2M^ . i 

$i& An officer making an anresti ia obedienoer to a 
warrant, must proceed vfitli the, person anrenifed «a com- 
manded by the warrant, or b$ provided }>f Uw. 
' Duty of officer.— The officer mnst f oQo'w tbe statute as to tbe maglfl- 
trate to whpiu tbe party is to be 4eUTered—llO Umm* 819. 

8f 9* When an arrest is made without a Warrant by a 

peace officer or private person, the person arrested mnst, 

without TmnecesBary delay, be talEen ' before the nearest 

or most aoceisible magistrate in the coanty in Which the 

arrest is made, and an information, stating the ohazge 

against the person, mast be laid before such magistrate. 

SeelWbeeLO.Oil01;.lWeiid.sa0. The fiendeney of one infooai^ 
lion is no bar to the presentation of another-^ Pac. G. L. J. 526. 

850. A justice of the Supreme Coi^, or a judge of a 
Superior Court, may, by an indorsement under his haii4l 
upon a warrant of arrest, authoriflE^ the service thereof by 
telegraph, and thereaftfBr a telegraphic copy of ^uch war- 
rant may be sent by telegraph to one or more peace of*" 
fleers; and such copy is as effectual in the hands of any 
officer, and he must proceed in the same mantier under it, 
as though he held an original warrant issued by the mag- 
istiate making the indorsement. [In effect April l2th, 

Arrest by teltoclraph.— An offloer arresting for felony on telegraphlo 
or other dlspatoh, without a warrant, must talce the party at anoe 
before 8ome.eTaintn1ng officer-29 How. Pr. 186; and there most be 
reMonabla <«Ugtooe-4d: 

851. Every officer causing telegraphic copies of war- 
rants to baisent must certify as correct^ and file in the 
telegraph office isom which such copies aire ataxt, a copy 
of tbe wanant aiid.ifidorsemtot thereon, , and must' letam 
the original with a statement of his aotl6& tiMommdar. 

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3SS7 fim^ASffSQ AF^E^ B8CAFB. §§ 89jH^ 



! S 8S4. May beat any time or in aoypl^e In tbe State. 

S 8H> Say break open door or window if admittance refused. 

834. H a t)ersoii Birested escape or Is rescued^ tbe per- 
son from whose custody ha o^pap^ or was reacu^, me^ 
immediately pursue and vetake liim at any. time and in 
any place within tke State* ' 

See Mfefim, note. ' 

855. To retake the person escaping, oi; rescued, the 
pevson pwwiing may bveak open an outer or inner door or 
window of a dweUingHhontfe, if, after notice of his inten* 
tion, he is refused admittance. 

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{ 858. Vagisjj^rate to tq^onn. tbe def6^daQt^ ^ tb^ pb»^> aod bis 
' ■ right to counsel. / ' ' , 

'869.' nmetoseiidand'^eiiidbigftn^coiiiiiU. ' ' 
.86l<Bxamliialilosi«tt1ietit«prbc6)3d; ' 

861. When to 1)6 completed. PostpoDWienti i 

862. On postponement* defendant to he conm4tte4| or dtschMgcd 


868. Fonn of commitment. 

864. Depositions to be read on examfiufOon and iD!bpoeoM:issiiM. 

MBk Ttownlnftttott of •wttnessea toba.lnpweePCO of deftedanti 

866. Examination of def endantfs witnesses, - ^ , < 

867. Exdnsion and separation of witnesses. 

868. Who may he present at the examination. 

869. Testimony, how taken and authenticated. 

870. Deposition, by whom and how kept. 

871. Defendant, when and how discharged. 

872. Wben and how to be committed. 

873. Order for commitment 

874. Certificate of ball being taken. CBepealed.] 

875. Order for bail on commitment. 

876. Commitment, how made and to whom dellTered. 

877. Form of commitment. 

878. Undertaking of witnesses to appear. 

879. Secority for the appearance of witnesses. 

880. Infants and married women may be required to giro security. 

881. Witnesses to be committed on refusal to give security for their 


882. Witness unaUe to giro security may be conditionally eaayoBlned. 

Not applicable to prosecutor or accomplice. 
88S. Magistrate to return depositions, etc., to the court 

858. When the defendant is brought before the mag- 
istrate upon an arrest, either with or without warrant, on 
a charge of having committed a public offense, the magis- 
trate must immediately inform him of the charge against 

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7h§tchaTg6 ywtf* wyyl to ^ to Motion to not tf) » jmnq MtiM cbftntt 
mentioned m | SlToftSls Cod^--44Caa. m7. A fnstice of ibe peaSe 
and a district jadge are alikD comtltatMl mJudsrake8«t8e Cal. WS.' A 
preliminary exanunatlon cannot be waived—^ CaL 706. The rigbt to 
poimsol 03Aendsoaiy<toitfios9 In. iBfv|1»dr--Tf% jPa^-'SiW* jQ9 a 1>Ht of 
habeas corpus, the conrt may ezacf ~ * *'-"- "^ «— *«^*. »« %t 

3 corpus* the conrt'may exact an immediate dzaoiiiiatioh— 32 N. 

j.i*.U9i ■ ■ ■ ■' -y ..■■■>■':■ :•■:.!) I . . ■•• '• 

859. He mtLsi - kUa ■ aiiow th6' dt^uAtcttt i if6^6liieibli) 
time to send for cpunsd'/ aiid pdstpoUe the exfttnittatioArl 
for that pntpode ; attd ikM, txpok' ' thid reqiiest ^ df the ' de* 
fendiuit, ve^ttitef aiieMft officer< to toiw« uveauii^ toittitiy 
eotittBel iii>^0' township jot eity4bB aefendaitft lifet^ iiam^ 
The ofiScer moBt, "without delay and without fee, pezfomii 

860. If thedefeadAii)t^wqttiX8«ttW'aidof«iyaanl^tk| 
iniig|gfrat%.||ffl<iitt,iTpyy1l<»t9ly; aft^Fnthe ^aP«>fP«»JW<|of 
oGQiiaEa) or>^^|^l)ef/w;aiti^jE>^*JC)9aa9n«hlft.tiin^ t^erefor^ 
iioneappear9^{ixQ^s^taezQa?yii|e^.t^(;s^ . . 

88X Thi^'estomlnatioii nituAi "M eoxnpleted at • ene iteft- 
sion, unless the magistratdi'fbt*:l^dbd c»HiBe shown by affl« 
davit, postpone it. The postponeinent cannot he for more 
tiian twdda;^ a% each time^ »»r mim than nix daysin 
all^ uudesa hyemiMiit or ob wotibn df tiie defendants 

ClbatiBUUioe«*«iA. iMCTo»a K f M l J B df gamtBdwtth» crime tnaaotlMr 

862. If a postponement is had, the magistrate wast 
commit. fhe;.dQf^dant for f^^gftmination, admit him t^ hail 
or diaeWge hjbija^roni c^^ deposit of monii^ 

as^pj^oy^ded {j» t^ Code, W secjui^ for hii^ appeaza^CQ 
at tha time 1)0. wi)i9^ ilu» exsuninatic^-^is ppsfippned.! ^ 

aeau Tbec^nMQltHMiMi^^Tiiox^inli^QAiSiiW 
SiidQiMnB«iil»: signed J^y i^. ^magistiTii^Mn the> yftfltm%c(4 
uanfi^U^HkA Icdloyfing effect: v ? >l?hi9 within nam)»d A* :^ 

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8§ 0M-O atAMnrjuemir ov COB 

&»*▼&{( ^66n' tmmglit l^fM« ttie tiiMte tOiln ^wAitaat, is 
oommitted for examination to the shMilf i0f ^-•^^•^Ai^/* Xf 
this 9lieritf is ndt ^fescint, tl^d def6^(dafttt mar He otft^milt- 
led to the cosiody of a peace qfftcer. 

864. At the examination, the mai^trate mndt fln^ 
read to the defendant the depositions of the witnesses ex- 
amined on taJ^^Uv ^ i^f orm^vtioA. He mnst also issue 
stthpg^nas, subscribed by him, for witnesses ind^bin the 
State, required either by the proseQution or the def ens^^ 
. 16664 The witnesses wusft be exansified iatbe presenoe 
ot the ^endant^ aaid nfta j be croiS^xamiaed In his ber 
half. .;•/(. 

866. When the examination of witnesses oii . the ptski 
of the people is closed, any witnesses the defenda!nt May 
pffo4tBM.mast be swoKD sod exaadned.^ 
= 867. While a witness 1^ under idkamiHSitibA, the magi- 
istrate tiiay exctttde a!l witbeMes wtto haiye bdf besil ex^ 
amined. He may idsa bateier' the witnesses'' t6 ^be Icepft 
sepanM^, ani tabe pi^^vent^^^nHn oonve94off fritli each 
other nntU they #ieaH e^^amined* . 

Ssolnsion of ^"^vb tiyt of — &y CbI* 481« 

86a Tbe, jBagistEate.naust ateQ» upon tbe TS^eifb ^ 
the defendtnti exclude ftovk the^etxmainaliep wmy Vffi: 
son except his oleodc; tlie prdsaoator and bis ooaBMel* the 
ettoniey-ceneral* the distrioi attorney eC U^ county, the 
tttfendant and his <!sbmisel, and the 'officer hitting the de^ 
f Midant in custody. 

' ' tl^. *the testimony of each witness, Ik c^es bf homi- 
6ide, must be reduced to writinj^, &k a d^posftlon; by the 
biS^lst^^te, or under iils direotioti; ftti^ iti V>th6r' 6a8^ 
upon the iiemand df'the prosecutihg iattotney/o^ the de* 
f endant, or his counsel The magistrate b^f 6re whom the 
IttafdiakMir^ ha» ttMy/ftt^ills^itffiMtlWi; erder the tes- 
iUaitmf Hffil 'pro«MMiit« Stf«e'tbk«in ld<»l«i iii'lMcMuiifd 
ik f^lbttBkftHMidiar Hibeih dMfttUdMdi'a^ fcnr^fltatf pt» 

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331 .mxAUBXAXJOs oor tksb cjuub. 8 BG9 

poM be may appotfit a ahort-band ireportar. $he d«pMi- 
ttott m* testimony of t^e witness miul be ailiftieatieaied in 
tiie foUotHng form: 

1. IS lanst state the naoM of the witness, his plaoe 
of residence, and: his business or ifuMifession.« . ' 

2. It most contain the qtie^fions pnt to the Wtfetess, 
and his answezs thereto, eaek answer beings dis- 
tinctly read to him ad it Is taken down, and being cor- 
rected or added to nntil it conforms to what he decides 
is the truth: except in cases where the testimony is taken 
down in sbevt^hand, the answi^or answers of the \^foi^ss 
needsot-beTead^tohimi. .' -- • • . ,, .j ; -;:.■•• 

a If a qnesMton > put be objected to on ^/i^tkt i side 
and ov«xvuMv or -the wttnes^' declines wnsweriag ilit that 
fact, with the i^o^ind en whioh the question ^as'oirer- 
ruled i)r the answer declined^ most bestatedi i^ < 

4. mMM ^i0p^MwL mnst be signed by the wttheis^ ev if 
he refuses to sign it, hte: season .for tefbsiiigimust be 
stated in wrijtdng as ^e eji;cej^t ia^^asesi^herp the 
deposition ; is tsfs^ ^ down i^ sjliort-liand^ f l« , n^4 ^^^ \^ 
signed by the witness, s : .-u ■■> 

5, it n^u^ .b,e sijgned and certi^d by.tjbie magistrate 
when reduced tp Tnritiug by ^401* pr under. Iiisdi^eptipn, 
and when takep., down in short-li(^nd,.the'tjran9crfpt of fihe 
reporter appointed as aloresaif^ when writtcai out in[ lox^ 
hand w^iing find c^rtlded as being c^ cexf^. st^ten^ent g^ 
such testimony and proceedings in the q^e^ ^^^ ^1^ 
l»-f9»a/«K^ la.coxr^t sta/^ismX of , aycu^ testimony ^^<^ 
proceedings. The t^e{iK>rter shall, witiUn t»n d^iys at ttfr 
she close of such examinaUon, (if the defendant be .held 
to answer to the.<^arge)t Usmn^fi^ ^nto long-hal^d 1\0?llii^ 
bis.sa44 flbprtrhand JW)tes, ^ndcenii[y ,and. ifile the. seme 
with t^e^9unjty cje^l^pf the pQ^i^y'^or cjty ahd coiyaty, 
In which, ii^e defendant was examine^* and sliall in.i^ 
cases file his. original notes with sa^d clerk. \jn Q#eci 
Marcli.3rd,.ia81.1.,,, ' ' -.■..•- i .,.,. ^. ,.:/. . 

6.. Therepprt'er's compensation 8 Ji^ll.p^ iixed by th,e 
magistrate before whom the examination is ha^, and shall 

^fJESfCh2 BKJLxnr&TicxN of tcbb xtAsm, 282 

of the county, or the city and county, in !«rbiofa ibd;e>4»t»- 
ionttpn^tiB )uAi on the tortl^Sboste.ffcnd order- 0£{tliB said 
magistrate. [initlfeibJMjUoQfa Ht^ 1865.] . . > n f . :'»: . 

^rfn^e ordinary form, is inadmlssiDle— 54 'Oal. 577. 

Jii.*t i ^ 

oat« in3Ut70et fortii actual oompliaaoe wlt&jall ttie rettaJren. 

8tatate-7< C^^KB* TUe deposition i^ not the only evidence on a cliarge 
of )^iiai:^,'bttt parole ^rldeiMse'may be introdtteed to prore wbMi ^m 
jBWOTA to on the wamlnatf on-vW CajL «».. M tlw magistrate jBirone- 
ouffiTexcludes a qUestloh, It itflio Injury ITthetesttaiony wyimma- 
tert&rrMtCB&.iaa. -.' 

'8701' Oaie magistrate or Iris derkintiat Icaepthei d^o* 

Bitions taken on the informationiot bartJhe^TKTainafciom 

imtil th^arfiivetomed to .the pdroper cootlri, aDdjm1)i6t not 

peetta^ $^nibo3M ezattiiiiJBd ocoopiad :hy aH^tpenonies* 

o^ Ajodgs of a qourt haviilg Jiuriadicitioa of XhfioSepami, 

or authorized toisBoo iwiits of : ha31>Ba4 oorpua^ thd attorneys 

He&aral^diitriot «ltO]ftie7« or otlier- poosMnilingi afttoinay, 

•fid'tbadtsftiadiantaadhisooiinaiol. t j - 

671. If, after heating ther proofs, it ap|»^^ tiihet tliiat 
iio pttblio offense Has been committed'br that theti^ is not 
sufficient cause to believe the defendsliit ^Ity of a pab^ 
116 ofrenset, themagiistrate must order lihe defendant to be 
disqhat^ed, by an. indorsement On ttie'depositiScms'a&d 
6tatein6nt. sij^^ byhim, to th6 foliowiii^'i^ffecti ^'Mfere 
beii4^ii6stiffi(!ibi!it cause to beli^Ve th6 wttbiti named A. 
B. ^llty of the offense within mentioned, t t>rder him to 
bfe dtscharg<id:" '■'•''- ' 

' drd^r of diicliarge.^Tfte order of discharge Arfl be i«ddced to 

9 d^i^bedl^a^wer before «aoti^^r ^reiad 

piil Xtf hdyrevit, It appears 'ftfoMtbe'exJEixidijiitlon 
tShaV a publio o&end^ haii been cbmxhitted, ap!d' thete is 
/Iti^eitot cai^d' t6 t^elleve the defendant' gtdlty' thereof, 
thd mafi^trati^ ind&t Inake or inddrs6 oil'the d^po^itlpn 
an order, signed l^y }am, to the following' effect! '|*,tt'a;p- 
pea&ig to me that the offezise in the; witiiin depositions 

Sch a defect ,as wilfenfftl^ Klin to"a dlscliarge oil habjewtpfpa8-4B 
kL 200( 51 ld..S?a| tt Id. JOO. Tlw mere reconuneodatieQ otugrmi 

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833 BZAMIKATZOir OF TBB OASM, $§ 873-d 

mentioiifd, (or a^y offouie, |locoFdi^g to tbe laM, *t«tiiia^ 
gen#raH7 the nature tliereof) bas been «oinxnitt64» and 
tiiat there is saladent cahse t6 believe the wit^btifipi^ 
A. B. gaSltyi^exeoly^ or^ that he be held to answer to 
the eame, sja!d oomin^tted to the sheriff ,o£ the oonnty of 
— -/' [In effect ApiU 15th, 1880.1 

Oommitnient.— Tlier© la no atttborlty In the Penal Code for the 
waiver of eajnulDMloo^-s Pac, 0. J*, J, 639. The Penal Codo authorLsea 
praceedlngs b/ luf oituatlon onl^ ^hon clefendaut baa been examined 
and coinmittcd— Id, lu Virgin laj. In c^e^ of felcHiy a prciSniloary 
examination la not neceaaarf— ii3 Oratt- ^19. That tlifire la wood causa 
for detention of accused must be left to tbe dii^ct-^Uon orttie cour^ 
wlilcb cnnnot bo rovjewed on habeas corpus— 4'i Cal. 199: 19 id^ ] 37, U 
tbo magli^tratolxaa indorsed bis order of discliarge on tn^ depositions 
and Btateme^nt, or entered It Jn hlH docket* coinmltmenta may be 
issued tiQtll the object of tUe orJer baa beenacconipUghed— 19 €aL 137. 
Probable causs la fiuHlcient— Burr *ii Trial, 11, 13: 1 Cminr* (Pitta,) 437. 
Wtiat 111 & good cause iiiu^t bo determined by tiie p>artlc!ular ctreum- 
Etances— 42 Cal. 24j(p. If it appcais that & pubiio ol£en!3« baa bcven 
committed* and there la sufflclcut causo to beliovo defendant la frulltiS 
an order mii-st be Indorsed on tlio deposition tliat he be held to 
answer— 4^ Cal. 651* It ia not necessary tiiat tbo binding over flbati be 
for thospcrSflc charge, If, on bearing, tlio oflcnso takes tmotber Bbape 
—12 Kan^ ITi; eontrit, 34 hlwii. 2;i^>^ Ftoldinfc defendant to trial la only 
a decision that tiiera la iv probable <:ause that tie should be tried— 35 
Me. ii«J? 2 Ben. 3.Wj id. il9; 17 loua, 33ii; Si Mich. 2863 I Uarn. & 0- 37, 
Tiie District Court has Jtirisdlction tomalte an onJer boldln? accused 
to answer a criminal cuajgo— .'iL Cat 376. TLe Code authorlzeaa pro< 
ceedJ^n? by information only wben a defendant iias been exa>m&ed 
and committed— 4 Fac. C. L. J. &2ti. See ante, ^ titi'J. 

873. If the offense is not bailable^ th» foUowtng wo^s 
most be added to the indoroemontr * 'And he is hereby 
coniinittedto the«heriff of the oonnty of -^m." ' . i < 

874. Beiitlbn ei^ hundred and ^^v^nty^four of skid 
Ck>de is hereby rei>e(al6d:. [Ineff<bdt April ISth^ 1880.] 

875. If the offense is bailable, and th^ deitendantis 

admitted to ball^ the following; Trdrds must be added to 

the order: '^And that he be admitted to bail in thesumiof; 

' dollars, aii4 ^ conmutt^d to the sheriff qi thei county^ 

of — - until ho gives suqji baiL", [In efifet^ April^ 15thi; 

1880.3' ■■' ■' ■■ '■ ' ' " .\w-a\-. '■.^ 

If the cozQinitment be for an indeflniteor unreasonable timjBtthe 
wacMkMriSirdid^-eMi^wau. lit ifrBatttj«>a;2S) ¥BiSriGf.2S^iee 

4»CfA,m,.,, >,_. .. ,,,. ;- ■ , .,, . ^ ,-.-. .,,.. ,, ,._„, .,,.. ., 

£zc088ive bail Is not to be required— SY Conn. 355. See Ck>nst. 

Prot4 «MUe^ pa^ UU BaAl is to Be taOteflln i^bat (iaoitil «aMe 

irhea, if tbe proof is strong, bail will be refused— 2 DalL MS; 8 Abb. 

y.u.y Google 


Pr N. S. 27: 24 Ark- 275; 30 Ala. 300: N Id. 270; 5 Cowph. 39t lu Omy. 
««: frOnrJO^Keoai; l Ha^t. 33^) SI UL 4»«; i? ta^L i7i 39MU9. 71^; 
2^N. H. IBO; 4 Parker Cr. K. Ml; 25 Tpjc, 3<^^; 14. M'f; 31 Id. Wi6. Bee 
GoDitt, Prof l£tonBiidi?f#/p!i4ti3 15« THe te«t to be adopted la tba prdb^ 
Ability uf tho accused appcurbie £r> tH^o bin trial— 'J A^hm. l!2T: 11 AU^ 
270; ft Co wen, 39; 4 Tarker Cr. E. C51 ; 2 Fitta, WJ2r I!> Wis ^►Ts. Wbat to 

J»DO iB opprcjiAivD to anot^iT ji.t l^ebE:, and M th\A the court Is to« 

actiqa of t2io couitr utilutta. opprt^isslve, li not reir[Jiui)J« in ertoiw^ 
Abbn Pr, N. S. ^7; 33 Ga. IS^J; otinirwiae^wbery tbereism cotiaMtutionril 
rJ^lit-49 MLfiS. (ii3. Stio 49 Cal. (351: 61 Id. 376. Uodef proper ftncl 
pcc^uiiar ctrcumatonccj daugor to m« may juAtJlr tieleaa« ou baU— 3 
WAJ^b. 0. €. V2i; lU Mod. !KM ; 1 gjilk. IN; I Stxaoirfi, 3. See BaU« jwi^ 

876. If the magistiAte order the defendant to 1)6:001X1-. 
n^itvdd, )be xz^ti^t ma^e ottt a c6imxd;t^etit, la^g^ed by Idm, 
with his name of office, aild deliver it, witli tbe defendant,' 
to the officer to whom he is committed, or, if that oificer 
i$ ^ot present, to a peace officer, who must dellveir tho 
def^nde^t intb the proper ^nstody, together with the 

866 49 CaL 651; 51 Cat m . 

877. The commitment jnost be to the following effect : 
' OouKTT OF — — (as the case may be). 

i%$FeopU cf the State ofCaitfomia to the Sheri^ Qf the 

County of ; ' 

An. order 4bAring beea this day miade by me, that A. B. 
be held to anawei: upon. a charge of {stating briefly the 
nature of tha offdnse> and giving as. neariaa may be: the > 
time when and the place where the same was conunitted),^ commanded to receive him into yoi^ onstpdy.and 
detain hiii^p. ui^til^he ^ legaUy discha^ed. 

Dated this day of , eighteen , 

A conunltmont for mnnler must state' tbd toaae'ot theperaon nuxr* 
dered, btU thtf ouOMioa wttl not entitle accoud to a WCbaive ^n 
habeas corpus— 42 Cal. 199; and for rape, on whom. It was conumtted* 
and die nse^ of violenc6-*19 CaL 1». If It appear that the party la' 
ffPUtj, Uie o(Uirt wiU Aot discharge him without aUowipK time for his 
atTeS%^CiS?144. A eommltmeirtis fnsnfflcieit ifft fon toetate the 

mue, S 876, note. 

878. . On hoidlhg tbeidefeadant to answer^ the mAgis- 
trate may take from each of the material witne^^ ex- 
amined before him on the part of the people ti written 

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trndertiikiiig, to the effect^ that lie wftl' appear , an^^^litify 
at the court to which the depoditions^iuid, stat6I^eIitfl sire 
to be sent, or that he will fotfelt the titim of tLV6 hundred 
dollars./ "'."...•' '■'.', .*-'",' 

879. When the magistrate oca; juf^tt of tho ^wvut in 
which the action is pending is satisfied, by proof on oath, 
that there is reason to believe that any such witness will 
not appear and testify unless security is required, he may 
order the witness to enter into a written undertaking, 
with sureties, in such sum as he may deem proper, for his 
appearance as specified in the preceding section. 

See aii/«, £1865,809; poit,i8Bt. 

880. Infants and married women, who are material 
witness against the defendant, may be required to pro- 
cure sureties for their appearance, as provided in the last 

881. If a witness, required to enter into an under- 
taking to appear and testify, either with or without 
sureties, refuses compliance with thQ order for that pur- 
pose, the magistrate must commit him to prison until he 
complies or is legally discharged. 

882. When, however, it satisfactorily appears by ex- 
amination, on oath, of the witness, or any other person, 
that the witness is unable to procure sureties, he may be 
forthwith conditionally examined on behalf of the people. 
Such examination must be by question and answer, in the 
presence of the defendant, or after notice to him, if on 
bail, and conducted in the same manner as the examina- 
tion before a committing magistrate is required by this 
Ckxle to be conducted, and the witness thereupon be dis- 
charged; but this section does not apply to an accomplice 
in the commission of the offense charged. [In effect 
MarohrUth, 1878.] 

DeposHion of witness for the people nujr l>e taken where he Is va^ 
able to proenre siueties-49 CaL S8. 

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g 89^ gXAXm^TlOK OF TBB GASB. 336 

883. Wl^en a magistrate has discharged a defendant, 
or has held him. to answer* he mnst return, without delay, 
to the clerk of the court at which the defendant is re- 
quired to appear, the warrant, if any, the depositions, 
and all undertakings of bail, or for the appearance of 
witMMes, taken by him. 

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337. TBOCf^Ifif^mf^ AFXS^ <;cAa(^xaKBNT., 

Tm^E ly. 

Of Frooeedinga fift^f\ Conin^itm^nt; dn4 l>efore 

. ' • .'■.:: ; •• • , r ;■ •• ; 

IIL .Binratea AJW>:a:)©Wi*r^J';.i4, 43^^ J'jaY, 

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I 888. Offenses, how prosecuted. 

S 889. Wbat by accusation or Information. 

S 890. Indictments and accusations, in wbat court found. 

All public offenses triable in the Superior Courts 
must be prosecuted by indictment or inf oi^mation,' except 
as provided in the next section. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 
Indictment.— Neither the Constttutton nor the Penal Ck>de prohibits 
prosecution, by indictment, of any criminal offense, including a mls- 
aemeanor--53 Cal. 412. Where a statute creating a felony wss re- 
pealed, a felony, oommitted b^ore the repeal, comd* neTorthetesf, be 
prosecuted by indictment— 6 Pao. G. L. J. 727. 

889. When the proceedings are had for the removal 
of district, county, municipal, or township offioen, they 
may be commenced by an aocuiation or iniormation, in 
writing, as provided in sections seven hundred and fifty- 
eight and seven hundred and seventy-two. 

Information.— The Code authorizes a pxoeeedlag by liifcrmation, 
only when a defendant has been examined and committed— 6 Pac a 

89(X All accusations, informations, or Indictments 
against district, county, municipal, and township officers, 
must be found or filed in the Superior Ck>nrt. [In effect 
April 12th, 1880.] 

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chapteSb n. 

vaiauxiov or the o&Ain> JVKt, 

%mL ^naomsrebaJUeogetlie panel or MiiiidlTidiialiiiNb 

I 8Hk CanseofcIiallengetoapMitl. 

S flOe. GBineofchaUengetoatiindjlTltfQalgmidjaror* 

S 807. Maoner of taklnff sod trying ebaUenget. 

S 888. I>6oiftlonnpon«liail6Dge8. 

S 888. Effect of allowing a challenge to a paneL 

S BOD. Effect of lOiowlng duOlenge to an indlTldtilKl Satfft^ 

S SOL 01>JecUons can only be taken by challenge. 

I 888. Appointment of a foremsn* 

S808. Oatliofforehian. 

1804. Oalii of otber grand JoxQC^ , 

S 80ft. Cbaige of the court. < 

I 808. ■ Betlrement of the grand |nry« Dlacbaxg^ot / 

I 9(n» Special grand jury. 

S 808L Order for special grand :)nry. 

S 809. Order, how executed. 

S 910. Special grand jury, how formed^ 

The people, or a peisoxi held to answec ^ charge 
for a public oftense, may challenge the panel of a grand 
jury, or an indiyidual juror. 

Sight of ohallenge.— If the right to challenge the panel of the grand 
taryne denied, the Indictment Is void; but itaxost be«Ulmed it the 
time-18 Cal. 93: 1ft id. 831; U id. 668. See as to foonatlon ot gmnd 
Jury— Code of CIt. Proc. ^ 

895. A challenge to the panel may he interposed for 
one or more of the following causes only: 

1. That the requisite number of ballots was not drawn 
from the jury-box of the county. 

2. That notice of the drawing of the grand jury was 
not given. . * . 

3. That the drawing was not had In the presence of the 

officers designated by law.. 

ObaUenge to paneL^Irreguliarlty In selecting and Impannellng 
most be oHeetedto by a eftaneage to the an«y--is GaL 89; 18 Blatchf* ' 
81; aWenSsU; 8ftGa.896; 4BMS8.683; 241d.M9t fi01d,86tf; 12fimedea 

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4 M. 68 J 7 ¥eru. 2?1 ; 12 Tex. 2S?; I T63C C6. App, 1 1 G Tex, fi9. A Chftl- 
leof e to tlie umiv must be taJceti befora tt^e ee^eru! li^ft— 46 Ca.t 141 ; 
TS Pa. &t. 34; 341 OUto St. 542; 73 lU. 2iS; ^5 MIsSh ^3; 45 id. 673; GO HO. 
fiJ: 23 Minn. I(f4; ^Z'J Ark. HiS. As to pr-^ttlce in North Carol Inn— 73 N- C, 
437; in No\T York-W N. Y, 445; M Hcjw. Pr. 2dO: In 111 6 lattef State, 
€baIten?Q ta tlio armj la not pernoLlttod— liiN. Y. +53. ThJs bectlou -was 
Intendpcl to iTistrLct thp ricnt of chaU^nire to iJio three grroEmiis ena- 
mcrattU— 4<i CaL U^i Si Ifl.tH; ainl to bo res tr let the riff tit Is within the 

ower of tliLi Lrj^liJaturc^— JU id. 144, Aq oljjtotlioii to tlip form ri,[ Ion of 

be BTantl jnry rjihltot bi; pitafntc^d Ui the fowrt l>r]£>Tv on rcoiion to 

eet *siilO tho J[]4u'l.jnf,'nt— &4 Vn\ m; Ui. 37; 4tf id, HI. So, If Iho court 

tiJipt'o(M*ly direma thft foponer fo ppfyr a ppflclaJ vpnlro, the dnfcnd- 
antcjitmot cliULileu^'o tbn pan?! od tho ^roimd ttiat hols not qa»Uf)€d: 
to fl erv lt^9 CaL 1 73 i 43 id. i-'ii. T liflt tiio oa«erJi, wtoso c] uty ID was 
to Etilect tho Imrors, were two or three weeKa o.t H, or tbat ttn&ttas 
teniporarSly absent, la no ^ratiiid of cbaJleoKe— a Serif. & tt^ 3B&; bun 
stronjf Ulaa on the part of pef^otiEi employed to draw may be ^ f^m^e— 

Ohall(m|»^ If |ien takeo,~Chailepge« tQ tbe panel. If def esdaoit has 
been hdla r6iai5W^t> 'Dgfoi'e tiiat time, mttst' be taken before the grand 
lory is made up^and 8tfiM<n:^44 Gal. 5«; l&td.83t; id. 470;^ id. ^; 18 
Id. 93. See 23 Cal. 632. But if be.ba3 ahvady been hel^ to answer by 
the grand Jury, he may challenge the panel on his imraignment— 14 
Cal. 569. It mnst be taken before the generaflssue-^ Gli£i41 ; 29 Ark. 
165: 23 Minn. 104; 45 Miss. 572; ^^Md. Ml 7Z IlL i»i » Ohid fit; 542; 
78 Pa. St. 34. J, . 

896. A <iB«iHiMigbib'8in individual gran,d juror tnajr be 
interposed for one or moreof the, following causes only: 

1. That he is a minor. , 

2. That he is an alldn. 

3. That he is insap^., . , 

4.' That he is a prosecutor lippn a, charge' against the 
defendant. • ' 

,p, T^t he is a witness oi^ the patt pf this prosecution, 
and .has- been served with . process or bound by an under- 
taklng'ds such. ' ' 

6^ That a state of mind exists on his part ^ Reference 
tib th6 Case, or t<y either party, which will prevent' him 
from ^ctin^ impartially and without prejudice to theiub- 
stdiltlal ^l^hit^ of the party challenging* but njo person, 
shall be disqualified, asajUrqr byreason 6f having fomi'ect 
or ekpreised an iopihion upon the matter or cau^'e to be 
subiuitted to suqh ji;ry, founded upon ^public riuttor, 
statements ftf public' jourUjils,' or cdjnm9ri notoriety,' pro- 
vided it SJ^tisfactorHy %pjp<ear" to the court, upon his 
depWation,. moder oe^.or otherwiae* thai] be can and* 
trltti'if btwitfai^ndiiig such oplnibii!; act ttdpaklKlly a(nd 

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fairly ai>pii tihe mstt^ tb'besizbniitted^t^^^ [Ap- 

proved March 30th, in effect July Ist, 1874.] ; 

ObaUmge to juror.— A Juror may Ijo c&aTleijgecI for dteqniiUflcatlon 
^51 Ind. 1*. The obJeeUtui must bo ma<:io before liidlctmeiit— see 3 
Browne. (Pa.) ai5^ b^forci the jury is sworn^-l-SCaL 3J*j; '&! kl.4M^ aea 
S BSfi* note: before It l*rtculv»? cJ by tho court ami flletl— y Ma^ss. ifl7; 2 
FJck* M3; 3 Weucl. 3 U. Aii €tmieus eurim may Int^rveno and object— 9 
Ma£9., 107: yet goiioralTy the riijbt la IE mite d to tho party aceu&ed— 1 
Blitcltf.aies IfKSfHJ; 3 Iff. 75; IJ l)ouff. (Mich.) 418; !i5Ga.3y6! 12 Mo. 404; 
4 FarfetT Cr, R. 222; contra, S Mass. 2dC; 11 Ala. 67; I Uia;55. After In- 
cllctm«nt, mi objeEjtlon that a jui'^r waa an alien cantiot bo taken— 3 
Fort, 1(K>; but It may Ira taken Tiy pieatii abatement^-fi bl.+94; 7 bl- 167; 
n Aln. 57; H> 111 £wi; mjo 1 lJilLlo5; 2Va. C:ia. 2D: sa ya,73; I Grjitt. 
we; 17 Ohio, 21!^; 30 Ohio St. H2; biatthH iiiiiRt be beforo jyetiei^l Issue 
jH plc^iultd— U Ab. 10: Jl ULbi; 21 Aik. L^d; IJ 1 la.5i,ii; IS Me. IW; 3« 
id. 126: 4Qia.5S8; sn icl.^Ji^; i>mrb.4!7; '>A?i(un,&U; SGiatt,:ii2; 'I Ired. 
lui; eld. B8; 1*0:^.43: id. viUf; fiaid. 7.i; BJN. Il^l'lkij; W Vt. 
41!-': 34 Miss. 445; 23 Id. 72S; a Pmker Cr. R. 11^; 7 Ycrg. 271 : 10 Id. 5c;7: 
VI Sintidea & M.m; 6i id, fiS7; id. fl fW; U Tfcjc. m; VI i<l. 2.V2j *CJe M Ala. 
S:t; L! T«x. 'J:>3 ; &1 N. Y. 4a^t. TMt a jur(»r k>L» f uruied or expressed an 
opinion 13 a t'Ood crontid for clialkJurc— a-2 Cal. 63; il ^Vtudi. 314; 5 
Craiiel] C. C. 457; 2 mowm. (Pn->3;^5; 7 Iowa* 2^7; Si Me. 3113; but »e© 
isi Ui^ ^4ii::(; II Ala. £i7. A <'liallLinge lies for yei'soixiU iolereet lucoufiici; 
wl til tlie defendant— 3 Masn. 2eii; see 1 Dill 4^; m Pa. 6t.:30tj; contraf 
2 Tyler, 47;^; bo, a consclentloui? scniplo Is a ground of cLailengo— 1 
ITal5t.33-Jj 9 itLSa; 2 Intl, a'^S; 2 lilackf. 477; 7 Ycrg. L*;i. But iti:it a 
Juror belonga to an association ivboso objppc is to detect crime, la itot 
a grouad of cliaUeiigo— 4<J 111. 'i^B- Xlio iHesumption is, tbat tbe couit 
did not excuse a peraou as a erand Juror wltliout legal cause— 32 CaL 
15; 35 id. 13, 

^libds.'innde, See«i>o«^S&l<)72, 1073,1074. 

897. The challenges mentioned in the last three sec- 
tions may be oral or 4n wi:iting»>nd must he tried by the 
court. [Approved March 3Dth,,in ^ffect July l^st, 1874.] 

Seej>o«f,51078, ,, " * ^ 

89p. The court must allow or disallow the challenge, 
and the clerk must ^r^ter its deqi^ipns upo^ the minutes. 
Seepost,% 1083. ,. 

899.. ;[f & challenge to the ^ml is allowed, the, grand 
jury are prohibited from inquiring iA^t^ charge js^i^iiast 
th^ decCend^nt^ ,by whom the chaUeiiige wsa in^erj^eie^. 
if, notwitl^ta^djiBg, they do ^, and; $Qd m i^dietment 
2VgaMistl|im»!l)jl^ejpoust 9^\Y9t^ direct af to he 9iet aside. 

dOO. If feb cKalle&g«i'tb an individual grand jtrhir is 
allowed, he cantiot lie present oiPtake part in tThe^i^nsid- 
eratioii of flie charge fk^ain&t the defeildlk^'>#l^ inttet- 
posed the tehftlleibge, br^ the delib^l^ttdn^ etf i^ grand 
' Jory^ thereo&i Th^jgraisd jury mast iki^rm'tfie court of ft 

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§g 901-3 FOBMATioir OF (mAim JURY. 842 

Tiolation of tihis settioii, and it iBpimishabla by the court 
as a contempt. 

Eflict of ^ihallBiige.— Where »ottia of tU& Jurors arc TcJ«ct«4, Hi 8 
reoialnlBtf gj-aiid iumrst IC of iho requJsUa ntjniber, cmistltntQ the 
aran4 Jun'— 5< Cal. 3^» If roorsthan one pL-rsoii aiv&lcs Una s.ctloa of 
fhBEraiia jury, aiitl tho |iuy H iM^qiialiHull from acting oq tho oa-^e of 
0£ia,ltniayiiciverthE)les!*iu:t on tlkS ca^aol tlipotbnrs ii2CjiL63; Mid. 
40. Aik fjiilkcmant U iiot vLLtat^d bj;!<?^iiHe ono of the ffrtind juuQra 
clialloiigeslJiafle3(i.3lutlefiaim(iaT3 In. I'oiirt; when tha tntUeimenfc H pre- 
senujd— 20 CnL Hi3- An InciJctuiPTit may bo leffEiUy fumid tijf thirteen 
out or tiv^ aUteen omiud jurors Impaun^led— ^V CaX l^i tt IlL 4[!5; 54 Id. 

90X* A person held to answer to a charge for a public 
offense can take advantage of any objection to the panel 
or ito an individual grand juror in no other mode than by 


Tbis section applies niiiy to cases wbere defendant Is held to answer 
-l4Cal.669. ' 

902. From the persons summoned to serve as grand 
jurors and appearing, the court must appoint a foreman. 
,^he court must also appoint a foreman when the person 
already appointed is excused or discharged before the 
grand jury is dismissed. 

. Foreman.— The appointment of foreman need not be entered on the 
minutes of the court If the indictment is Indorsed by him, and re* 
tamed to the oonrt-6 CaL 3M. 

903.' The following oath must be administered to the 
foreman of the grand jury: ^Yoa, as foreman of the 
grand jury, will diligently inquire into, and true .present- 
ment make, of all public offenses against the people oi 
this State, committed or triable within this county, of 
which you shall have or can obtain legal evidence. You 
will keep your own counsel, and that of your fellows, 
and of the gorersment, and will not, except when re- 
quired tn the due^jourse of judicial proceedings, disclose 
the- testftmony of any witness examined before you, nor 
anything which you or any other grand^iiror may have 
■aidy nor ^e manner 4n which you or any other; grimd ju- 
.ror may, Aiave voted on any matter before you. You will 
pre^nt w> person through malice, hatred, or iU-wili, nor 
leaye any ^mpresented through fear, lavor, or affection, 
or for any ^ward» or the promise or hope th^^naof ; put in 

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8i3 i(fff9Mm»ti or onAVP «nD»r. J§Ji04*8 

all. yQOf pywentmentB 70a yr^ pre«99i$ th^ tzn^, the 
whole tratli«;im4npthiog but- thejlira^ a«s^i;^g tp the 
best.of yoof skill a^d unde^tani^iiig, so help. 70a God." 
[Approyed March 30th, in effect July ist, asiij , 

Oath of foreman.— The usual practice Is to swear the foreman firs^, 
■ad4bttitweartiM'oiaiels--l(En|r.607. '^* 

904. The following oath ihtihV be ithmedlately there- 
upon admiDlBtered, to. the other grd,nd Jurors present: 
''The same oath which your foreman has now taken be- 
fore you on his part, you and each of you shall well and 
truly observe on your part, so help you God." 

Form of oath.— The form of oath to the grand Jurors should be sub- 
stantially followed— d Eng. 607. Where one was not present when the 
rest were sworn, he may be sworn afterward— 11 Mass. 142; and see ft 

905. The grand jury being impanneled and sworn, 
must be charged by the court. In doing so, the court 
must give them such information as it may deem proper, 
or as is reqtiired by law, as to their duties, and as to any 
charges for public offenses returned to the court or likely 
to come before the grand jury. 

906. The grand jury must then retire to a private 
room, and inquire into the offenses cognizable by them. 
On the completion of the business before them, they must 
be discharged by the court; but, whether the business is 
completed or not, they are discharged by the final ad- 
journment of the court. 

907. If an offense is committed during the sitting of 

the court, after the discharge of the grand jury, the court 

may, in its discretion, direct an order to be entered that 

the sheriff summon another grand jury. 

Oflbnae must bo committed during the sitting of the court, to 
authorize a special grand jury— 54 CaL 40. It is competent for a judge 
after commencement of the session to order a special grand jury to be 
summoned— 43 CaL 44i. 

906. The order must require the sheriff to summon 
sixteen persons, qualified to serve as grand jurors, to ap- 
pear at a time specified, and a copy thereof, under the 
seal of the court, must, by the clerk, be delivered to the 

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^ith aTlfei d('^»KDEi6# of the ii^ersotiB flanliiO&ed. ' ^ '^ - 

&lb, time'^ippoilited tiidVli^t inu^'t)e caUed 
pYpr, and. the. names pt those lU ^ttenda;nce'bd "Wtttten by 
the clerk on separate baUota and pat».)frQm 
."wrhioh agi»ii4imry n^ufit b^ dra\^n. 

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8«s pdWftBis AKD -^xidfm. ii Slsuiel 

.,.j..: Mtn-iCHAi^TEa^Hit. ;..r.i;-4 0.!!-',I i>»,;.-' 

,, ^ ^,,,?91!7^ ASD I)IJ3;ip..pP A .O^^W Jwi^'r^ . .'•- ' 

S OU. Powers of grand ]iir7. 

f ma -^nsedtantonl ABflsaA. ' -- .!i rt. ^-m- - 

1 917. Indictment deflnQ4«.. •):>,•■ ^ ' > 

S 918. Foreman j^ayadminiaterQa^ , 

S 919, Evidence xeoetrable before tSisgranaidty.: 

S 920. ' Grand jxay n^ boun^ t6 heaz| chridence t^t .ftie def ei^itet^ • 

S 921. Degree of ^T^dencQ<K>.'v'nqTaiitifMUctment» , ' t' 

S 922. Qftiid JaDom miut declare their knowledge as tf> eommlBrtw^ 

of public offense. 
§ 923.^ llBsttlnqiMna inUf caset of persons Unp9lfeiie4, Uto* 

S 924. Eotitled to aq^ess to pabllc prison, etc^ , -.. 

S 925. *^i\ffaen and Ttom whom tliey may 'as^ advice, and ti^I^o maf b«. 

•• present^ dorihgth^U^'BessiOiisl' ' > ' ^ 
S 9i6w Seeretii )□( Sreatt jurjr to be kie^ eiofeptt oto. 
S 927, (xsand Juror not to b^ <]jae8tlone44or)liit toutatH, exetopt^ etoi 
§928. Duties of grand Jury, ; ,, - .;rx ,. , . 

915.- The giiftAd jury mW iriqiiSre ^ifitb'Mli t^ilttib o£- 
fens€d csomttiitteid'or tti^ble "tdthih tlbe 'coimty, and pre- 
sent tbem to the court, «itiier' Irypresentnlent or by in- 

Power* of grand Jorr.— Tha grand Juiy may luQulrfl lato aUj 
ofFcusei Eommlttcd -witJiiu the f-ounty tiot barrea ly the bt»ciite of i 
llmltatlcma— H a^U 670* Tiitjy xiji^ iu;t on Df tafint o&easu'.a of puUlJc 
notoriety; anrj gurh ns ara wfthlii ttif^if o^ra k[LowJedgT\ or are giv«^ 
In cbarK^i by tho court, or by Hiisj ill^tritt auoniL'y-bl Va. i>t. auj ftep a 
J^hUa, Hi: ; 7fl I'll, fit, SiU ; 4 Parfctf €r. K. ^iri. It la their tJuty to inquire 
Into oCF&ns&s Iti thMr county, "wlietljer tho warty li undeic arrest or not 
—1 ^0. J-^: 'i I'Mker Cr. E. 6J}<i; 9^ Ma. 40; fise 12 Mo. 4I»4; »i td.Sii^i 3^ 
Crajicli C. C, 40: * Id. 469^ A. YrEvnt] jury may of tbtir own knowledge' 
UKCtict a p<«Bon oommlttlng prerjory D&for^ them^-^ Ma 5&u 

• -fi^iS. ' A jiresentmelft lis '^n informal statement i^i wri^. 
ing. by the graiid Jury, tepfesenting to. the court that a^ 
imhlic bfffense ha* tifeen committed whicS is/iria^lo in the 
county, and that thete i^^rbasohable ground for "believing 
tbat^v^rtioal^ iQdivtd^dt named «>tt de^tihed th^ta 
has oomnitted it. ■ ' : • - - . ; 

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Presentment.— A presentment f omid not on the knowledge of any 
of the srand Jury, bat upon Information delivered by others to them* 
Bhonlabo abated on plea of defendant— i9Mrf« t. Love, 4 Humph. 8U; 
see also 1 Hawks, S52. 

917. An indictment }s an accusation in writing, pze« 
Bented by the grand jtixy i& a competent court, cliarging a 
person with a public offense. 

The charge mention^ In tills section Is not th^ tome as the charge 
mentioned In S 858-44 CaL fi57. 

918. The foreman may administer aa oath to any wit« 
ness appearing before the grand jury. 

Penury may be committed in proceedings beforetho grimdjury-^l 
Gal. 563: 24 Ark. 591 ; ^Bl^tkf. 855; 3 Cosh. 912; 8 Watts, 86: 8 Bob. (Va.) 
T^i lLMffi9»457: S Watts, 56; 1 Car. 4; K. 61% See^sTFarker Cr. R. 
670. Thewltness to be'sworA, so that if hid evidence Is raise hemay be 
prosecuted for perjury— 16 Ocsn. 46Tt 2 Parker Or.' B. 670. The Core- 
man m«r admi^»ter the oatti-60 Qa. 665t 77 id. 464. See MPa.St. 160. 

919. In til* iarestlgation of a charge for th^ purpose 
of either presentment or indictment, the grand }ary ian 
receive no other evideuce than such as is given by wit- 
nesses produced.and ewoxn liefore them,. or furnished by 
legal idocumetatary evidence, ob the deposition of a wit- 
ness in the cases mentioned in the third subdivision of 
section six hy\u/^ixed and eightyosiz. The grand jury oi^n 
receive none but.i^gal evidence, and the* best evidence in 
degree, to the iexcluaion of hearsay or secondazy evi- 

Depositiona taken l>efore a magtstratenpon ezamtau^ofioC accused 

may be used before the granc" ' — ' — ~-»-^u . . . 

Qfy before the gnr-"-* — "* 
grand Juty can be' 

920. The grand Jury is not bound to bear evidenoe for 
the defendant; but it is their duty: to^ weigh all the eyl« 
dence submitted to them, and when they liave reason to 
believe that other evidence within tfieir reach lyiU expli^' 
away the chaige, they should order such evidence to be 
produced, and for that purpose may require the district 
attorney to issue process for the. witnesses^ . . 

921. The grand jury ought to find an indictoient when 
all the evidence before them, taken together, If nnex- 

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347 rowsBS A3m mrram. §$ 922-5 

plaiDedor tinenntEadicted« would, hi their Jqidgiq^^nt, vag- 
rant a conviction by a trial jury. 

wotddnotiramat a contleaon^laey 6ught not to flndanlndieciittit— 
19 0i^^m^he«an4 Inryare not to 4e|erBDi9 ldM49BiOBt<i( tHe 

922. If a member of a grand jury knows, or has reason 
to believe, that a public offense, triable within the county, 
has been committed, he must declare the same to his fel- 
low-jurors, who must thereupon investigate the same. 

923. The grand jury must inquire into the case oi 
every pezaon imprisoned in i^e jaU of the ccmnty on a 
crimiottlchaES^.and not indicted; into the condition and 
management of the public prisons within the county; and 
into the willful and coirupt misoondnet in office oi public 
officers of every description within the county. 

Dntf to inqviro Into cases of piteonera— 48 GaL ttl. 

924. They are also entitled to free access, at all rea- 
sonable times, to the public prisons, and to the examina- 
tion, without chaxge, of all public records within the 

925. The grand Jury may, at all reasonable times, ask 
the advice of the court, or the Judge thereof, or of the dis- 
trict attorney; but unless such advice is asked, the Judge 
of the court must not be present during the seeslotui of 
the grand Jury. The district attorney of the county may 
at all timea appear before the grand Jury for the pazpose 
of giving information or advice relative to any matter 
cognizable by them, and may interrogate witnesses be- 
fore them whenever they or he thinks it necessary; but 
no other person is pexn^itted to be present during the ses* 
sions of the grand jury except the members and witnesses 
actually under examination, and no person must be per- 
mitt€Jd to be present during the expression of their opin- 
ions or giving their votes upon any matter befove Ukem. 

Advibe ef dlsMol Mioniosr^l Coan. «n,^ T Oofraa,! fl» 

lemben, and wiBiesses actoali^^aer examlnatfonr^ Fa. StJO; 

llOi»189» AM*¥ fffl lttttfff -fl ttfflSliSTI OT^ l^^f TTtyn fl 'ir M*^*" f* fU ff ffi tfl—*] 

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. fQWISW I AJ^. JOiOTDIB. »948 

ia.458. ... •..;!■;■; r J ;.' • 

p2^' Bvery jtienih^ of tbp gteljxd /Jury ix^iist.keep 
Mcret ^^cbftteiriBr he himself ot sMy&QxeetfSf^nd jwcot may 
have said, or in what manner he or any other gran^ juror 
' taiay hkve Voted on a matter bef bte the'tn ; "but ihay, how- 
0^*61!^ be reqtftred by* atiy cotirt to disclose the testimony 
of a x«'ltnes3 e:tamined before the gratid Juty, 5^of the pur- 
pose bf ascertaining whether it is corisiste'nt ^th that 
given by the' witnesa^ before the cou>t,'Or4;odiBcloB6 the 
^testimony ^ven befoore them by any: peison^ upon a 
charge ag^nst such person for pei^ui^y in giving his testi- 
mony, or upon trial therefor. 

Obllgatiotii of sw)r«or«^Wttaa«soB cj^mot taka odTaDtagiA of t^La 
DbU£UtLOD lu ar7!]u!.ua] pro^QcxiKua a^'Uruit tiieia— 31 Cal. 5Uil Iri^U. 
UL TJiey lire not pc rnilttt-d toilsr3<:lo5e Uio cvkleEleia tabcn beTorp ths 
grsDd jiiry-^'l M*?. IH sf* * Oray, fl^s. A gmud juror may bocoui- 
pcUed til!^>TJfy, vboii ntjcrssary lor inibllL: tinjEk'o, Jid ti> ^v]lat a wit^ 

fi&t§t^t^iUi^$tifr3 to !irov« ij-erjiiry coTniiiittotl before tticai— iil CakStM: 
I Ctt!Jli.l3?t 1 Car. A K.m\ 2 UraiuttO, C. 7^i: 4)4 M*?.ifi7r 12 Grtir^ 
1<7; igu Ma^^.Tfir l& €nn[i. jars ^ Dculo., IM; 2 WarcSf JWi 3 Kob, IV^) 
795} 2& Qftitt.CJl; & Blat-ltf. 21: 4 Jiul. S-"^; 43 M. SH+i I Tretl. ns: !Z Xlin. 
(S. O,) 2ad; aU MIflS. lUl: 37 kL liM \ 2 J Mu. m ; I llTbli. ailiJi I MelKS* 127 j 
I Hel!9l£, 131; €f}fiira,'I Italnt. S47: but tlir^y rantiut lln[K\^tk lCicItuwu 
-^ertliGlbJ'liMiiafivilr^i^AilLI^, M.l; J Hi»^kj,|i1; f^MtJkS'Ji^; 17 Minn. 
Hi: 41 lowa^Sllj S'Md.SlH; 110 r dl^clu^fl Elitj vote on fLitdJiiif of tlia In- 
- dLflnn^nl}-^ 1 9 Conn. 4fr1 1 4 Di'rilo* l^i 34} Mt>. ;:i^; 41 £owa» Hi!^; lEf tiL .:!« ; 
eoniru.iiAhb.H. C. S'*; aeo W Tei.fe Sintlio cit^tiict attorm^y U ft 
coinmHent witnep.'f tnf |irovo pf^rj^iTy of a-wltnii^^s bcfora flio cramrjinrj 
]—^ lii(U ^1; 1^10 1 Bllib»3b^»i UiitlK) NlucmujterGnt to ti^atlfy Wafuct 
TvtilriU will Itopeacli tlio verdict— 13 Me. SL^; 12 Vt. 4S5| 1 I^w Bt-port- 
er, 4. 

9^;' A grand ^urbir caniibt be qtifesti6n6d'fpr anything 
h^'tiia^Bay, or anyrtrt^' he'may ^e lirthe grand'^r^, 
rejdtlvo to a^matter;l^g&ily pending before^ the juiy. ex- 
ceJ)t^6ya;l)e?jiity'of which he' may have^'beeti guifty; in 
"makibj^a^ accitsatfori oi giving testimony tb his "f ellow- 
''iurort. ''' ' "•' '"'" •■'' ' • • - :"'. 5- - ^ • 

'■ J W ., .' i. '- . " .: .iii • » -i '. .; ■. 1. - ; 

-r. d» jt-al¥»U.bei the du$y of t^e rff?W^iimT. ^WW^y 
toiLBMli%ft^w#e|»;i^*^^pmpl^t(^ ej^afl^i^^puA;)! ,4h6^ J?oftla, 
records, aiid.«fiQ«iintSiQiaU tkex>£&0fH)9ipittibfi.«wu^ 
. e«|Mf|b|«^ thM ^perta1ni|tg' t<;> the if^v^&ioe, and n^rt 
:|hfiifiom jandiipifLt^U^ jj^gnu^ afirvi^ fif dOiexpert 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

dl0 TCfwmtm ^ORD wnaa. ^ § 9128 : 

sre neoessarjr, they shall have power to employ one at an 
agreed compensation not to exceed fire dollars per day, 
payable as other county charges. The judge, upon the 
impannelment of such grand jury) shall charge them e8« 
pecially as to their duties under this section. [In effect 

Pmr. CQD&-80. 

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K 931-5 PBMBimnnrx. . Mk. 



S m. Presentment must be by twelre grand jnrors, etc 

S 932. Host be presented to the court and filed. 

S 933. Court must direct a bench-warrant if facts constitute a publio 

I 984. Bench-warranty by whom and how issued. 
S 935. Form of bench-warrant. 
S 936. Bench-warrant, how senred. ~ 
S 917. Proceedings of magistrate on defendant being brought before 


931. A presentment cannot be found without the con- 
currence of at least twelve grand jurors. When so found, " 
it must be signed by the foreman. 

See 64 GaL 103; post, S 940, and note'. 

932. The presentment, when found, must be present- 
ed by the foreman, in presence of the grand jury, to the 
court, and must be filed with the clerk. 

933. If the facts stated in the presentment constitute 
a public offense, triable in the county, the court must di- 
rect the clerk to issue a bench-warrant for the arrest of 
the defendant. 

934. The clerk, on the application of the judge op 
district attorney, may accordingly, at any time after the 
order, whether the court be sitting or not, issue a bench- 
warrant, under his signature and the seal of the court, 
into one or more counties. 

935. The bench-warrant, upon presentment, must be 

substantially in the following form: County of . 

The People of the State of California to any sheriff, con- 
stable, marshal, or policeman in this State: A present- 
ment having been made on the day of , eight- 

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3B1 FEMBNTMEKT. §§ 936-7 

een , to the Superior Court of the County of - 

charging C. D. with the crime of , (designating it 

generally) you are therefore commanded forthwith to ar- 
rest the above named C. D., and to take him before E. F., 
a ms^trate of this county; or, in case of his absence or 
inability to act, before the nearest and most accessible 
magistrate in this county. Given under my hand, with 

the seal of said court affixed, this day of , a. 

D. eighteen . By order of the court. [Seal.] G. 

H., clerk. [In effect April 12th, 1880.] 

A benoh-wanant is sofficleiit* if it describes the offense genenUy 
— 9 0a.76. 

936. The bench-warrant may be served in any county, 
and the officer serving it must proceed thereon as upon a 
warrant of arrest on an ,ijiiK»mation, except that when 
served in another couhty, It' ne^d not be indorsed by a 
magistrate of that cp.unty« . 


937v ^The magistrMI»,^wh^n thedefendant is'br6tight 
before him, must proceed upon the charges contained in 
the prMetttment, in tiM same manner as upon a warrant of 
arrest on an information. 

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Of the Indlbtmeat. 
musrr, §§ 94(M$. 


DioniENT, §§ 918-72^ 

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553 tmDXSQ AND PB^Sfi^TMBNT. §§ 94(V-1 



S MO. Indictment Buist be foiiiid 1)7 tw«lTe}iirQa»lndar8ed« etc. 

S 941. If not found, deposition, etc., must l>e retomed tQt coiut* etc 

S M2. Effect of dismissal. ' 

SM8.. Mtanei of irltiie0ie» Inserted atfttoictttidlotmeBt. 

S M4. »MUctnflnt.Ji0iriiieMa«idandfl]ed. 

S Mft. PioeafKlbM9irlieMefeBidwtl»notinen8to4y. 

940. An indictment cannot be found without the con-' 
onrrenc^, of at lejEvat. .twelve grand jurors. When eq fonxid 
it must be indorsed, "A true bill," and the hidors^metit' 
nifvst b^ signei^ by tl;e foreman of thd gr$nd juiry, ; , ( ; 

OoncBrfflriGO.— Thl3 s^'CtSon iiTiowa how an iMfllctnupnt la f^^and— M 
C»L 38* AM. tlio grariil jnrorg ueecl not \?Q pi i?3f^nt ftt tlid iSnUlM^ of the 

i ia,4^0; m Iowa, iT5j 35 Id. -He; 2 Cu-sti. IIS; I Blackf. 3^17^ 8 Lffigb, 
722; Cro. Ella. 5i^i 2 BLirr. umi 3 t^ref^ns', fillj; UlaiipproveU, bcp Jxi Oa. 
Ml I 1 Utiiti* 319: 9!i U, S. H^l. All tamctin*tit loiind by twdvO Is 
yi^ld. altliQiigli tho irranU jtiry, owlqg to (lF?atli or at>!jcnc;atiu[iy cgii- 
El»t of LDEUTtl]n,ii itlui^tseu at tlie tUne -M Cut l^; td-ltT; iS Idn Uh sea 
S Id. 440: ^ Id. ^15. If less Cll^u twiiilve ctiUL-ur. th^ di-'ferE l^ fatiil— B 

EU2^ tf^. Ail Icdlctme Eit Cgr murder may bfs foujid by tlilrtacu ittem- 
tiers of a jury of j3ixt.i?{-;n pt^rsoii^i thrtio bavi/ig bt'cn extuaed by tiiii 
ccitirt— 30 Cal. Mij, 3ip]iroviij|[r ts €h]. 4A.7. At rommon Imi^iiny tinmbe* 
from twelvo tQ tw«[]it3r4Ure« i& r Uisjil t^-^md Jury— Itt lie ► IMi 'I '" 

153; 3 ilumiili. 4P; ma U 1^ Au. ii": 3 CusU. IlDi 1 Bbokf- m In 
ML3aour|« Itn^el^t:! Aro uiifQ.i:lsiit^ti^ Ho^ E^tl ; t>ut na ladictiucat foQiul 
toy ;;t ^s^a djoiy of l vveuti -four Li v old—S Ceil W^ a Ad^ Jt E, 236. Wb ere 
nlneotttortwtimy-Hireo weMre|B«itiid, It lia Ilj^mIv oonititut^dnnincl 
Jury— if Cul. 440. If tbe flncllmiF! be by bani tb:iu iWiHveT tb« l&dJcfiiieDt 
mav 1 '" f\ 1 ^-'i-l^ ^-^ ■ 1 ] ■ V M\i 'C 1 " I J l-f' To r-.' M - ■ w—'i Abb* N, € . 3^1 . &ee Cotfe CiV, 

IndonemenL^niA' asaal fniaetlee I» to todcvw It »'ii tine WQ'^ 

294; and in some. Its total omission, where tne signature of the for«- 

Signature.— Where the caption and body of the indictment desig- 
nates the county where it was found, the name of the coun^ need not 
^MMeA(to#e»ifiaM^e(of ttiibdistt^ Bi4ri4 

CaL £71. Oolng to trial waives the defect of urant of signature— 48 

941. If twelif^e grand jmnorii do not cottcttif iei itiidiiig 
an indictment against a defendant who had been held to 

.,y,:,.,uy Google 


answer, tbe dei>08ition8 and statement, if any, transmitted 
to them must be returned to the court, with an indorse- 
ment thereon, signed by the foreman, to the effect that the 
charge is dismissed. 

Indorsement.— This sectien pt^dcrRi^i Jtow an Indictment mnst be 
indorsed and presented— 64 Cal. Sd. The objection that the indictment 
is not, indorsed must. to. taken by motion, before deimirisr.or plea, 
or the defeet isr wafyed^28 Oai. 279t 84 id. 809: 6 M^'sm^l GWene. 
270: 4 111.83; 1 Meigs. 109: 23Ind.32: 23 Ala. 772; 8 Mo. 247: id. 283; 
6 Dana, 290; 8 Hamph. 116; 28 Misi. 7&6; 1 Mortis, I82« 

942. The dismissal of the charge does not prevent its 

resubmission to a: grand jury fts often as the eourtmay di* 

rect. But without such dir^otibn it cannot beresubaoSttM. 

Dismissal of cham.-^'Wlieii the gruid fary has dIsailBsed a cbarge* 
the court may dismiss the action, and discharge the prisoner frmn 
oiatodr.snd^ sureties from their obUgatlons, muess it lias reaMii^ 
believe that the jury at the succeeding terui may properly indict him 
-^ OSIt If). rhiM section is to be coiskdered £o«meetlott witfi S US 
of this Gode--^ GaL 41B. 

Oon8tmction.-^Tbla sectton is to be considered in connectiop with. 
S 1383 of this Code--640al. 413. Upon such dismlssalTthe power of the 
court to resubmit ceMes^-64 GaL 412, expJainii« 62 id. 468. IS Is in tbe 
nsAuie of a nonsuit— 64 Gal. 412. Wiien an acdon has been dismissed, 
»new action may be commenced on any subsequent, day— M OaL 412. 
See JBOFABDT. (mU, page 17. 

943. When an indictment is found, the names of tbe 
witnesses examined before the grand jury, or whose dep- 
ositions may have been read before them, mnst be in- 
sected at Hib foot of the indictment, or indorsed thereon, 
befoto it is presented to the oourt. 

IfciLm^a of witQcsacB to 1>o luscrtcd before thn ln(31rtmcnt Is j>ri> 
Bmifld tathe couti— 46 CaL 14^. If not ln<)ertcd at tba fout of tbe In- 
dlcitment, or ludoraod tlicroont nnd defend si3t faUs to tnte:o ndTumtage 
of tlie onilRslon nt iho 11 iino of his Rrnilm.iiiient» tlie objection is tle^njea 
wai^^— IIJCa.V. 34^i asiii. ]]^; KfoOia. ^; 2M[I. ^tia. IC !h uriC an t>b- 
j^Uotl to & wItTifrsa Ijehij^r aworti at tha tdbjj, whoae name is noc nu tlie 
ladltitmeat— ^2 Cal. Ui[ i^ id. 'JTi^^ '23 Id.fitiO; H fd. 30d; 2(1 MleU. im; 
^ V*. Cas. 3; id. Lff, tipo vott. SiHVi. Wlnijever, by etatute, the tn- 
doniaineuc of the liames of witneaaes la required, itB omluiou can be 
tsken advantage ol hj motion to quash deinmrur or plea. If [lot by 
ractUon la aireal-fi How, (UlsaJ 73Uj 13 Smcden & U.i^\ Mo.S4Bi 
m Id. mt 10 Id. £24; f Dmis. 471; 10 YAfg. ^m; A Fla.2!ti£. CgrUrm, L Ala, 

BitfeCoanlsiflsrs.— The defendant Is not entltlsd to|kbfflof par- 
> M t&e evidence reU ...^ ^^. ^^.^^±.^.^ .. ^.. 

tlculars ta t&e evidence reUed on to sustain the Indictinsufr-W OaL 

944. An indictment) when found by the grand jury, 
must bd {^resented by their foreman, in their pxesenoo^ tO' 
U;i/S^€(9(i|jrti|ai^ m^t bs P^e^ with ^ flerJ^t . ^ 

. } 1,1:. : .-.- • •'.:..■.:.......'.". 

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FiNDara and rBxamfTXjsssrr, | 9jAf 

Xndietment, how preMnted.— This section prescribes the manner 
jf presentments—M Cftl. 88. An Indictment is not vitiated by the fact 
that one chaUensred and excluded from the deliberation of the case 

appears in the court nith the other ffrand jurors rrhen the indictment 
is presented— 20 CaL 14S. If the indictment Is not presented in the 
manner prescribed, It may be set aside on motion— 46 Cal. 14a. An 
indorsement that it was preflentedby tbe foreman of the Jury, and in 
their presence, is not eaMbnaL This fact >wm be presumed— 21 CaL 

1 Tez. Ct. App. 064 ; 8 lU. 71; 8 Yerg. 166; 7 Humph* IM. , , . 

MS. WlMn an indititiiiciit is ^omd'asftimil) a defend- 
ant not in custody, the AAine pf o(6eediiigt^ must be liad as 
are prescribed in sections nine hnAdred and serenty-i^iiie 
to nine hundred and eigbt^r-^ioor, inc^usiye, against a de- 
fendaBit who fails to appear for anaigniBent* . 

Indictment may beidond aninsl on» hot Inionstody'^tt CaL 396; 
but if he is never aer^rted. uie prooeedings ^m go no further— id« 
A party anested on a bench-warrant,, on which an order is mdoniea 
admitOng him to bad. Is entitled to dlschaf^e on estseatMb ol a 
' -27Cal. 272. ' , 

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BcriiiEs OF ptEADnm. 366 

cjHA:tTEB n;: 

S 948. Form of and roles of pl^afllng. ..'..< 

I '<$»<» ': i^mk itleadlog^ br tiULpeepleilrliKUotinml) jorrtofoxiAatliiib . 

i45f« |n4letwei^t»ofli^f]a4aaoii,i7battocoptaii)Y,- 

I 9&1..^ Form of. ^ . 

8 952.' it must be direct ancl certain. ' *', ' • '^ 

f^. Wliendefeiidahtlstodid«db^'l!ctltlous'naiiie;et<$;' ' ' ' 

S 954. Host cbai^e iMitioiift^affeiue dud< Itf onib^totm^ except «hdie tt 
* mftybeoMBmittedby'dlffeMatiiieaBd. ' : : : '. 

|'05J{. d^teiiieDta? to. time yhen offence ^ascpromltted.- /' 

I'dsdi .^Mi^ment 1)0' to pers(^ iiiljured or ^tended tpb^. ; 

S 967. Construction of words used. .'...'.. 

S 958. Words used in a statute need not be strictly pursued. 

S 959. Indictment or information, wben sufficient. 

S 960. Not insufficient for defect of form not tending to prejudice de- 

S 961. Presumptions of law, etc., need not be stated. 

S 962. Judgments, etc., how pleaded. 

S 963. Private statutes, how pleaded. 

S964. Pleading for UbeL 

S 965. Pleading for forgery, where Instrument has beeu destroyed or 
withheld by defendant. 

S 966. Pleading for perjury or subornation of perjury. 

S 967. Pleading for larceny or embezzlement. 

8 968. Pleading for selling, exhibiting, etc., lewd and obscene books. 

S 969. Previous conviction of another offense. [Repealed.] 

S 970. Indictment against several, one or more may bo acquitted. 

S 971. Distinction between accessory before the fact and principal 

S 972. Accessory may be Indicted and tried, though principal has not 

948. All the forms of pleading in criminal actionSi and 
the rules by which the sufficiency of pleadings is to be de- 
termined, are those prescribed by this Code. 

Rules of pleading.— The Criminal Code was designed to work the 
same change in pleading and practice on crimlnaT actions which is 
wrought by the Civil Code in civil actions— 27 Cal. 510. The form of 
IndicUnent and rules by which the sufficiency of pleadings are deter- 

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3ff7 BUUEB OF FLKABIKa. §§ 919^^ 

ndned BMBrt te aonglit far in Its provi8lon»rr28 OaL JOS; 19 Id. MB; SI 
Id. 40B{ 87 M. aiO; aTtd. 2M; S7 id. 2a0: S9 id^ 56. 

949. The first pleading on the part of the people is the 
indiotmeot or information. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

950. The indiotment or information must contain-— 

1. The title of the action, specifying the name of the 
court to which the same is presented, and the names of the 

2. A statem^it of the acts constituting the offense, in 
ordinary and concise language, and in such manner as to 
enal>le a perdoipi of cQmmon understanding to know what 
is intended. [In effect April Oth^ 1880.J 

Oaption.— Entitling an indictment specVying the name of the 
eonr|«as or tba Couocy of SanTrancisco, or as the City and County of 
8aaFKuiciseo,IflBumcientT-14Calf672;iuid3pel0idf2L , 

Sui^d.l. Tli'j iiiuIct[iK:nt ii!>L-.t be rMtntn an to tla^ defendaat'a 
name — M ItkI, ^7; but \%iiEM om » ^iven iti lull, It may Ug repciited by 
tke durlstiaii name oiily^-ti^ Mo. HI ; but «acli count must des^^f ibe him 
by his full name-Hj GrAyt 47:^; i Dcnlsoii, asrt; see 1 Ensf. Iti.'i. MLguomer 
of defendant must bo talten advautage of by pleaXunbat.i^uie£L(^)fi 
Me, 122; 2abJ.32t>; I Mass. 1U; IMrt, 15i; 110 Mass. TJy; SUIowa, U; M 
Ala* l&5i 2 Va, Cas. 2fli 1 Tes. Ut. App* 6aL If a man renders It doubl- 
tiil wkat ills true unino is, bo caupot complain of tbe mlsuouier— 2 
Cromp, 4; J. 21.5. A curjKJTJition may tie IndJrtcU In Its Corporate name 
"12 SeiK- & It^ ses ; 10 Mevss. la; Iti id. U2 ; 4l> N. J, Ititi ; 2 Va. Caa. Eflti^ 28 
Yt. 583: a Car. & P. 47^; I El. & B. 4jJ; Sj Q. D. 31 i; see 45 N. V, 153; 23 
Lnrl. 3?] { 63 111^ 491. All allogatlou cbarja:ln^ defendaut as "superliitend- 
cntof rommouficbcols," la fitifflckui^^L* Cal. 4J3; see a^ Jtl. 114, >aiiiGfi 
ara used fortlio piirposo of blcntlflcatlon— ftCaL 213; and tho nso of 
liiltlaJa by ivblch ihu party may be niortjrfiadiif known aini lUcntiiled, 
tboiLigb varj'in^fTorn tbe trim Initials, I^ hot a fatal enor— JIT CiJ. 2R0i 
BO. an error Jn tbo Initial of a middle name la Imtaateiial— lig Cal. 435; 
seo 2a ill. Jii •» ; 34 Id. llAi ; « Pac. Li. L. J. (ilO. Wbcm ibo JiAmo of defeod- 
arit wm pr^Aicd by ilie IjittiaL lett^ers of lila christian iiamca. It waa 
bHcJ eood on inotSon for arrest of ludsiircut— :i7 CiU. 2&i}: sec 10 K. H. 
347; Olet. tKy.>4a4; 27 Conn. 43; 471117] i.*: 4 McCorrl, 4:i7 ; 3 Rich. 172; 
b5 N. €, ^la; 4*7 IJ* fci; !H Ti'.x. 64iii: 13 iilalt hL 270, Tbe nmbaion of a 
middle naino la not a fatal defect— 6 C^al- 2O.7; B9 IlU 4A7; 17 Ala. 17f>i U 
Barb. 2541 : 'i Cowtjii, 463 ; 2U lowSr f'S- Rec 7 E»j?- ti23 1 4-1 Ind. 48^; 10 Mo, 
3'Jl; 1 Ld« B^yUi. %2; a:i tbo h\vf dOf^a not iecOi£ulze more tuau otie 
chrMIaii name— U Tei. 402; 20 Iowa, sm; contra, 1 Pick- asa ; and aee 3 

Princsipal and acceasory ►—Under an Indictment wblcb charges de* 
fcndantaa prhiclpal, he caunot bo found gittlty If the <5TlflPnce>«ndWi 
nim te bavo been an accessory ^41 Cal. 4JU ^^1 Id. 15; 40 Id. i2ii. An 
Indli^tneut agamst an access(.>ry luust, In aildition iQ other luatter, 
cctutaln all tbe Bverments necessary In sti Ln U J ctment against the urln* 
ciipaj^arid It must therefore allege tbat tho rrimo of Ibo principal was 
cQiumRtCd beforo It vaa iTouoJinnd presented— 50 Cab 4 ift; Slid. d«^7. 
Ha must be indicted in the couidy irhuro tlia accessorial act waa com- 
mitted- 27 Cal» aiOi tit! 40 id. 5LiJ. iSeo an(e,'i 31. 

jSuM. % Statement of o^enae,— Facts necessary to constitute tbe 
eElpwmivtl^&tated— « Uat ^7^ id. 2;3^j a id, Ui id. 21it\ UO id, T0i *aa 

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i7 !cU IK: in ordinary and con rise laitsnugft, Ann In wmh a way that a 
penfon of ordinary uiiderHtAijrjjuif cau Imaw wMt bt intEiaded— 14 OU. 
Slj^. All tlio maLtt?ra um.Ht bu net foflh iu wlikh k^ illegality consists— 
S2 Cat. 30 L Kvery avertnenc tbac J:i ^ubst^mUaUy Qficeiiisary to euiible 
defendjint to defcntl biuisiclf mast b& stivted— 9 UaL fri; and tho ODils* 
bloti ivm bd fatal-^ 111. ?4i; Id. JI5ti; 25 Vt. 373; S Bam. <& G> 114; but 
Quneeessary ft verm en ta or aiugrai'atloni aro surplusage, ajul will bo 
diiiregaiileti— 13 lilatcM. 173; Olurpli* J^i 2i Minn, 07. If itaoetnot 
B tjUsUiLt Lilly CO nforoi to thn recjuisitc^ of ttiia eection, it l3 (icinur* 
ra b l^~^') Qsu. Z'^9, 1 1 U n Db (' non^ h ta etato 7^ mere c on cl ufilo li of kvw— 
&i U. S* 544; 5tj Iiid. 107; a.i ctuirK-b'T orio wllU " stealinij," or "murder- 
|U5"_53 CaL 201 J 2 Curt, ga'j; 1 Hn-:Iit'3, 44"*? 73 If. C. SSt; 31 Iiid. 71'; 30 
Tti:^. 51Sj 1 KoUe, tU; ^ fitrivugo, bSJ-J; m- wiili belns^ a defamer, or evil- 
doer, etc., oranvBiicb vafue eharirc— 110 Mas-a. lal; seo 1 Mod. 71; 'i 
Sttattffef 84^; 'i llawk. P. IJ. cb, 2i, i &J. Ir^cti not vital to tbo accusa- 
tion, aa inero inatcera of dogcrlptton, m:iy bo stilted as unknownjto tho 
'grand jury— 34>€ab'JI 7; 3 Dcnlo,!tU provbbul it i* dPflcribed a» accu- 
ratul/ as possible— 6 CitsU* SS;5; V2.^ Mass. 3^4; id, 3S7i Id. aiHi 7 Jones* 
(N. u.)44&; but It must hn stiown tliat it ivaa acti^ally unknown to 
tbein-2lJMlc]i.2.lS; a lTHL4fl3i 13 Mo, 24&? l^ Ar^ 443. A Uranega- 
tivo nnaliJleation need never bn averred in an indlctni^nt, but must 
bo relied on ^i^^ matter of defenae— 4 Cal. 341 ; ti id. fitw ; 30 id. 21*i ; 63 Id. 
flO0» Wlien tlio octurreijecj of s^iiveral acts, or I lie dolngof an act tiiidcr 
pecnlliirctreinii^liineefl. Is nef*s?!.ary to conatitute the offenss. th* In- 
aictaieiit must i^tatu tluiin-^D €:d, 56. An Bllcsatlon la rui luiUctmcnt 
descriptive of tiio identity of what i9 ici^'ally esseiitlai to tbo defenae 
canuoc bo rejected ^a tiiirplu»a^^— iJU CuL i^, 

I 951. it may be substantially in th^ following form: 
The Peoplo of ibe State of. pt^Tiiornla agalnat ^ "B^, ini^e 

Superior, Contt of the dmjity of ^, tW — ^^--^ay of 

' , A.- D. eighteep ; " > > A. B> is accuae^ by the 
grand jury of the county of " m . , by this indictment, (or 
]tiy the disttict attorney by this information) of the q^ime 
of (^iTixtg its legal app^Uation; such as murder, arson, or 
the like, er designating it as felony or misdemeanor), com- 
Butted as follows; The .said A. B., on. thet— -^ — df^y of 

.- ' ; / , ' A* D. (eighteen — , at the county of ^ — — , (here 

^etiforth the act or omission charged as an offense) con- 
trary ;to the form, force, and effect of the statute! in jnuch 
d^ made an4lT<^T^e4| and aigainstthfr^ peace ii,ni dig- 
nity of the people of the State of California. [In effect 
ApjpU9t!h,'X&(),] .; ':/■"■■ 

eltM-^ ULWh^ 40 itL 8l0{ Cor rargei7-&Fao; 0. li. ^. «!•; for larceny 
«^^id.fii9irforiB(i^toeMUitltmimler-«>CaL2l6. '^ >: 

Ampliation of /tsrtma.^theiiam^e glTten to the offidiu^ 
tba chairet of aq offeww, and a mistake in r^ard to Itis a tXMxe Irrego- 
EAty, and notfatal-^ CaL 64; 39 id. m^H ld.S?4. l^tU not necea- 
Bary to state in tennstbat it is a felony, or a misdett^mor— !3) CaL 117: 
imd it iMed not $t«to the Oenee of the crime-21 Id. ^JjnS^ word 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 

369; BDiAS OF PiiBADSfa. §§ 992^4^ 

Y. «»i MFa. 8tL flS; 7 flov. A Bj 43a; < ObftQ. 1; €Md.«r7; 3 JBut P. a 
1028 : Dot see 2 Hd. d7& So, ''unlawfully" and otber aggravating tenns 
need not beused—l how. d05| 4 Iowa, MS; 68 XBdrftUrs H«f^876; 1 
Mo. 126 V 27 Vt. m; 23 N. H. 321. In an indictment for dealing faro, 
designatimrthe offense as a felony Is sofflcient— 14 Cal. 672. AS erro- 
neous appellation or no appellation of the offense is of no oonse^iueotie, 
if the acts as defined by statute are sufficiently stated— dd Gal.. 826; U 
id. 666. Tbe maxim of idem tonans does bot apply to an indictment 
cbarglDg *• larcey " for larceuy-4) Pac. 0. L. J. 822. 

952. It must be direct and certain, as it regards— 

1. Tbe party charged. 

2. The offense charged. 

3. The particular circomstances of the offense charged, 

when they are necessary to constitute a complete defense. 

Mast be direct and certain.— 51 CaL 372; 20 id. 80. If the language 
is capalile of two interpretations, only one of which imports a charge, 
the Indictment Is not good— 35 Cal. 671. The law does not require 

S eater certainty than the nature of the case afforda-34 CaL 181; 36 

Subd, 1. As to party charged-14 CaL 10; 34 id. 209; 63 Cal. 616. See 
anUt § 950^ snbd. 1, note.' 

Subd. 2. As to the offense-U CaL 30: 20 id. 80; 34 id. 209; 63 id. 616. 
Where the indictment charged the offense as " larcey," Instead of "lar- 
ceny," it was held that no offense was charged— 6 Pac. C. L. J. 822. 
The substantial facts must appear with such certainty as will enable a 
man of ordinary intelligence to understand what is Intended, and to 

enable the court to pronounce aproper judgment— 4 Cal. 238; 9 id. 676; 
10 id. 60; 34 id. 183; & id. 671; 40 Id. 66. 

Subd. 3. As to the circumstances— 14 Cal. 30: when necessary to 
constitute a complete offense— 34 id. 209; 47 id. 102; 49 id. 396. If it 
does not Substantially conform to the requirements of this section it 
is demurrable— 49 Cal. 396. As to larceny by bailee— 19 Cal. COl. As- 
sault with deadly weapon— 12 Cal. 326. See notes under §$ 960, 959. 
Where an act contains seyeral provisions, an indictment for violating 
it must state the peculiar provisions which the person intended to 
violate— 62 Cal. 201. See ante, S 960, note ; and post, S 969 and note. 

953. When a defendant is charged by a fictitious or 
erroneous name, and in any stage of the proceedings his 
true name is discovered, it must be inserted in the subse- 
quent proceedings, referring to the fact of his being 
charged by the name mentioned in the indictment or in- 
formation. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

Oonstitntionality.— This section is not in violation of art. i, S 13, of 
the Constitution of Calif omla— 6 Cal. 213. See Const. Prov. ante, p. 17. 

Indictment inivTong name .—If defendant is indicted by a wrong 
name, and so states when asked, and gives his true name, the true 
name must be sabstltufted, and all af teivproceedlngs be had in that 
name-^ CaL 60; see 5 Iowa, 434. 

954. The indiotment or information must charge but 
one offense, but the same offense may be set forth in dtf- 

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§^059' RULES OF PliBADCCG. 360 

feretit forma andet diffdtentcouiitS) And, when the offense 

m^y be committed by the use of different means, the means 

i^ay be alleged in the alternative in the same count. [In 

effect April 9t;h, 1880.] 

ladlotment must charge but cue oSenSB— 49 Cal- iHd; 27 ii!« 401. 
If tke iutlietmL"iit chniiCea mora tliati uub OiEt:use, llie ubjectlou ia • 
deGmed waived, unless It Is tiikcu by demiirrer— liPac. C. L. J. IW; S3 
CaLtilT; 47 Id. L4}d; m Id. IIS; V kL i\yA; IT Id, 2iil; 2\i id. ^22. Au lu- 
dlctmcnt wlilcli charges "burglary, mixed wlcii Lirccny, eharsje^ two 
offenses— 2;» C-aL Cii j or charL^iiiLj A» with tlio larceny of certain c^oatLi, 
aud li. witti felQuioi.iyIy receiving: ttiPiii-^i Cal* liiJ; but wherOtTu ono 
conaC it c:liurt!:yiJtliai goods taken to im tlio property of A*^ and lu aii- 
otlier to h& tlio property of li.» and in a tijJrd count to bo tlio property 
of C.p it doci not ch:ir£,^o cUfl<:r+>i]t offenses— 17 Cal, 3131. Whero two dis- 
tinct act^ ara i.>erpt5triited by tlie ttaiiie ptrsoii, ab tUo sumo tlme^ they 
constltuto but ono ulXmim—ll Cal. 401; 4 DLuia, 533; J Jl;u\ it J, 426; 3 
mil, (S* C) I; a Port. 40; 15 Pick. L>7J; :^0 Id, smi 'ii id. 1. So, when a 
taX'CoUcetor receives money for Ikensea due tbo fit ate, ami other 
money for licenses due tbe county, aud cmbezKlea Uie -^vhole, it la but 
one offcDgo^'ia Cal. W)7; so, an lutHctment wlileb cluii-gea with forg- 
ing and uttering does not charge two oireus<js— id, ; bco 'n id. lUlj so, 
aa Indtctmont whlcli char^ca ono TVitli buj'ius anti reeeivlu^ sLolea 
property, charffrs Imt ono oxI«>nse— 18 UL 35; or ctiar^lng ono mtli hav- 
luff and clrcidatlnE' licenscsotUerthaa thosa authorised oy law, elkirgea 
but one offense— 31 Id, i^X Rueitin^ an a^^i^^iiijatloii of assault w( thin- 
tent to murder, and ttatltiEj f Lwit^i filiowln;? that iiO acJnituLbtered poison 
with Intontto kill— .54 Cat. 54; orcharglotf aji a^ij^ault; and batteiy only 
aa part of* orinoUoofc^Lccutini?, a lorctijlo arrest or abciuetion— 39 Id. 
utM; or charging^ rape, aud ass^uilt to comnilc It, la not clutnjSoj two 
oaTeni^ies— ,TVT^;l^ 5'i'!. if tho Inclicrment contains moro tban one eouut« 
iDehO'iil -■;: .; !v iipptnLr tUat tliey arc di?5urlptive of the aama traasac- 
tiOQ-- ■/.... .:l 

Alternative allegations. —Allegations in the alternative are per- 
mitted when they qualify an unessential description of ajparticular 
offense, aud do not touch the offense itself— 54 Ala. 679; 13 W. Va, 859: 
as describing a horse stolen as beliig " either a brown or a bay color '* 
—13 Vt. 647; or that certain trees cut down were tho property of the 
defendants or either of them— 7 Pa. St. 439; IG Ind. 9; or •' as an inn- 
holder or victualer"— 2 Met. 119; 5 id. 246; or, "In a certain paper or 
Kubllcatlon"— 3 Johns. Cas. 338; or, cutting or causing to be cut— 6 
[cLean, 186; see 4 Mo. 474; or afleglng annlsanco to bo on the "high- 
way or road,*' have beenheld to be f^ood— 3 Yeates, 417 ; see 24 Conn. 2iHi ; 
55 Ala. 64 ; 4 Mo. 474. The use of " or '* in an allegation is fatal when it 
renders a statement uncertain— 8 Mass. d»; 2 Gray, 501; 4 Mo. 474; 4 
Parker €r. B. 26: see 7 Gratt. 593. When the words o^ a statute are 
Byrionynious, it^inay not be error to charge them alternatively— 35 Cal. 
SU9; 4 Mo. 474} 62 id. 393; 43 Tex. 519; see 2 Binu. 338; so^ *' or" may be 
introduced in enumerating negative averments to exclude exceptions 
in a statute— 20 N. H. 550 ;< 5 W. Ya, 508. When the statute enumerates 
several act^ disjunctively, the indictment should charge them in the 
conjunctive— 28 CaL 205 ; Id. 613 ; 35 Id. 508. 

955. The precise time at which the offense was com- 
nutted need not be stated in the indictment or informa- 
tion, but it may be alleged to have been committed at any- 
time before the finding or -filing thereof, except where the 
time 16 a material ingredient in the offense. [In effect 
April 9th, 1880. 

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961 BULES OF piiEADiira. §§ 9S6->7 

Time.— If tile Indictment charge the offonsa to have be«n on a par- 
ticular day, which date is antrrior to tho finding of tbo ludJctmeut. it 
Is siifflclent-5 Cal. 855; 6 id. 2^2 j :! Waali. (J. C. ^3^ 1 Gray. 483 ; la Qlo, 
678; 34 Ga. 202; 11 id. 53; 13 14. 3nt>; 20 Ala. bl ; 1 Stcwt. & P. 2(>S: 93 
Mich. 363; 9Cowen,660; 12 Gray, 3:^6; aHAwfcs, SM; 11 Ga* 5i; but If 
the day assigned be subsequent to the fiuding. tho mdktnicnt Is bad— ' 
2S) Ind. 212; 110 Mass. 103; 5 Syr^. & R. 3ie ; ZiTtix. G4i ; 15 Vt. 251 ; 33 ld» 
67. When time is important, courta will iuquim iuto a day, or frac- 
tional portion of a day— 14 Cal. 571 . The nliegatloD of a day wirbln a 
period of limitation is material when tlio ofrens.e is subject to Jimlta- 
tion~12 Cal. 294. Matter avoJcUu? tho Btatnta must bo iji^d out wbea< 
ever it would otherwise appear tlbt tho oScuso La Iiarrud— is Cid. 39. 
See ante, §§ 80O, 959. 

956. "When an offense involves the commission of, or 

an attempt to commit, a private injury, and is described 

with sofficient certainty in other respects to identify the 

act, an erroneous allegation as to the person injured, or 

intended to be injured, is not material. 

Statement as to person tiijuredi, and third parties,— Where a third 
person is unknowut it i^ suiflcient to charge as to him " a ceiiatu per- 
son to the Jurors luikiumn "—2 Cush. 55 J j Uiel. t77; 9 AiEeii/J»D| 13 Id.- 
248; 6 Blackf. 343; 15 Ind. IflO; :4 UL 3tjy; 2J Iowa. 574i 14 Mo. 3iO: 3 
Parker Cr. B. 622. Bo, of a deceased xiersou— Hi Ark. 4m i 2 IIa> w. 346; 

1 Car. & K. 82; or the owner of goods atoleii— 14 Mas;?. it7: \1 Fick, 173; 

2 Bam. & Aid. 680 : If ho vvna at the tiuio unknown to tho jwry— 2 Gray, 
503; 116 Mass. 21; 1 L'ar. & K. 1ST : but otherwise if he Ija really known 
to the jury— 30 Co iiiL 500; as N. T. 4t>r>; l OhioSc. 6lj (jTox 'Ct- App. 
283: orif the jury Lad notlee— 13 Alien, 24); ill Muss. 401 j aind. 4&3: 
Holt N. P. 696; but iho burden 13 on defendant; to prove koowUidse at 
the time— 11 Cush. 131 j liu Mass. 51. Disfcovery of tho name nubse^ 
queutly is, however, no proimd for acquittal— 11 Cush, 137 : 2 Gray, 503; 
38 Ala. 227; 71iJd.<w:>} 14 Mo. 340; 1 Car & K. W: 1 Moody C. C. 402; 
or arrest of judgmtuit-'w Barl>. \m\ S, C, S2 N, Y- 4Uo, A christian 
name may be averred to bo uiifcxiOT,Tii— (StJ A!a. TxWi 2 1 X.a. Ati.. e^; &eo 2 
Gray, 303; 116 MaiiJi. 2L Tlio meru omlstsiou of the initial of tho mid- 
dle name Is no error— 6 Pac. C. L- J. tjiO. If the company name la the 
name or style of i\ firm, tlio names of tho several nieuioei-ji iihonld be 
stated; but if the namo bo of a corporation, the Indictiuenc; Ih good If 
it state that fact— 3ti Cal. 24a ; 92 Id, ItiO ; frllil. 4.jO; 5 ParlEer Cr. B. 33(>; 
27Vt.722. The averment id necessary when made so by statute— IV 
Mass. 70; 16 id. 14! ; tt Barh. tj37; 5 Par Jeer Cr. R. 57 ; Id. 334 ; 6-5 lad, lU j 
40 N. J. it. 169: 4 Kawlo* 4(54, An crroueou* alleviation ai to tho party 
iniured is not material— 41 Cal. 2;JU. If ths ajjogatlon In whJrh tho 
misnomer appears la material. It may b*j rejcoccd as snrplusAffe— 4 
Pick. 252; 3 Sum. 12; M Ga. 3^1. Wh-ro tlsij plL-ader unilsnake.^ to iiec 
outtheuamesof ;i:loM,a \.:ii.'L:t!i. .• i.uli ■ i:i S-\\..A -j l:nl. 4./j. 

Courts are required to observe and enforce the tests of the validity 
of indictments as prescribed in §§ 956 and 959 of this Code— 27 Cal. 511; 
37 id. 280; see 34 Cal. 200. If there are two counts and one of them is 
srood, it is good oh general demurrer— 6 Pac. C. L. J. 610; 6 Gush. 295. 
For an erroneous allegation to be Immaterial, the offense must be 
described in other respects with sufAclent certainty— 41 Cal. 286; 17 id. 
336; 35 id. 114. 

957. The words used in an indictment or information 
are construed in their usual acceptance in common lan- 
guage, except such words and phrases as are defined by 

PEN. Code.— si. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§§-956-9' RULHIS OF PI.EADINQ« 362 

law, whifch are construed according to tlieir legal mean- 
ing, ftn efEect April 9th, 1880.] 

Words construed.— Worijs and phrases are to be constmed accord- 
ing: to their common acceptation, except such as are specifically de- 
fined by law-5 Gal. 356. See ante, § 7. 

958. Words used in a statute to define a public offense 
need not be strictly pursued in the indictment or informa- 
tion, but other words conveying the same meaning may 
be used. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

Statutory oS^nxea.— Tha intUotment H anIBctcDt If It cbitT^ the 
ollcst^o In, ttL4? J^ngii^c o£ tlio statute and tully com-p}j with yp!^ ot 
thoCofle— 53 Cattr^; illd. 4tJa; 'i3ld,63U l9IU.Wlj lyj[|.30&3 S Parteer 
Ct. n. 2^1 a Culp i^H \ la. ^54^ ^2 id. «1 j ^ ChL l H ; Id. 200; i4 y. m; m 
Id, ^itii l2Blatchr.4'd; SBash.^Sltis 33 iJ*3|B^ H €aun. 437; 3H id, JoO; 
3 Cold, 1^5; 2 Gall. 6j 29 ^ratt. *44j 1 Or«UDtf, 4 IS: 2 Id. Ifiii? t 
Halst.aKJ; 3Qnitt.5;)&: R2 lU, (jlfls W ltizl6: 4^ lowa, 663; 3 Oa. 4i&: I 
MoiTis, 412: 1 hi Miis^, d47; 2^^ Minn. 271 ; 67 Mo. 4 1 ; 1 McMull. 4TJ; W N, 
a*lT4; 1 VL33I; 3d Yt.437; 3 y<ifitea,4jl; 5 Wluirt. 427; 1(J W. Va. lU; 
'% 6waiL,^i(i; 2 Strob, 47 i. It is not uticessary to follow strictly ttia 
laugimge ofa stututfi by whk'Ii tlieoHciiso Is defliicd: ivorrtscoiivevlug 
tb^aamo mc^iiuJuff m&y bu used— ;i.j OaX. Ill: 34 Id. Ill; t:i h\. U^^^ If lE 
aUcgea all Cbe acia ot fact? wblcli fQter Into Vw de-^rriptlon of tlie 
offensej ) t Lti s eUHc leu t— ^4 Civl. SOU if a ,q tatu te ^^hh Jnemit^^ a a^ri e^.^. of 
aet« aa caiidtUtitLiig tho offenHe^ jiIl £uch avU may b» cburgnfl In n 
Blnulo count— ^ CaH SlU; If it enumt'ratestUem diajunetlvely nuU tba 
lodlt^tnifiat Dhiu^ti^f mura thiui ono of tbciUt It must tibdrgii tbem con> 

m(3t-vely unleas the words used dlsjunctl^Gly iiro syuonyinoEia— 3S 
. £09. It Bboidd SEiate the particular prorlsiou of tbti i^t which luu 
be^Q vlolAi^d^sa Cal. 2aL 

959. The indictment or information is sufficient, if it 
can be understood therefrom— 

1. That it is entitled in a court having authority to re- 
ceive it, though the name of the court be not stated. 

2. If an indictment, that it was found by a grand jury 
of the county in which the court was held ; or if an inform- 
ation, that it was subscribed and presented to the court 
by the district attorney of the county in which the court 
was held. , 

3. That the defendant is named, or, if his name cannot 
be discovered, that he is described by a fictitious name, 
with a statement that his true name is to the jury or dis- 
trict attorney, as the case may be, unknown. 

4. That the offense was committed at some place with- 
in the jurisdiction of the court, except where the act, 
though done without the local jurisdiction of the county, 
is triable therein. 

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363 BUI^BS on BLBAI>IKO. §'959 

5r That the offense vms eomnaitted at some tiiine priot 
to the time of finding the indietment or filing of the in* 

6. That the act or omission qharged as the offense ifl 
clearly and distinctly set forth in ordinary and concise 
language, without repetition, and in such a manner as to 
enable a person of common understanding to know what 
is intended. 

7. That the act or omission charged as the oftense is 
stated with such a degree of certainty as to enable the 
court to pronounce judgment upon a conviction, accord- 
ing to the right of the case. [In effect April 9th, 1880,] 

Subd, I. Entitling indictment.— An indictment may be entlitlie^ 
•itHer " connty '* or •♦ city aftd county "-14 Cal. m ; 17 iU. 363 ; fl 10. 262. 
The caption is no partof tho indictonent— 6Halst.2v3; 2Kat.(I>cl.>532: 
1 Hawks, 354: 2 id. 2dl ; 24 Ala. 672; 30 N. H. 359 ; 87 N. Y. U7 ^ 18 Vfe. C4 ; 
SO id. 100; 3 W^nd. 319 ; 2 Zal). 9. , See 3 Bast. 42d; 6 Ad« <&: K. 247 : 4 Abix 
App. Dec. 509. Its purpose i^ to state tUe style ol the court, the time 
and place where the ludictment was fouud, etc.— 20 Ala, 33; di) Me. 78; 
6 McXean, 56 ; 4 Tex. 125: 1 Yeiv. 20^. It must beset.f orth with reason* 
able certainty— 6 McLean, 56; 20 Ala. 33; 3U Me. 78; 4 TepL 125; 1 Yerg. 
a06. Bee «m<e, S 950, note. 

Subd. 2. Finding of indictment.— The indictment must allege the 
offense committed within the county in which it was found— 48 CaL 
258; 6 10. 202 ; 30 Mich. ^1 ; SXelgh, 721 ; Leigh & C. 128. See mte, S 050. 

Subd* 9. Wrong names.— If a defendant Is indicted toy a wrong 
name and so states when asked, and gives his true name, the true 
name mnst be substituted— 32 Cal. 64. See ante, % 953, and note. 

Subd. 4. Jnrisdicliop.— ** Tl« :\ i tie tem i , . i , ; , ,, . ,. , 1 was in thij 
county where the indictment ^'.n^ lumui:' mjjxj* h uu y t.nuwA liikttho 
offense was committed withtti iho jmliidlctionof luc tiuut 1:^-14 caL 
495; 4 Halst. 357; 1 Johns. 66: 1 lylrr, ^L^: Lel^ii Jt C. l^. Au liidiot^ 
ment for an offense committer I in n vcmcl, Taii::>i m- 1 f orilt nil thuf iK^tSt 
giving the eztra-terrltorlaljurk 'J Action in n 7;j3 Qf tills Uik1c~7 Ca,i ^^, 
An indictment against an flc^r4 i^sory nuti^t ht^ iouna in tlio county 
where the accesi^oriai act wa^ (yuimUtcj]-"JTC:tL Li4Hj bco 40 W. fi^hJ. 
"When property Is stolen InOD' c ou^ry asul t^rrii'J into unoilior, tljo 
party may be indicted ih eitht r v umity-r i CuU 43 1 ; 2^ Id. U^ i , ^V hora 
a county Is dlTldea,!the offensD may u« inlJ In ilio n&w i:o«niy. If com- 
mitted thete before the diviswu—i HiiZsl:. 251: 4 Tti.^Wi btiiilsllow* 
467 ; 89 Me. 201 ; 4 ired. 210 ; sc 111 Ark. tOd. Unt II VhQ ur^aull^tloa of 
the new countr, the Indictment niiiy be found Lu th^ ora county— ^it 
CaL 140. $ee ante, lies, 

Subd, 6. Wh^n the day oh which the indictment was found Isgi ven* 
Che term G^ the oqurt is sufficiently stated<-14 OaL 071. *' Sabbat&" for 
'* Sunday ? is no variance-64 14. C 680. 

Siibd,6, 8eeaiil0,SO5O,6ubd.2. 

Sv^l, See aft^6p&052,8ubd.3. < 

Arson.— Though the indictment give an erroneotts apMDatiMi, yet If 
the facts smtecl constitute the offense it is sufflolent-^ C<L m. Xm 
pi^erstdp of building in arson is a part of the desorlptHon of the-of^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

& 959 BULE8 OF PI£ADINa S&l 

lege tiUe in the landlord-fiO Cal. 305; 51 id. 820; 3 Iredr870: see 29 
Goon. S42. An indictment for burning a public building need not al- 
lege that it belonged to any one— 12 vt. 03. An indictment charging 
that defendant ** did on a certain day bum, or cause to be burned, a 
certain dwelling-house," is bad— 6 Gal. 236. That defendant "feloni- 
ously, 'Willfully, and maliciously did bum and cause to be burned," is 
sufficient without the statement ** set fire"— 20 Cal. ao. Where the in- 
dictment charged that defendant at the time named was in the county 
where it was found, and then and there feloniously burned the build- 
ing, it sufficiently shows that the offense was committed at a place 
wTtJiin the JurlsdicUon of the court-44 CaL 495. See ante. Si 447-451. 

Assault to murder .^Beciting an " assanlt with intent to morder." 
and stating facts showing that he adminiiitered poison with intent to 
kill, does not charge two offenses-^ Gal. 54. An assanlt which chaises 
that defendant did assault with intent to commit murder, is sufficient 
tosustain* judgment for a felony on a verdict of guilty— 49 CaL 891. 
An indictment is sufficient if it charges that defendant f elonlonsly as- 
saulteid A. with apistol loaded with powder and ball, with intent of ma^ 
lee aforethought to kill and murder A.— 30 CaL 218. See on/s, s 217. 

Assault to do bodily harm.— A charge of assault to do bodily harm, 
charges only aslmpie assault-47 CaL IK; 6 id. 562; 40 Id. 426. ** An as- 
sault with a deadly weapon, with intent to inflict upon the person of 
another a bodilv injtuT-, there appearing no considerable provocation 
therefor, sufflGlently designates the offense— 20 CaL 117. 

Assault with a deadly weapon.— The weapon or instniment used 
in the assault Is the gist of the offense, and must be aUeged— € CaL 
562. The indictment should allege that the wetmon was deadly, or 
state facts to show that it was— 29 Cal. 579. If it is not direct and cer- 
tsin as to the offense charged, it is insufflcient-12 Cal. 326. The in- 
dictment should state directly and certainly that the assanlt was 
with a deadly weapon; that is, used as an instrumentality of the as- 
sault-6 Cal. 562; 29 id. 579; 44 Id. 93: 52 id. 451. Unless the correct 
name of the party assaulted is given, tne other facts and chrcumstances 
mast snfflciently identify the act-35 Cal. 114. See cui/e, S 467. 

BnrgtarjK— Tn bm^^lary the PsscntUil wnrila ura "frlonloualy and 
bniglarloiislyentopea ibedwellUiij^ioiisfl Ici tae jiigbt-tiiiio," ^ittl tb« 
felony tnteuaed or per petiuted uvu ft bo sttited—U lU. *rrii 2!) lojc, Hi 
&e6 1« CoDn, 3i. An nJlytfatlon tbiit ho cntciLHl ia iXm jilifLt-tiiiEo felo. 
nlotiflly ami burglariously, and with farco and Arms, Id siibataullally 
mimc\Knt-^l C^^. ii[ii but *' liurgiiirlo[i.sly '* Is not ibeccs^iiiry la feUtu* 
toryhottsebrenthig-4 Jflct. :ro7. llmt U wa* In thu nIgliUlmtj must 
be alleged— l£l Coua. 52\ 4 Xjolcrh* toi; 5 Eow. (5II^.> 2C»; 1 N- J. L, 439* 
The uoiir of th^ night need not b€j irbamt'd. iiar !f cliArgcd, inovcd— 
UGal. lift; 73 N, J. h. 71 ; sea SiJ Mo, ^i^i J CiMh. 5*2. An Imllcliuent 
charging an Intent to ftCAlinii^t F^vrcify Llio s^aluii of tlio gooUs— B CaL 
4ie. It may cliaruo In diirereui: courts owiicrsMp tn diff threat persona- 
ls t>l. ^H' fif ^ li A^|^^ll, l53. An fucllctnient foe ■' entering n lutna or 


J In liini who rcjit^Furl) rouififroju an& Living oontiol of thQlioiiao 
-3h Cal. iriT, 1 OF lueakifig und etiterluif a house In the nifilit-tltn* 
with iiji*,'i]L to LuiiiiDit Ltict'Tiy, It tieed uot clmrKenhfj^ofroudtJWtrB 
iiH4.^i)tl€d to brj Etoien, iir i^Ucttjcr tliere we^re auy ifuoda toBteal-;;:^ 
Cal. 3«, An fiulkrmx'ut for imr-finry mu$t chjx^go aft^lopious Intent— 
3 HAr. (ut-ii 554; 4^ Ala, ^iS4. Tin- littcnt mtist Ba charged, but iThon 
tkld la omitted on i^roof or lELri^gn^, clBfcufiont may Ijo cortvlctcd— 11 
N, H- 'm\ S. a 2 LesKh V. C. ii\it 2 Kawlci, U(*J; Russ* & R. C. G. Ui; S. 
€■ 2 Leo/ii. C^x, liii oih^iwisa an ta ua> ludlotmcnt lor breakinjr and 

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365 BuiJBs OF riJBADmd. §^959 

entering in tbe dny-tlme— 3 Cold. 7t. It Is not enoogli to allege kitent 
to commit a felony; the particular offense most oe stated ana the 
facts set fortIi^24Ga. 420: 41 Tex. 237; otherwise uider statutes— 2ft 
N. T. 200; but tbe particular crime need notUe fully and tedmicaUy 
set forth-10 Cush. 62. See a»<e, 8 459. 

Oonnterfeiting.— Knowledge of defendant of spnrlons cbaraetor of. 
tho coin is suffi/oientiy elunged in tbe words ** willfully, f eloniously^ 
and knowingly did bave in bis possession,'' etc.->d9 GaLUfe. Bee anut 
58 477-479. 

False entr^ In oorponlion books.— Tbe Indictment shotad specify 
tbe partieolar entry complained ot, and sbould at least state the sub* 
stance of It according to Its legal effect~M CaL 616. 'Ibat defendant 
made a false entry « 'M>y wblch lalse entry it appears tbat tha cash on 
hand at tbe commeneement of tbat day "was a specified snm, is 
lnsulBcient-53 CaL 616. See iiwit, S 968. 

Forgery.— An Indictment for forgery may charge d^endant In 
tbe same count witb forging an mdorsement, and luso wltb uttering 
and passing the forged draft— 23 Cal. 513; and see 27 Cal. 4C0« " Having 
knowledge of tbd false making ** means tbat tbe offender knew the notes 
were falsely made— 8 Mass. 5» ; see 39 Cal. 6^ Tbe possession of several 
*< similar " bills means tbat tbey sbould be all bank-bills— 8 JIass. 59. It 
is not neceissary to allege tbat the bankJng-bouse was an Incorporated 
company, unless tbat fact be on issue— 41 CaL 651; 2 Bar. (DeL) 327; 4 
Biss. 802; contra, 2 Met. (Ky.) 36; 11 Gray, 3U6; 1 Duval. 90. See anU, 
S 470. 

The Indictment sbould set out the instrument alleged to have been 
forged, or state tbe reason for tbe omission— 1 Chip. D. 298; 1 Head* 
130; 8 Humph. 93; 8 Mason. 464; 1 MoMuU. 236; 2 Cowen,.622: 4 Hoist. 
26; 34 Me. 223; 47 id. 165: aslncaseof forgedtreasnry-notes— 4B1SS.59; 

' proper averments tbat tbe Instnunent 
4ted Oy 8tatuter-9 GTay, 123: 19 Minn. 98; 

_-, eed not allege tbat tbe deed forged waa 

under seu— 6 Parker Cr. R. 683. It need not show that the papers 
foiged cmitainea all tbe facts necessaty to give titld to j^e party— 4 

If thfi Inainim^Qt ha hi n foreign Lmstijige> 41 copy of tbe tnuui^itin 
In the Indic^mcTit, i& buJUclciitf-r-^d Cal. 'Im; tmdii jict oti^ ia full, a ml^ 
nomer Js Imiiiii^tcrM— Jtl. Tba Indite tjucnt tau^t, fiho^v tJsisit tbu forged 
instrunjent ij gho wbiiili, if gDiiuiiic^ Tvouid Injiirf) neic^tbtr— [U Ciil, 
507; It r.iQ3t ahow lUo forge it at a vaUcl U'.!>tTuiiiCut— 'i;^ Lad. G!Ki; acu IE 
Dev. 44a. Xhii ouii^Aloii of tno Initial of tho midtllo ixu^a^ of iha. ptiriy 
to be Liijureil, !s an ImmAtiTl^l vn lance— Vac. C. 1.. J, tiHJ; to, a 
variant a ti^tween toli^ptiliPd worrlalii t ha forced La$trumcjit and tbei 
properly hpclkMt wtjtda Iti tho inUictmiE'ntt Ja IcimntBrlaJ— IlL BSa. Tba 
omissl A ' I .. ^.ord liiauiLnJictmeiit foe fargefy h faLil— 1 UaltL 392; 
a MSm i ,iyL IW; fiC'fl i Haj Tir-.|o»j;; bnt vrffTictti?^, Uovtcti^, lettei^, 
and fl 1 sEarnpJi iTi ni» miitifUit ni^inl not tfO Juseited- 3 Blnn, 
332; 6 ■ • ■« Joiiri^r. rvjc ^>..n. h f ..Uri,^ 7.;. 1 j fj)^^^ fit, flfi; 6N,'H, 
367; 1 State iji QitJ upper 

margin c.v\. ........ ^,;j. 

Gambling.— Ah indictment for gambling is good if It states the acts 
constituting tbe offense, without stating tbe particulars, as persons 
present, the l«oom, and taeli]M-14<J^. 99. aeean;^S330. 

Mor^rt^HTho venUe.^u^t be iard In the ioounty T^here the wound 
was g^n-% Humph.) m-, 2 Va. C&9. 205; but sfe^ 2 GrejBne,5s6. Th5 
^hni^mUJies Cm, m (The qm^ 

tmen tDBCiune was comMtted is materlid only to show that deMD 

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S^^9: BULB8 OF PLEADING. tf/Sfi 

ejisued wltMn a vc^ and a day-^B Ir^d, 195. It need not be stated If 
tlia rnaictmcot siiotc3 tliat tt was conimltted bof ofa t&e ftndjtig of thp: 
Indl citmcnt— (J Czd^SIO; ltL3{l7, Tliodayonwlilchtlioact xnia epmrmJ> ; 
ted, and not tlio day on w^jicli tbe restilt of ttio act waa dcterttiliied, t»- 
tho proprr i1n.5Mo clirtrfjs— t7aL 637; 3 Gratt. HM. It must aUcffo iM 
place of lliR (leatti— ^ Lri, Ail 3J« : sec 21 AJa. (372 ; mid ttiat It was "vrltb-' 
la tiiQ couuty b eiilllciont--ei Mo. ITS. 

Allcg^rtfoti of fnatrument or means.— The JnstrQtnent or meflaHby 
wlili^h Jt waa raminltted eliould bo set out— 3C T<^i. 353; 84 Mc.40ft; 
and facti siifllciunt to rIiow tho means of Its perpetration— ff Bush, litt; 
but it netid not Ret out clrcitni stances wlilch detcnulne thn de'gree of 
the crime-— ay Md. a3.5; S. C. 2 Green C. B, 331 1 and a statement of da^ 
greo of tb© €i[mo may be treated rs Burplu^a^c— 9 Cal. JH^ 14. ura; 21 
Id. 40\J; Si7 id, &07. Tliat lio was killatl by a aho^fi-nn is bad, fof iarlc of 
af^tatomr'Bt of ll!& clrcumstaiicea attendiag Ita ua&— 27 Atk. 4 '^3; S. €,. 
1 Green C K. 74L Xlie manner of the kJUlng need not bo btatcd^-^l 
Cal, Wii S4 Id. 'Mi 40 Id. W- It l3 eamcleut to fitato the L«jnilcldG 
coiomUted bjrbotnf) meana, Instrumij^nt-^^and weapons* to the crand jiiry 
iin3:nowii-^4f t nl. im, approving; 31 W* 2m. It It snfflclent, aillion^li ft 
Btatea " by *' a knlfo Instead of *' with *' a Imlfe— 23 K. Y. 317. Tbat tho 
defendant, "wtUiticcrtnlnstono which ho held, felon Eously did cast, 
and ttirow^and £tiiko deceased oti thorteht elde of the head,"fliiffl- 
clcntly abowji ho threw tho etono and Jiit hliO-8 BInn. m. See Met. 
224. Chanxlus an actunl poison m;r need not state tho r articular pol- 
Boa—^indTiilT; bco?j Ala, *2T; nor that defendant knew the drug was 

EolSon^21 Gratt. 057; hi^ ^lass. 4-^7. VVhcvo It was alleged to ho by a 
attery, an aasxiult must bo alleged— D Irlo. (iJ!i; see S Cush- 205, It 
may allege Be vei-al Inoonsistpnt modes--:!! Gratt,6t>iJ^ Sco 10 La^ An. 
458. The ftlleuation t Lint defendaut did administer* etc., and did rauna 
and procure to be ad ministered, etc,, chargea but one offense— 34 K. Y. 
iaa; ttl-arker Cr* K- 37 L 

Aidexii and abettors.— Where seTeral were aiding and asslstliig, it 
Is not material vrbo stmcK the blow— 3 Brev. 833; 8 Btksh, 366; 1 Oreen 
G. B. 710: as It may charsre the act done by all or by one, abetted by 
others-4 Ark. 444. It may charRo In one count, one as prhiclpfd, and 
another as accessory, and in anouier conct, the latter as prlh^inal, and 
the former as acce8SOTy-43 CaL 853; 40 id. 129; 89 Id. 75: 83 ld.W. In 
1^1 Indictment ol an accessory before l^e fact, it must allege the death 
of the perscta assanlted, and that the crime of murder was committed 
-46 Cal. 65. 

Death. — CharglBff the death of three persons charges three of- ~ 
tenses— 49 CaL 4l3. Killing seyexal 07 the same act is one offense, but 
not if the acts and Intent are distinct— 7 Cold. 608. It mtist show 

that the party died of the injury specifically described— 29 Fa. St. 
411; and may allege death as from four distinct a88aults^I2 Cush. 
619. Where It was charged that accused, at the county and State 

afo|^a|d did feloniously, wUlfuHy. taid maliciously, and of malice 
forethought, shoot, IclU, audnmraer. etc, it is snfflcient cbaige of 
death-48 W 81; 84 id. 192; 691d.230. 
Desoription of deceased.— It is sul&cient to describe the deceased 

peison by the name by which ne.was {mown— 6 CaL 86, and if unknown 

the.yerdlct may chafge tbp name as — ' "" '*" """ — ' '" 

need not state that he was a human 1 

tbe.yerdlct may chafge tbp name i 
need not state that he was a humsu ~ 

naiho of deceased be known it must be 8 ^-_,. . 

surnai^e was given in three ways of spelling, they are to be regatded 
as idein sonofu— 17 Wis. 579. 

Description of wonnd^ilie. Indictment must state what part of 
the body was wounOed- 7 ^laclEf. 20: contra, 85 Ind. ^; la id* ^i Sf 
M. 1 ; and see 23 v7y. 147 : and may aUege sevem partsofflio nodr In- 
ftetins one mortal wound of which h6 dled-46,Tu. 828^ 8. XS. l.iSeen 
qiWoW. The woohd should be aUeged to be inbrtaL hat tt&eed not 

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367 BJJIXS OF BLBAD33fa. %^9p9 

. Bsaeatial elements to be averred.-^ V^^iere ^e statute midces I&fent 
tat essenl^al elemeot, intent must be averred-^ Oixlo St. 9a: id* 30^ 
Express malice need not be aUeged^38 Cal« (^09; the proper allegatio: 
to •^malice afotcetboo^hf^d.; 2 V»» Cas. 70; bat9ee4 3l<cbi %&9i 2 

materlal^r^ Cat 676; 10 id. 309. An ^^?ation pf promedit^^tion or mal. 
ieeaforetbougbtienece8aaryT.l2€^825; J^Kans.45g; 27Iow!a,4()2: ld« 
«6; 29 Id. 118; butsee 87 N. t. 418; 49 Barb. 122; 89oSf. Y. 246; 18 Wend. 
15d;22id.lb7; 491i.H.d99; &aid.869. , 

Deliberation and premeditation.— Deliberation and premeditMion 
are not indnded in *♦ mallcetrf oretbongbt *'— <4 Greene, 600. l*at sucli 
a person, on such a date, at such a ceuntyi feloniously, wlllftdly, and 
malictously» did kill and murder such a person, etc., contains all the 
ultimate or issuable facts in the case— 34 Cal. 200; la. 211; 47 id. 101. 
See ante* S 187. 

Bsq>e.— ChftrgiBg that defendant, felonionsily assaulted a femaieby 
fhrowlng her <m her back and attempting to nave sexual intereoilrse 
with intent to dutrage her person, does not charge an assault with 
Intent to rape^S Cat 258. It mast allege the comity witliln which 
found— id. But It is good if It allege thai the assanlt was made iTitb 
Intent to commit an act of sexual mtercourse by force and violODce, 
and against the will of the woman, wittaoat alleging '*again8S her 
resistance">--47 Cal.430i It need not strictly follow the language of 
the statute; words conveying the same meaning may be used— 63 CaL 
629; see 2 Va. Cas. 235; 4 Der. & B. 152. It need not aUege that she was 
not bis w1fe-93 CaL 600; 11 Cush. 047. The words "forcibly" and 
*' against her will" axe essential— 1 I>ev. 142s except as to a child of 
less than ten years of age— 63 Me. 214. It is oiherwiise with the word 
•'nnlawfttBy"— 2 Va. Gas. 235; sov the word ^* feloniously" must be 
allied— 73 N. a 461 ; bnt see ILCufih. 547. The word *f ravish" is es- 
sential— 3 Parlcer, 15. That the accused, violently and against the will 
of Ae woman, '^telontonsly did ravish andcaroaUy know " is sufficient 
aveianent of foree^^ Gray, 488. The words "carnal Imowledge" 
meaiL sexual bodily connection— 97 Mass. 49. The averment that the 
injnred person is over t^n years is not necessary, but for violation of 
a ctiild nnder ten years, age is material, and muist be averred and 
proved— 29 Cal. 575; 46 Miss. 501 ; 4 Ired. 224; 7 Ohio, 243; 63 V. C. 7; see 
llCash.M7. &eeaiKe,8261. 

^An ii^diotment chaxglng that defendant "did unlawfully and 
felonious^ Wre carnal Knowledge ol aceHafo femiUe ofaUd named 
-- .^.__.. . ... ,-_. . ^.. oftheago^ 

_. necessary to 

EeceiTing stoleri goods.— TJie rocuEvj^r may bo Indt^'letL tttouqh tJia 
prmcipal is ncit nfost^iutcd or known— J Msig.g* 12B. Whi-rq nn judlct- 
meni charged Uie dcfendsmt \vitii ff,IoTiitip.sly i-fscclvjng, having, luid 
Hiding In CQncG^Ling stoltu j^^ooil^, kELDwi^i^ tlia gamo rtv have been 
Etx>lcD» cbargca tho odeiksd of iL'teivhig— aJ Cal. L-ill. It nui?t show 
thatdgfcndaut received tlicm from thi3 jirlucipal (t^ion— is Irce]. 3^j 
FbUK (N. C) ^* In gcDcraL IE need nat Btivto mo iinmc of t£o iict^oa 
who stolo tb0 goods, and tho nUc^'atio]! tbat bis name fa tinkno^ni )i 

AtiTsiSi 11 Qiaj, SO; ^ Ho. ^i 2a Olilo St, 13D; S.C.t Qrecn a K. 

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630: nor need it alkige atty cortsictetotioa pntstiti: betweon the tMel 
fU[ia the receiver— Wwcna. n, Tti& tadlctment mtiat deacrltjo tho 
fi^>od8wltticertainty*-3 Hllu ifm: s<!e0 Ala-Eii^; tlint tbc stolen r^p- 
er^ was so many yards of i-iath of a certMii viilac, la enMclenlTy 
definite— 103 Mass. 436. It must n kle^o ownership of tbo sto 1 cu ] rropeity 
•^OHe. 133; Joint pr<q>erty mny btiallegctif lutlio property of one of 
the owners— 108 Mass. 468 {or It may ho alleged a^ tti? propi^rty of a 
corporation— Parker Cr. B, 3iSi>; or it rany bo ftiJft^ca as thi3 property 
ofmm from whom It was taUfcn^ aitUoug^U aa ngaihst tua tma owolt^ 
his possession was tortious— lUH Slasii. 4Ctt. it *bouIii allege that ho 
received them, with intent to UeprlvBthBowiitf of them- a Humpb, 
68; see 3 Blackf. 28: 1 Parker <jr, ji. 5l;4. That deft a Jan ta IclaiiloiLtsly 
bonsht or received two hoiite^ of tb€ volute of ouo bimdrod dollara 
each, which said horses had Licei^afeionlouiity taken nnd carried bway, 
they weU knowing they barli \}(^tl feluu loudly takflii away^ l^ n suT* 
fieient averment of Kollty knDAvl€:cIi;o-^L Aln^ iH'i* An mdiclEnont 
which alleges that defendant ro<:i:[vc<l ccrMIn *itolen proneriip', know- 
ing It to be stolen* without nllcglugr that hta ieii€lved It uoth for bis 
own gain and to prevent the owner from a^iirLLti poisej^fn- it, i^ suu 
ficienc-43 Cal. 199. See ante, U 49-497. 

Robbery.— An allegation of steiding by force and violence is snffl* 
cient, with the averment of putting in fear— 7 Mass. 242; or that it was 
forcibly taken from the person, with averring against his will— 28 CaL 
490; or that it was taken xrom the person against his will feloniously 
and violently— 7 Ired. 230; but that he did feloniously seise, take, and 
carry away is not sufficient— 4 Ohio St. 539. It may allege that it was 
committed on the highway or near it— 7 Ired. 234. It must allege that 
the property was taken from the person of another— 39 Ga. M3. An 
indictment which merely states that the property was taken from 
** another person" is fatally defective; it must state that it was taken 
from '* tho person of another^— 21 Cal. 88A. It need not allege the 
kind and value of property taken^S N. O. 83; but describing it as 
*'ten dollars in money of the United States Currency," was held too 
indefinite— 47 Ala. 53. The indictment must allege that the property 
taken was the property of some person other tlum the defendant— 21 
Cal. 344. Ownership of the propmy is a part of the descriptiun of the 
offense— 21 Gal. 344. It mtusi state correctly the ownership of the prop- 
erty taken, as well as the name of him from whom it was taken— 21 
Cii. 344: 30 Tex. f214. Thoui^h an indictment fails to aver the char- 
acter of the possession of the person from whom it was taken, it is 
not invalid— 28 Cal. 490. An indictment against an accessory must 
contain all the averments beeessary against the principal, and. that 
the crime of the ptrlnclpal was committed beforeitwas found and 
presented— 50 Cal. 416: 81 id. 467. The owner of the property is not 
guilty of robbery in taUng it from the person of the possessor, tbougi^ 
ne may be guilty of another offense— 21 CaL 345. . See ante, S& 2Ut^3; : 

960. Ko ik^ictment or ioforniation is itisafficieQt, nor 
dan the trial, judgment, or other jjroceedin^ tbereorn, be, 
affected by reason of any defect or. imperfection in mat» 
ter of form which does not tend, to the prejudice of a sab- 
stantial rig;ht of the defendant upon its merits. p[n ef- 
fect AprU 9th, 1880.] 

Talidity of l2idl(itment-Ko n^dictmcnt lihall be deemed insnffl* 
cientl)^ reason^ Any affect which does not tend'torprefudiCe the 
<ife^dant-9 CaTsb; 28 fd. 211 ; 87 id. 281 ; 43 Id. 4«fc Yerbil or gram- 

— i,i-. .^^^ •Bs,^hlch do not affect the sense, are not fa»l— 50 

B. 400; 15 Gray, 408,- 3 Gratt. tW; iaid.7(W; 3Hel8K.' 

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BULBS or PLBAmKO. §§ 961-4 

876: « too. S33{20 lowlk, 582; Blre^ 195; 19 Vp. Giil «5.„^ . 

Y. mfWld, «2f'e5 N. 0. 201 : 80 IcL 884; 63 Id. 234; 7 Pa, St. 439: 6 Tex. 
Ct. Apn. 274 ; 9 W. Va. 641 18 S. C. 237 ; see 15 Pa. St. 95. So M t»mere 
misspelllng-6 Ind. 333; 4 XVis. 400; it i» no ground for arresting iudg- 
men&-l Dev. 263; 3 McCord, 190; 16 La. Aji. 183: It Rich. 856. Tlie 
omissiou of formal words is not fatal— 21 Mo. 481; 14 Vt. 353. So, 
erasures and interlineations do not vitiate-15 Gray, 194; 16 id. 16; 12 
Ind. 670; 44 N. H. 383; 14 Ohio, 4GI; 7 Car. & P. 819. ^ ' 

SnfflcIeni^F, bow tested.— rho suffick'ncy nf an iiifllctTnent U to t>0 
determined by tbo rules prpscrlbtd b^f Unn Cod*?, And 3f an iDfliet' 
inciitT iiJi»<jn a mlr read list', Tvill fltsincl tlil^ test, It i^ siifilirilent, tlicmgli 
not good ot cotumoTi l:iw—'i\i Cnl.:^10; aTJtl-^^s 2T UL&l^; 17 Ul.. Hj^; 
9 Id. &'); fi ftl. 3fK5. lUrru fonnal <l^'fot:£i, by wliirli no rfiibac&ptJaLl rJglits 
of dcff udjiiit Jtro prcjndlfcdt wili uot jusElfv an an-ESt of Jud^memt— 
S7 C.^.^1; fiu in citjcof nottcra of (.Ic^crlpLloti— *3 kL446; ?3 Id. ZU- 
Numbers ond tin tea frtren in ll^ires and abbreviations, instead of bGlug 
written out— iJ Vt. tnh 2 Asbm. r^? or, tlio omLsslon of a formal word 
—14 Vt. 3511 ; 21 Mo. iii; 'I Dfiv, ^'j-^j IIJ Mo. (JTi j ?d» of rraaures and in- 
terlia^Eltloiis, wbero tlio Lndlgtm^nt ii otberwiso^lcirililcv^lS GraF.M: 
J4 kL 57a ; 1 1 Id. 4 i 12 liid. faTO i 14 Oiilo, 4U ; 7 C»r. &V. 3 IP. 

961. Neither pxesiimj^tions of law, nor matters of 
which judicial notice is taken, need be stated in an in- 
dictment or information. [In effect April 9th, 18S0.] 

See 92 U. S. 544; 56 Ind. 107; 110 Mass. 181; 3 Cranch C. C. 618. 

962. In pleading a judgment or other determination 
of, or proceeding before, a court or officer of special juris- 
dictipn, it is not necessary to state the facts constituting 
jurisdiction; but the judgment or determijuation may be 
stated as given or made, or the proceedings had. The 
facts constituting jurisdiction, however, must be estab- 
lished on the trial. 

963. In pleading a: private statute, or a right derived 

therefrpm* it is au£&cient to refer to the statute by its title 

and the day of its passage, and the court must theordupon 

take judicial notice thereof. 

Private statntes.—An indicnneat on a private statute mvst set out 
the statute in full— 7 Conn. 92 ; 1 Dev. & B. 1 15 ; 1 Sid. 356'. Tnis section 
cliaii@te tbe eommon-law rule— see 2 Hale P< 0. 172; 2 Ha#ks, 6h. 25, s 
103; • sac. Atoidg. " Indictment," p. 2. 

964. An indictment or information for libel need not 
set forth any extrinsic facts for the purpose of showing 
the application to the party lib^le4 of the defamatory 
matter on which the indictment or information is found- 
ed; but it is sufficient to state ^nefrally that the same 
vasjHvhl^ftd coi^cerning him,^ and, the fact that it .yroM 

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:§^965. , Jtuxfis or plbajdino. 370 

•so pablished imist be establisbed on tk^ trial. [In effect 
Ajril9tb, 1830.] 

I/ibcl.— The dociiment shotdd be set out in words and figure?— 7 
Humpb. 63: 1 Cosh. 46; 3 fialst. 833; 2 Hawks, 248; 65 Itid.8ti; 1 Mass. 
M: iiL 62: id. 66: 2 South, 749; 7 Sere*' «fc 11. 469; 10 Id. 173; AVrteht, 73; 
1 Leaeh, 77 j Id. 146. It must be set out accurately— 1 Cush. ttS ; 7 Humpii. 
63; 2 McCord, 248; 10 Ser^ &B.. 173: see 10 Cash. 401^; but the trfioledf 
ttneed not bo Bet out—SiMe. 530. The d^ite at the end of a libel heed 
not be set f orthr-2 Gray. 28p. Professing to set it out a«cprdinff to its 
substawcelsnot 9ufflclent-6Bich.387; rCush. 46;, 10 8erg. &j|^173; 7 
Humph. 63. "WftQre it was set out " acoordingto the teaior and efleet 
following, that is to say," it is iusufdclent— 7 Humph* 63: 6 Rich. 387; 
out describing the libel as a letter, circQJar, or pamplUet is not objeo 
ttonable, being ouly a mode of publication— 32 Me* 530. Where die 
omJ^ion of a letter does not alter the meaning o{ a word, the variance 
is immaterial— Tbacn. C. C. 29. Where parts are selected andiset forth, 
preceded by the words **in these words," or *< aa follows," or.^'ta the 
words and figures foUowing." pr 'Ho the tenor following," ft Ysurlaooe 
will be fata^^ IU..H7J ^ Me. 383; X Ci^l).46} 2 Ohio St. 91. ; .See on^r, 

Tkp indlotm^nt must, set .fort^ matter which is prima fcuAe IBbel- 
ous, or must charge that matters set out, altbbugh not a libel on its 
tac^i wa» designed to be 8(^-6 Ired. 418. The charge need not be 
more specific tnan the libelous publication— 3 Humph. 389. Charging 
that defendant sent the libel is a sufaclent publication— 32 Me. 530. 
The office of an innuendo is to, point out and refer to matter pre- 
Yiously expressed, to explain the meaning when obscure, and to indi- 
cate persons when reference to them is ambiguoufr-6 Gil 276: 1 Kich. 
179. An indictment which alleges that defendant published a libel 
** tending to blacken the honesty, Tirtue, integrity and reput^U^ion of 
the said A. B., and thereby expose him to publlq batred, ridicule and 
contempt, in which said false, scandalous, and malicibus libel there 
are defamatory an<l libelous masters of and concerning the character 
of the said A.' B.," sufficiently cnarges that the libel was in relation to 
A. B.-4 Ga. 14. 

965. When an instrument whicli is the subject of an 
indictment or information for forgery has been destroyed 
or withheld by tiie jict or the prbcUrciiment 6f the defend- 
ant, and the- fact of such destructibn or withholdingf is al- 
leged in the indiotmfeat or infonnation, ^nd • establi^ed 
on the trial, the misdescription of tlie ilistrinnent i» im- 
material, ' [lo effect April 9th, 1880. J 

Lroat ln$tmment.- VT..i.i«. Lij*. j^^h ,...n.iii i.^ la'^tor dcatroyeU* Otrfr 
msiLxjs i'.\ iictiHi&MiVs. hiiiti\A. li. is builklbul to avGr spocLil inctfl a^ an 
eiieiiaGforiiDt sotting U out— ;j(j €iiL21d; El L"u*ilL l^ti; srlvlDn: ilia nur- 
~ oi't of til 1^ iiiBtrmuei]t^ aa near an ui^sbihiQ-^aAi^, lHA: ^7 III. 4^ : 5i lijd^ 
M.^&j 2 Mason. AM; S4 Me. Tlix 4 LelRb, &1i4: C9N. C. SUj 1 Chip. D. 2^f4; 
ie Woud- aai ; 2 TerQi, R^p. 'iWj 4 Car. & R 254; Id. I2tr. So, Where tlm 
iMJUd tvaa T^itli tho d fpodant— 2 Cowen. 623; &ce 1 Head^ 139, A con* 
Tlf*Mon will \m au-stiiEncU notwIth^tandlTigr n variance— KfWnnd* S^ ; hcq 
I Ti ler, 117. So, %vlniro ?khbvl lii twj iiiiieci^nt to be bqI ioith, Uie non- 
ietOnff forth will be eicu.spd-lV Mas?*. gjQ; 120 Id. 4[i: 2 Ser^. 4: B* 
II: I Mann. (Mich*) 90; buE tban^asunui: ths amJ^lon piaEtbetkrcrreA 
—I Co£ii^()& A uon-^loscriptlon will be eicii.*stcl even i^bea Ihe lo^ la 
bff pfO(»«ciita7'4 neKU^nc»— IB Minn. lUS. Tbe prodticidon of t&e loist 


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371 BULBS OF rLBADtKG^ § 96G 

Instrnment wUl be fata]. If Q^re Is ayartance between the Indietment 
and the prQofs-33 Ind. 159. Seo an/ff, § 959, note. 

966. In an indictment pr information for perjury, or 
subornation of perjury, it is suiBciQut to set forth the 
substance of the controversy or matter in respect to which 
the offense was committed, and in what oou3;t and before 
whom the oath alleged to be false was taken, and that the 
court, or the person before whom it was taken, had au- 
thority to administer it, with proper allegations of the 
falsity of the matter on which the perjury is assigned; 
but the indictment or information need not set forth the 
pleadings, record, or proceedings with which the oath is 
connected, n4r the commission or authority of the court 
or person before whom the perjury was committed. [In 
effect April dth, 1880.] 

Per] HIT— An iudkrtmcnt rjinrglng the offetise In the words of the 
statute Is STifBclent— <j Cal* 487. See ante. S 039* An Indlctmcot cbaig- 
tiifl tliat accuJieri Ukl willfully, corrupliy, and falsely swear, wltbout 
alXei^tiLS " fclonJonRly/' is TOtficleut^-U Cal. 4S7. That accused (descrfb- 
tng tbe proceedin^j did wlUfullyt corruptly ♦ ftiid falsely swc:ir, etc.* 
leaTlug out " feloniously, is Ffuai<iJcut— 7 Cal. 4DJ; tt id. w. U Bliould 
appear that the t-AlAG evidence given was Tnaterial to detemai nation 
of the Lssue— til Barb, tt-l; 4 Lana. 4^; and it mnst filiow that the of- 
fense vras committed In a judltla.1 proceeding— ao Vt. B5!>; 37 Id, 132 1 
L'& HUrh. iW2; or lu a fourse ut iustiC!?— 33 Me. 337; 6 lerj?-. 53L It 
must state before what tribunal (.lio oalh was atlmluhstorcd— L llurpli. 
ISO; 8 BUwrkf.2'25; aod that the coart or officer had authority to ad- 
minister the oath— 50 Me. ^17. It Is sufficient to aver that an Issue was 
dnlir joined— 1 Iowa, ItD; I^Mjiss, ?T4j 11 Ohio, 400; S^Vend.t). Tiia 
Indicfnient uccdnot specify tho particular mode in which tlic prisoner 
was swoni— 3 Stroh. W; N. II. SfiJ; 3S K. Y. 431; 10 Kith, l{j,5; 50 Carh. 
SSI, But If the f onn of oatli he alleged, It must he stated coixcctly— 3 
HJU(S. Oeil; 7 Hnniph>47. An averment of the Bubstanco of the 
oath la sufflclcnt--5 Vtiiu\, 271 ; £! N. Y. Supr. :;ufi. it need not set ont 
the wholo oath, hut only that part which fs false— l^^ Mo. Il5i 8 Wend, 
eati. It must allege thiit dcf f ntlaait wUdfiilly and corruptly swore that 
a certain tlijnff i*? true^ knowiuj^r It to be false, or denied it, knowlnff It 
to he true— I Inwa, 5(>3; '^$ Tea:. rj«: i MeLcan, U3; ii Tex, 238^ see 
20 Iowa, 552. Fiilsely, willfully, and eorruptly, Is suMclentr without 
the word "kaawingly *'~37 Vc. l£i: or "feloniously "—6 €al. 4fl7; 7 ItL 
4Cf3. It must chiir^e the falsity of the statement, and not leave It to he 
adduced by argiuiiput or Intendment— LTS Tcs. (>25, A geucral allega- 
tion that defend aut swore falsely la not sufficient— 59 Barh. 631; seo 
5:^ Me, 137, It should set out the substance ami effect of the te&tlmony 
which ia alleged to be false— Bii^b. 4tiJ. 8c e 5G liarh, f)3U It mus^t 
show that tho falso testimony was material— 13 Muas- 274; 53 Qa, 212; 
54 Mo. 1S2; see 12 Met. 225: 4S Mo.ya; 1 Dutch. :^»4; SMurph, 2^>G; ll 
Gray, 31; 52 HI. OJi 42 Id,3Cff; 1 Maa. & E. 137. Where the materiality 
of tho matter appcara from the statements, an fi3:press allegation of 
materiality ts unneeessary-l Blackf. 4!l; 12 Met. 2ij; B Wend. 033; i 
Zah. 4&i 3 Mich. 552; W tad. m\ ^h id. U2; 47 Mo. 378- See ante, i 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 967 BUZiES OF FLBADDTG. 372 

967. In an Indictment or information for the larceny 
or embezzlement of money, bank-notes, certificates of 
stock/ or valuable securities, or for a conspiracy to cheat 
or defraud a person of any such property, it is sufllcient 
to allege the larceny or embezzlement, or the conspiracy 
to cheat and defraud, to be of money, bank-notes, certifi- 
cates of stock, or valuable securities, without specifying 
the coin, number, denomination, or kind thereof. [In ef- 
fect April 9th, 1880.] 

Larceny.— It l3 not necessftrv to state facts showing the commission 
of the offense in another county— 40 Cal. (i48. The venue may be laid 
in any county Into which the stolen property Is conveyed— Id. U 
there is a repugnancy between the caption and the statement in the 
body of the Inoictment as to the venue, it is bad for repugnancy and 
uncertainty— 18 Tex. 3»il. It must allege that the larceny was com- 
mitted in the county where the indictment was found— 47 Miss. 671 ; 8 
Kev. 208; 3 Stewt. I'iS; 43 BL 397. 

Description of property.— The goods must be described with cer- 
tainty to a conmion Intent— 8 Barb. 637. It must describa the articles 
by the name^ they usually bear, and specify the number and value of 
each species or particular kind— 11 Humph. 39; 8 Ired. 226. 

An indictment for larceny of a piece of paper may simply state its 
value, without further description— 100 Mass. 206; see 103 id. 436; see 
as to promissory notes— 4 Serg. & B. 194 ; 41 Conn. 590. So. for " stealing 
a parcel of oats" is sufficient— 1 Dev. 137. Charging the stealing oi 
*' one hundred and thirty dollars " without a specific description of the 
money, is bad— 29 Arlc 68: S.C.2Am. Cr.B.340. Thespecies of money 
stolen must be alleged— 12 Cox 0. C. 257; S. C. 1 Green C. B. 1. 

Money.— Sundry jjol J cotn-i currpintaamoiipy tn tlil3cominQiiwciilLh,K 
of tho affip^gntte Tame of iiveijly'Ulncj doUar^i, but a more pai'ticiilai: 
descrlpilon of vrlikli tlio jurcua tab n at gsve, t^a they have no mean-t of 
JcaowiecljTe* i^ tiEfUrlfiit— ll CxiMt* 11^; or eimclry uarik-lilJls of some 
bank^ rtsHitccciviMy to fuM jurora unkuowia. gf tliQ amotjnt and volUQ 
Ja all of lEiii'ty-i tL-lit liolLiry— lU Uray, JTO. An infurmfttiaii which 
defiuribeia tba property ad oud hundred and Ihlrty-Hvo tlqlliurB. *' of ih& 
pTOpcnyt goom, iiud eliattcls tit A., " and wkhouC. Any alieguckn of i^ 
value, lA faliJlly dcfPcUve— M MJcU. 2*8: S. U. l Oi^eii D. R. 3i% Stolen 
coin6hon)'nnjijlcscrlUe<l na bo miuif pieces of cnnrcnt gold or pllyer 
coin, Bpf?clfySng tbu Epccles aB]r/&^ uukTiown to llio (Sfjmd jury. In 
wbleh iiiLso Uioy muy no Bt3t€— 3^ Cnl. 215; 14 id- lUi; H Hampn. 39. 
That the gmnd Jury liavfj no lainwIr.ilLifp tip oican^ of kuo w]cilEfa of thft 
pnrtlcular rly^rrtndou of ttio rfjSn orlKmk-ljtUa, lano jfroimd fur airferit 
of juajLiiitrit— 11 l:u5iL 141': sco i^ AUcu, 4^1. It Eio^t st^tt) tUat they 
went) of tlui€uiTmt coin gf tbe Uuitca states— a? Tt^jt- 35p. 

An indictment not showing the species of cattle taken is sufficient^ 
5 CaL 855. Describing an animal in the alternative as to his color, etc.. 
is not a fatal error— 15 Cal. 408. Where the indictment describes the 
animal as a bay, proof that he was a bay or sorrel is sufficient to sup- 
port the verdict— 3 Helsk. 452; 8. C. 1 Green C. B. 353. In an indict- 
ment for stealing bees and oysters, it need not aver that they were 
reelalmed-23 Gratt. 941; S. C. 2 Green C. B. 654; 2 Dutch. 117. In an 
indictment for sbealing gold-bearing quartz, it must be alleged that it 
had been severed from the ledge before the alleged taking— 35 CaL 
071 . The allegation in an indictment for larceny, that defendant stole 

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•" six imndred and ten pounds vf sllver-beartaj ore '* sufCLclently sbows 
tliat the ijpoperty was iiersonal property— S Nev, iSH; S. €. a Green 
CJ. R. 3:jr». lu aiii Indlclmeuc for sttaUii^f from a bulkllugi it It doeii not 
properly deacrllxs tilia buUdlnsf , It may iitill bu good for siiiiiile larceny 
— li Gray, 3D2; 33 Me. 5SS* Wbcro chattels are stotcD In one conuty 
and eari'led Into aiioi1ier,im IndEctment lies In the latter, Bboidd tho 
larceny bavo been coinmlttccl In that coiinty--l7 Miss. MAz S. C. 1 
Green C3. rL:i4l; SNev. !Jtjy; S. C* I Green C. It. 3f3, An indictment 
for stealing cue artklo inumlng: It) of tbo Taluo of (stating It) la good— 
a Gill A J. 3b>— 1 3Io. Mi: E ay Tex. 4«; but of one ecrtaln trunlc contain- 
ing Tarlons articles la badr for uncertainty— Id* SttS ; see a Jonca (N. C) 

Ownership.— An allegation of ownership Is e^entlal, unless the 
offense 1:3 sndlclently dcserlbed— 41 Cai. 2343; or vfliero tbu nwnerslilp 
Is couBldcjcd Immaterial— It) Cal, 5ti»b. The ownership must ba 
avorretl anil If not known, it must tio so stated— 25 lud. 234; l:^ Plclc. 
1731 U Mass. 217 ; 7 Bush. Ul ; &3 Me. 124* So, an luOlctnieut for alter- 
ing tb« branicl on a horse wUb intent to steal It, or that the owner U 
uiikaown— b) Cai. 423, Tbe word eliattei denotci* property aad owner- 
ship- la J olin^. SO; 2 Vu. CaiJ. 1&4: 1 Doug. (MlcbO i^; && Mo* 2D0. 
Ownerabip of artkles furnE^lni'd ti> n clilW may ha alleped lu either 
tlio parent or tbu child— 2 SLroli. ^iMi; 4 liar. ^Ucl.) SJXK Ovvntirship qf 

Eroperty beld by a married woman must bo alleged tn hE^rbatiUana— 3 
uJili. 2tj3; 7 Gray, 337; 12 La. An. 205; 33 lex. 7sy; so, of the separato 
property of tbo wlfo In tho possession of her husband— 17 Ala. 415* It 
la iieeessary to aet forth theuaiue of tl\Q owner of the gootlalf known 
—42 Miss. 61}; 7 Ired* 2li>^ 47 N. H. 4bi: Imt a mcro. varlaneo In the 
ehrlstlau name \» IminattTial— ft How. (Mlag.) 33; so, the Initials of the 
christian nnnii: arn suiUi Li-rit— :il Tux, 5iji>; ivnda mcro variance In the 

An indictment for stealing a letter must state it to be the property 
of some other jperson than the prisoner— 1 Curt. 364. It may describe 
bank-notes as the property of the person forwatdlngthem— 3 McLean. 
405. An indictment which states that A. B. & Co. are the owners of 
the property is sufficient— 19 Cai. 598 ; but see 36 Id. 247. 

Special ownership.— Where there is a special ownership, the in- 
dictment may lay the ownership in either the special or general owner 
—65 N. H. 152; SO Iowa, 203: 10 Gray,46S): 1 Uead, 454. So, where goods 
were bought for the poor, they may be alleged as the property of the 
county— 37 N. Y. 117. It may be alleged as the property of the guard- 
ian— 22 Ga. 499; or in the manufacture of goods of nis employer-32 N. 
H. 301; or of a washerwoman— 3 McLean, 405; or of a constable— 10 
Wend. 166; or of a hirer— 13 Ala. 153: or of a landlord— 32 N. H. 301 ; or 
of a coach-maker hired to repair— 3 McLean, 405: or in a driver— id. ; 
or in one in lawful possession— 1 Bail. 310; see 1 Parker, 329; 6 Humph. 

Ownership in difibrent persons.— The spoils of a single larcenous 
act may all be Included In one count-62 Me. 284; even though the 
articles are the property of different persons— 43 Ind. 335; 29 Jle. 329: 
7 Mo. 55; 87 id. 873; 23 OMoSt. 839; or there may be as many different 
indictments as there are owners— 104 Mass. 552; 2 McMulli 382; 9 Nev. 
821. Counts for horse-stealing and for stealing other property may be 
joined— 18 Ohio, 221 ; 50 N. H. 150 ; 40 Yt. 555. *~ *- .r .r 

Joint-ownership.— The property of Joint-owners must be alleged in 
the names of all the joint-owners, but If they be a corporation, it may 
be in the name of such corporation— 36 Cai. 245. It must be laid in the 
partner who has the legal Interest in them— 1 Wheel. C. C. 369. An In- 
dictment which in one count alleges the goods to be the property of 
certain persons, and in other counts states the owners to be other 
persons, does not charge different offenses— 17 jDal. 354. Where prop-^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 967 AUI.BS OF PLEADING. 874 

erty stoloii belonss to a body of penons, it oogrbt not to be lUd as the 
property of -the body anless incorporated* but eUonld beailwed aa 
belongliig to tbe indlviauals-^ IlL 451 ; 2 Qreea Cr. R. K2. 

Value.— Wbere tlio nature of the punishment depends on the Talne 
of the things stolen, the allegation of value is nmterlAl— 46 N. H. 186; 
42 Ala. Ml ; 1 Mass. 245 j 13 Fla. 671 ; 40 Ga. 229; fi Cush. 865: see 6 Parker 
Cr. B. 256. Tlie value of pach article and the name of each owner 
must be separately aud specifically alleged— 44 N. U. 624: 9 Met. IM; 
contra, 5 Blackf. 224: 8 id. 493; 101 Mass.^OT: 44 Ala.)96; 3 McLean,405; 
1 Fort. 118; 8 Gray, 4S2; 10 id. 470; 46 Ala. &5. 

An indictment charging with the larceny of two hundred and fifty 
sheep, of the value of one thousand dollars, is not suificlent J>ecause 
the value of each ^een is not sei)aratcly stated— 34 CaL 591. The alio- 
tfation of value in ** dollars," wltiiout adding *' lawful money of the 
united States," is sufflclont— 9 Cal. 234. The allegation of value is 
sufficient if it is as certain as the language in the statute— 9 Cat. 236. 
Uiider the statute, of 1868, It is not necessary to state the value of a 
horse, mare, etc.— 39 Cal. 405. An indictinent for entering a house, 
with intent to steal, neer not aVer the value of, nor giVe more than a 

Seneral description of the property the defendant intended to steal— 

G-nilty knowledge and intent— It must allege that the property 
was taken with intent to deprive the owner of it-26 Tex. H)6; 41 id. 
231; and that it was taken without the consent of the owner— 89 id. 
893; but this is unnecessary where he had possession only to keep the 
property— 35 id. 724; see 82 id. 155. An averment that defendant 
broke into a house with intent to steal or commit a felony, charsres 
pand larceny— 48 Cal. 684; S. C. 2 Green C. B. 623; but see 46 Ala. 

Joinder.— Where several were Joined in a charge of attempt to steal, 
all may be convicted though only one did the act— 105 Mass. £02; and 
It is Immaterial whether they were previously acquainted, or were 
confederated for a felonious purpose— 43 U]. 397. The thief and the 
receiver cannot be jointly indicted— 34 Cal. 181; contra, 7 Gray* 43; 12 
Allen, 451. 

Distinct offense^.— Distinct larcenies may be presented in dllferent 
counts— 104 Mass. S52. So, as to larceny, and receiving— 45 Me. 608; 8 
Humph. 69; 4 Ind.246; 4 La. An. 434; id. 435; 10 Cush. 530. 8o, as to 
breaking, and entering, and larceny— 20 Pick. 856; 22 Id. 1 ; 11 N. H. 38; 
see 18 Minn. 618. As to rule in California, see anttt S 954. So, as to 
embezzlement, and stealing— 9 Met. 138. 

Charging in different ways.— An indictment charging with "steal* 
ing, taking, and leading or driving away" is not bad, as charging of- 
fense in the disjunctive— 15 Cal. 408. See ante. 

Second offense.— The indictment must state facts to show that he 
had, prior to last offense, been convicted of a previous offense— 7 N. Y. 
60: see 8 Parker Cr. B. 330; 1 Hill, 261 ; 1 Parker Cr. B. 645; 1 Bob. (Va.) 
764; 6 Hill, 427. 

Material averments.— The word *« steal" Is not necessary— 1 How. 
(Miss.) 262: SInd. 91; and the word "stel** for steal is not cause for 
arrest of nidgment^ Blaekf. 457. Where the indictment charged 
"larcey," it was held that the word *' larceny " could not be substi* 
tuted, and the indictment charges no oflense-6 Pac. a L. J. 822. 
"Cariy," omitting the word •• away," is Insufflcicnt— 7 Gray, 43. Omit* 
ting the words "lawful money of the United States " Is not a ground 
for demurrer— 9 CaL 234. The words "lead or drive away" are not 
necessary in an ihdictment for stewing an animal— 46 CaL 802. 

Charging attempt.— A charge of aa attempt must state facts show- 
ing the manner in which the attempt was made— 8 Nev, 236) as charg- 
ing that defendant took the impression of a key, and prepared a false 

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375 RULES 07 PIJ^ADTNa. ' S^^^ 

Snfficiency of indictment.-)-Tbat dcComlaDt (flaming date ahd plac^ 
** did UDli^wfuUy and feloniously tal^c* steal, and qanry ,away:' onQ 
tiOT864>f the petsodal goods of (Qaminsr the owner) Is suffldlenl^^ Pac. 
O. !«. J. fi(>9. It is sumcien^ to pUarge thaX Oef ^dantjOid steal, tak»» 
and cany away, witlioiit " lead or drlTe away "—48 Car. SD2. Tnat de- 
fendant **did feloniously,, willfully, and unlawfully steah tsdoe, and 
carry. lead, and drive away," is a sufficient statement of tlie intent^ 
27 Cat. fidO. " Stealing, takings leading, or driving away,*' Is n06 deredh 
ive as charging the offense in the disjunctive— 15 Cal. 408. See S 95ij. 

It^tfcepy by hailee^T- Indictment must st^te with, dlc^ptnessand 
certainty f^ts^andciixnumt^ ^ con^tlttit;6^^ ,co;nplete 

off ense, including the bailment— W CaL eoi. That the prop,, „ 

thfi value of so mAOy ddllars. Without saying "cpm olTthe United 
States.** is Insufflcieht-fo^l. 601 ; 15 Id. 612; btetruim^t ^ id. 42. The 
defendant could not be convicted without provlnjr intention to steal 
the hotde at the time of taking It— 18 Gal. 337. fndictments, against 
b^ees^ should distinctly set fonh the character of the balimeiit« the 
mode of conversion, the description of the property, and its value-^ 
^2M. 42; 9 id. 313; 19 id. W ' 

Embozzlemont.— An intlSn^tment for ifinbezzlement must aver tlie 
reLition of defendant to the lulorea party^aDU tliatthfi property came 
Into his possessiori. or uudor hid turf, hy virtue of JiLhi etiijinoyiiit^nt^S 
DcMJio, iii; BC'O 4 Mlcli. tk^; but. it ut^tid not thuvga tlicit he whs tiio 
cJjcrkoir servant of llko owner of tlio goods— 1 Parker €r. K. L'ti2. It 
muatdestrlbo Uiopmperty— a Oray, 15: with tJio saiuo paitlculartty 
aa is fcqiiirtd Iti larocny— 40 Cal. 'J 1 7 ; 5 Allen, 5U2 ; Lmt It \viilLfO suiUtlent 
tvlLhotit provitig tliii! dc'iiomi nations of thocolTifSH-a;; Tcx.7<>3. DeHcrlli- 
lu^: the propel ty '^as certain Ijookst lottery, lllcs, knives. iiaQk-sluLL'^s, 
filaleatnudscallQg'WaXp to about tho valuo of forty dollars/^ id buM* 
cici] t— 30 Al a, 3'2* 1 1 m;iy allego tho cmbc uleincn t of <IiJIt:i rut art ltl«i 
— irarkerCr. B,662» Chargiug tho crabeazlenvciit of '*a lot of lum' 
hev" "acertaLn lot of furuiture," aod "cerUtiii tocl^/* is bad for un- 
certainty — lU La. An. 2:2iK An IndSftuieut agAlci&t an otlicer for 
embeEzlemeiit of mont-y paiJ to him a^i Hues^mtist state Ibo tLaracttr 
and kind of fijiics, and cLai-^o a fraudulent bUunt— oii Tex. (i4:. If 
atf^nst a county trcagmer for cnibez^llng fiind^^ It need not suico tho 
klDdof funds— 13 Kan. 2TI; Id, 231J. For <?niUtz2lins a letter contain-- 
biff a Ijaut-noto, it nt-r-d not stato whnt ofBcc^ tho di-fendiint helit, nor 
set out tho notc—Ci-abbr. fiSi. (JimrKJuiS ^vlth eujbejzlt^ment of a ccr- 
tam amount on ono date, fiiid vrith iliG (jnibczjclenieot of another 
amount on anottier tiate, vas held bad as €liai"irSU}f two oHenwa— as 
CaJ* 577 i bnt siiedng that dt'fendaijt mtelved aa tax collector ^ certain 
Bn]xifc]rl]ce[i£;eadu& tho Stato, and n certain other suiu for llcehiies 
auo tUO couutYp docs not cbaigo two distinct oSullses— 31 Id, ilQ. Bee 
«/i^e,S 8S9,note. ' 

Previoafl conviction,— The Indictment must epeclflcally aver tho 
prior cmivictioji— Li Met. 4JJ; 6 Gray, Sb:J; 73 Pa. St, A'JH; 47 Md. 4saj 
Gratt. tJ3B; V7 Vt.52Jj and when tho court was one of general Jurisdic- 
tion* an alleviation or that fact Is cnouich— ;i Parker Cr. II. i&Hi but 
when of special and liniiteajHTisdlctioUt It fihould aver facta to show 
JUiisdf Gti on both of por^on on d s ubjec t-niatter— ft K. ¥ » ^. The aver- 
ment of conviction without the averment of fr^nteoce U sufllqient— 1 
liUt»2t)l ! eovtra. U Berff. A R. 69. It. inn^t appear that tho prior con^ 
victlon waa legal, and in a cuurt having juiitidlcUon— ^ Coweu, W—9 
Gratt. T3B; auil a foret^^n cotivlctlgn cannot bo made tho basis of the 
avermtnt— 1 Parkur jJr, B, a^ 

969.' Afl iojOic^ijiem or ii^fph£»atii6a ior ^xBtbiting, 
poblisltiog/ passing, veiling, or offering to seU* or having 

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§§ 969-71 StTLES of PLEADING. S76 

in possession, witli such iotei^t, any lewd par obscene l>odk» 
pamphlet, pictare^ print, caid, paper, or writing, need 
not set forth apy portion of the language used or figurea 
fihown upon such book, pamphlet, picture, print, card, 
paper, or writing; but it is sufficient to state generally the 
fact of the lewdness or obscenity thereof. [In effect April 
9th, 1880.] 

Obscene pttblications.— Ihd indictment need not so folly describe 
them as to spread tnem dut on tbe records— 1 Mann. (Mich.) 90: 17 
Mass. 836: butiC8et.0Tit.itmiiist be in the yery words of which It Is 
composea-~l Cudi.' 66; hut when too obscene, a description may be 
substituted, and a reason for the omission be stated— id. It is not 
necessary to allege that the exhibition of an obscene picture was in a 
pubiio place, If exhibited to ^undry persons, for money— 2 Serg. A 

969. Section nine hundred and sixty-nine of said 
Code is hereby repealed. [In effect April 9th, 18^0.] 

970. Upon an i^idictpoient or Information against sev- 
ei^i defendants, any one or inore may be convicted or 
acquitted. [In e^eot April 9th, 1880.] 

Sereralty.-^Gonvlotlons of codefendants are sereral-^ Hiss. 400. 
The ohiarge against them^ IS several as well as jointr-2 Ired. 402 l49 Vt. 
487; and a lomt Verdict i$ a distinct verdict against each-^29ra. St. 
429. So. one may be fbund jsuUty and the others acquitted— 3 Cush. 
628. 'When two am charged with an offense, it is not a variance that 
the proof goes only W-oie^il Pick. 5S3; 105 Mass. 866; 107 id. 208. As to 
adultery, see 7 Jones (^.^C.) 159: U Qray, S7; andsee 14 Ohio, 866. When 
several persons are jointly Indicted and convicted, they should be 

sentenced sevemljy— 16 Ane. 87: 14 B. Mon. 886; 8 Wis. 786, and be sev- 
eraUy fined-lD MO. 440: jil Id. 604: 61 id. 802. 

971, The diatinotion betweei^ an^Cpessory before the 
fact and a principal, and between principals in the first 
and second degree* in cases of felony, is abrogated; and! 
&\t peifsons concerned iti the' commission of a feldny, 
whether they directly .oomosit the act constitutHig. the 
offense, or ?tid aixd ^bet ix^ fta q^tjt^^asip^, .^oi^g^ P^^ 
|)resent, shall hereafter be pixweQUtedv tried, and pun- 
ished as pnncipals, and no other facts need be alleged in 
^ny indictinevt or informat^oti aig^tz^st such an accessory 
than are reduirie<) |n an itidiiB|ixiet)[tor information against 
his principal. U^ effect April 9ti, 1880.] - 

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.877 SI7LB» OF TUBiAOma^ § 971 

S» id(76t flci&asicL I64i. CtaarglngiB one eoiiiit tlie defiM<|tt¥b As pi^bh- 
-dpal^ a&d laanotiier count aSaecassoi^Jdo^nov disiMpd twb offenses, 
BSE mre the tvdxounta lnoonai«tetai«^ «al. 169^45 i069: Me 40 14. 
129s S91d;7as 33 id. 101; 8ee61di:S3< ' • 

Accesvories, who are.-'Ao kd ■ "v h^t^TG the flAct l9 ose ^bth 
bethg al^sent'ftt tbe timoitne dj n^ i ^ {^utDinlttctl— 1 Leaches U{ y&k 
jtTocarti, counsds, ehcourages', incUts?, of itomm^tls fliootlier to 
commit the crimed Cal. IM-; 2i Id. aitf^ 1 Tin; v. 3fiT; fl Cowen, 137 j 
4 Cranch C. C. 469: 1 Hayw. (N. €j 4; t)!> Miisji. 4j;J: l^'ii Mlfh. H2; 
2 Ohio St. 241; 4 Parker Cr. it. 23-1; li* Smodtsi ^ n. las. U« who 
procures a felony to be dond id a felon— J Botiil, 3ilj_?J Daua, ^a: 
la Ired. U^: ^ Ma^ i^i 4 i<tf439; 1^ guicdQS ^ M. A:^; li WUtm. itiU; i 
Yerg. 143; 45 Ind. 468. 6o,a^ to pro.'iu lufc a iniirdf r to bo doi>o— D'J IinJ. 
418; 13 Tex.168. Thd dtetidCtlMi in twi en princlpais und ac^ceiSBOTleB 
as at conajnon laysr Jiaa been aboii .^n ^ hy statiue— liJ C^L u^: M A!o. 
106; and a^Ksessorles before the Um ru " all prSnf'tpnls— ."j ia^. 134: 10 ItL 
/5t^ 12 Kan. 659; A' 0. 1 Am.Qr.K^ btl; U loU. ti^; 1 BaUdeor, iK>f 54 
Barb. 299. A <lej^tive entering, Into, a conspiracy tOjCQddWw: a craa^ 
tor the imrpQse of explo<(}ng it3? ilipt an acijessory before tl^ fact— 84 
Pa. St. 187. So inerely conpi^alifig a felonious design wUa Mob maine a 
person ani accessory— 81 111. 833» - . ; . ; r. ' : 

Instigation to orimJe.r-^A person Inoittng anothet In a tamnltuouB 
crowd tO'S*rike an dfBoet,fci^lty of the assault^sd Mass;. 443; 27 Cal. 
MM do pi:io<ktrlng;'counS6ling, orincttingd eierlc of afent, renders t)» 
instigator liable— 15 Ga. 346. So an instigator may be|fni>ty< of niurder 
In instigating a manslaughter— Dears. & M. 288. At common law the 
instigator and perpetrator may be guilty in different degrees— 31 N. Y. 
229; 32 Miss. 4U5; while the instigator is responsible zor incidental 
consequences of the crime he counsels, it is otnerwise as to collateral 
crimes— 26 Mich. 112; 5 W. Ya. 532. The instigator need not be the 
originator of the criminal design : if he encourage the perpetrator by 
falsehood, or otherwise, he is guilty as accessory— 10 Smedes & M. 192; 
Car. & M. 215. The advice, procurement, encouragement, etc., may be 
direct or indirect— 6 Cox C. C. 333; by words, signs, or motions— 40 111. 
488; and it may be personally, or through the intervention of a third 
person— 19 St. Tri. 804; 5 Car. & P. 535; and if the procurement is 
tlirough an intervening agent, it is not necessary that the instigator 
should know the name or the perpetrator— 1 Denison, 89; 6 Car. & P. 
635: 1 Moody, 166; 19 How. St. Tri. 804; and no matter how long a time 
or now great a space intervenes between the advice or instigation and 
the consummation of the deed, if there is immediate causal connec- 
tion between the instigation and the act, it is sufficient— 111 Mass. 395; 
3COXC.C.288; 6 id. 333. 

Liability of accessories.- The offense of being accessory before the 
fact is committed in the county where the substantive accessorial 
acts are consiunmated— 13 Bush, 142; 114 Mass. 307; in which county 
only can he be indicted— 27 Cal. 340; 67 How. Pr. 342; 1 Parker Cr. R. 
246. An accessory before the fact in one State, to a felony committed 
in another State, is guilty of the crime in the State where he became 
accessory, and is answerable there, while the principal is Indictable 
In the latter State— 17 Ark. 561. A person out of the State becoming an 
accessor before the fact to a felony committed within the State, 
cannot be prosecuted under the laws of the State— 19 Ind. 421. At 
common law, one indicted as principal cannot be convicted on 
proof showing him to be an accessory before the fact, and e eonverso 
—40 Cal. 129; 41 id. 429; 39 id. 75; 28 id. 404: 32 id. 160; 12 Ala. 458; 
15 Ga. 346; 52 id. 287; 39 Miss. 613; 8 Neb. 80; 49 N. H. 39; 65 N. G. 
572: 81 N. J. L. 65; 83 111. 479: 9 Cox C. G. 242; 7 Gar. & P. 675; 
hut in States where all are prmcipals, he may be Indicted and con- 
Tictedasprincipal-40 Cal. 129; 41 id. 429; 39 id. 75: 28 id. 404; 82 id. 164: 
6 Id. 23; 14 Bush, 232; 66 Ga. 92; 40 Iowa, 169; 4 III. 368; 47 id. 323; 49 

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Id. 410; t2KAii.5«»| t7?».&t,lOB! W Id.IffTi SB IkUcb, lEtt, An ftcoei- 
Aory not Aiiieu«bla to tiie Jnw cannot lie armlguoO. unJesa hb &0t* rcti- 
def him ll^Ie aa prJncip^— i Woud. & J^l. 2'iL On Bepajnte fciliiU, the 
eouvlctioa uf |be i^rliic^ipal Ia ovdy pHma fofie evliffitieo of eiiflt on 
triRj of tbei][.C4'"e£Sory, ainil inny ha collatunwlv disisuted— 3 Cliff. ISl; 6 
Ired. lj:t&; '/1» Mo. m; U 1^. H. 21(i; ID t'Hk.477; L M;iS!9. M\ \i Weud. 
692 ; iO fimodoa A M. iwl; 1 Moofly C. C. S4l. AJdcra nud nbcttoTa may 
be c^uvlctcd, nltliDugh tbe nrliielpal haM Been &runltu:d--2S Gsl. 21G: 
^Mo.32; 10 C^eS; 1 Leacli,3^i 2 Bbaw, 37{^: Eius*&| 

972. An iBkccessory io tJi^ commission of a f elouy may 
be prosoented, tried, and punished, thoagh the principal neither prosecuted nor tried, and thoagh the prin- 
cipal may have been acquitted. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

Bolb the principal and aDceesory vmkj l>e lii dieted tcjgottiPT or ectK 
wrBtc I Y* without rtfcrence to ttie prE^ioua coDvirtlon oracQuJtt^ of 
Ihfi t^tiiQT—]Q Cah^i 24 Id. 4^; unci eo with rt^feft^ndfl to afd^^rs and 
aiMittpni— Ifh A^oesfloiloft heforo the Eutt may bo tried aerniratelr-4fl 
Cal. !Ji); fi<3 GcutiS: 4 lU.SO^^ lEJld. 4 JO; 14li]tJ. 5^: 4»jlmi-a, 'ib5; l:*KaD. 
£50; 23 Me. fi4! l:3H Mw^ss. ^«i 13 Obio 8 c 436: lU Oblo» i^l; M Pb. St. 
231 : 12 IJVis. W2j Law K. I 0- C 77; Bull's €. C. 243. Tboy may bo 1j> 
dieted, altbouffh tUo prima ac" " ' ~" "^"^ 

llAtg^ l«&{ an^ fieo 24 AEo. 479. 

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TSJBUkDsxm Jjin> nuMnsDcnuk 


Of Pleadings and JProooAiiii»0» after. lodiotmeat 
and before the Coxnmence^oent of ih^^Tkial. 

Chap. I. Or the ARBAiaiiwaiHTOif xeb DBVBiiDiaiTi 

iL QtrrisQ Asny^ thb t^DXCxi^i, §S 995-9. 

HL .I^.S9iX7BB«E, §§:(0Q2-12. 

IV. Plka, §§ 1016-25. 

v. Transmissiok o7 oBBTAnrlMXiionaanrs vaox 


GouBT OB Municipal Cboonai* Ck>irBT of 

VI. Bbvoyai* or tbb aqtion. bbpobb Tbxaii, §S 

yn. Thb M9DB OF Tbiai., §§ lOii-a. 

B]Sn>AB OF ISBUBS FOB TbXAIi, {§ 10^6-9. 

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§§976-7 joauLsaamaan or >i>mnBKDA]x^ 



S 976. Defendant must be arraigned in the court yrtitn tlia Indlet* 

ment is filed or transferred. 
S 977. Defendant, when to be present at airaignment. 
9 978. If in custody, to be brought before y»>nrt 
S 979. If discharged on bail, bench-warrant to issue. 
I M0^i*9eaeb^fariiaiit, by 1trltfia4Uitf]i^w iBBtte^' 
S98L ?OEmi>f'Miic|i-<wiia»t. ' O ; . , . ^ . 

S 982. Directions in the bench-warrant. ' 
S J6SL 'B6DCli«wamiii, how served. 
S 984. Proceeding on giving bail in another county. 
S 98S. Ordering defendai^t into custody or increasing ball, when ii^ 

dlctmentte' for felony. 
S 986. Defendant, if present* Wlien order madeuto be cominitted; if 

not, bench-warrant to issue. - ' ^ ^ • > > 

S 987<. Bii^ to ««nit9ca on arraignment*. , / 

1.^88, Anraignment^,bDw.made., , . . 

{ wQ. Proceedings on furralgnmen^ when defendant is not Indicted 

i)y hti'tmenanie. * 

S 990. Time allowed, ond^bwdeffdndant may answer on arraignment. 

' '976.' "Wlien ttio indictment or information is filed, the 
defendant must b^ arraigned thereOn Vefore^thei G9urt in 

wliicli it is filed, unless tTje caose is traafef erred to Jiome 
otlier countj for trial, [In effect April 9tb, ISSO. ] 

Arraign tnflut neceasajy.— A Terdlci; In a casa where tTipre has been 
neliht:r aitulfftiiaeut WiT plc» is a utJiUlty— ^ €iU. Wii i Wl$. ^'^O. Th6 
failure *jf tlils tlDty la fatal-^si Cnl-lsOi 64 ImJ, LW; 31 Ml< li. 471; 3 
Plun. tWl25,}33T; ^JMcj. 'ii34: I Tex.iJl. A\ip*4mi€Qtiira,l^ lOm. 650; 
bu t It II e<Hl no I be rep eatea after n t^ li^tr la^— &S Ga . 3S. If. d 1 1 appeal, 
tbori'fortlfaiLa tcjjsbow that rt^ffencl;l|lt Tpr.ig ftrrai}?iicfl and pleaded, 
til CO 1 1 r t w 111 aiis UTae l hat th&ra -rc ^ n a arralpi mt^n t or y i ■ a— «2 Cal. 
180* Tb6 defcDilaj^t doea not wsiivo an nrrJilKftiiaent riuT I'li.'ri, by sub- 
mitting to a tilol, Introduriiig witiieiises. and allowing tbo iiLt^'O to be 
frrgQetrou hii tPbEi(f-aa €al. 330; 3 Wis. 630; fi'io ft grnt?df ^ 6r M. 687. 
Wi^eq tJie cnnQ in which defeudiiDt U £itT»lgTied in re move tj tv another 
court» no fr^sh annlguiuciit li required— 39 Md. 3AS. 

977. If the indictment or information be for a felony, 
the defendant must be personally present; but if for a 
misdemeanor, he may appear upon the arraignment by 
ooonseL [In effect April 9th, 1880. ] 

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881 ABKAiONHEirr of defendant. §§ 978-81 

Panoibal prMeiM9ie.^Th« defeodAat Is analgn6d')xi pehon— 85 Cal. 
296: nnlflss in case of n)lsd6taxe9nor^<42 C«L 168* In caset «f ttraaklag 

gu and escaping, lie waiyes his right to haye counsel, appear for nim 
acaseof ml8demeanor-S5 GaL298i 42 O^ ltt{ 07 3lAi. M8,<«tted 
23GaLll»^ S^ Const. CaL art 1, S 13. 

978. When his personal appeafanoe is nttsenarj, if he 

la in euBtody, the eoint may direct, and thd officer in 

whose custody he is must bring him before it to be 


Bifl3i1a of deftedanW.— The defendant has a right to appear and 
remam witbont cbaUis and slMcfcles-42 CaL 18& 

979. If the deleadaut has been dischaijged on baiii or 
has deposited money instead* thereof , and do not appeat 
to be aiindgned 'when his personal attendance is necessary, 
the ootbrt, In addition to th4 f orf eitare of the undertaking 
of bail or «f the money d^^osited, may direct the tUbrk to 
issue a bendlHWarrant f or bis iffrest. 


986. The clerks oh the iEkpfpUcatlon of the district attor- 
ney, msLy, at any time after the order, whether the court 
is sitting or npt, issue a bench-warrant to one or mora 

See 05 CaL 1896. 

981. .The b^nch-warrant upon the indictment or in- 
fori]uttlon must, if the o^enseis a felony, be substantially 
in the follpwing form: pqurity of . _ . The people of 
the State of California to' any sheriff, constable, marshal, 
or policeman in this State: An iu4ictment having Ipeen 

found (or information tiled) on the — r day of , a. d. 

eighteen — i?, In the Superior Court o5f tlie county of , 

charging 0, D: with the crime of ^—^ (designating it gener- 
ally); you; tiife,'tlieref ore, commanded fortlrwiib to arrest 
the aboWnamM O/D., and bring hlkn befote that cotitt; 
(or if the iibdidtment aiid information has been sent to an- 
other court, then before that court, naming ft (to answer 
said indictment (or information); or if the court be not in 
Session, t^« you delitef him iiitd the custody of the 
flidriffof'the^uhtjrOf^;*-^:^ ••' ' ' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Qi¥Qn under: my. baa.d,.\yjt^ i^lie. 8e(Uj.<»£[iiiMid coort 
affixed, this -t— dayf of -^-^ A* »; -i— •. ' 

By. order of «a4d Court; . 

[sBAL.] B. F., Clerk, 

tin, i^aot April 9tA^ 1880.1 

Oited-a9 Oal. mi M Gal. ioa A ge^ei^descfiplilon 0f tlM offoweii 

sofflcient— 9 Ga. 75. 

982. The defendant, when arrested under c^.TV^S^qmit 
for an offense no^ bai^f^^, must i)e.. held? in -oustoSy by 
the sheriff of the cottntyin which the indictment i^ ftmind 
QS^ InformatloBivfiliedi unless admitted to hailr after an 
exapiin&tioii'upoii » wfiit. of habeas eocpus;* but if »fh9 
offense^islxtUabli^ tber« muatt.^e. lidded' to ilhe bK)dr of 
tlM benolk^arraut a direction to the foUjo)!rJAg/9£^a«t : S' Or^ 
U hAtilQq«i9e:it,;that y«u ta^ him before Antyiviftgidtoito 
in that county, or in the county in which; 70j0.ft«i;^fi^>himi 
that he may give bail to answer to the indictmettt^ or 
i^ormation",; f^nd tj^ie court* upG[n ^directin^ it^^to toi^e, 
must ^the amount of bail, ajc^d auj(ndorsemgnt>,x}^.Ustl>Q 
made t^'ereqn and siga^ by \h^ ^ler^, ^p the, following 
effect: "The defendant is to be admitted to ball in the 
sum of dollars." [In effect April 9th, 1880.J , 

Oited-M Cal. 103; 65 Cal. 298. 

96^. ^ The bench-warrant may be servjsd, in anv coimty, 
in' the same mahner as k warrant of a^rfes^,' except tjhat 
when served in another county it heed not' beinai^rsed by 
the magistrate of thajb countjr. ' ' ■'/ ■ 

Oftfed-» CaL 29d. S6e AttkiteT; aiite, %i 841-iaif. 

98^f, U th^e^ .def&admt ^ brought before ja magistrate 
of another c()piity for the j)ui;p6^e of gjvinjf,p^il, the 
magiistratQ muist proceed ,fn respect' therejijo jn tbe^ame 
maui^er aaif the d^f^Budapt hfid "be/ep bi^ou^t before l^im 
upon, ^warrant of arroat, and .the ^^me proceedings must 

be had tbeceon* j - r* . . . i j- • • -r, . 

.Oited-« Call 298.^ , '/\ _ \^/ ' .^ ^ ' 

986. Wh^n the inlprxfiaition ^p ^dipitm^p;b,ik/;(Qr » 
felony, and the defendant, befocethe filing tWeoft haft 

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383 AlCtBAlONMEKT OF VISVESWA^. g§ 986-8 

giren bail for lils appearance to answer the charge, the 
coort to which the indictment or information is presented, 
or in which it is pending, may order the defendant to 
be committed to actual cnstody. unless he gives bail in 
an increased amount, to be specified in the order. [In 
effect April dth, 1880.] 

986. If the defendant is present when the order is 
made, he must be forthwith cominitted. If he is not 
present, a bench-warrant must be issued and proceeded 
upon in the manner provided in this chapter. 

987. If the defendant appears for arraignment with- 
out counsel, he must be informed by the court that it is 
bis right to have counsel before being arraigned, and must 
be asked if he desires the aid of counsel. If he desires 
and is unable to employ counsel, the court must assign 
counsel to defend him. ' 

Oitod— 65 Cal. 298. See IS Gal. 331 ; Const, of CaL art. i. S 13. 

988. The arraignment must be made by the court, or by 
the clerk or district attorney under its direction, and con- 
sists in reading the indictment or information to the de- 
fendant and delivering to him a copy thereof, and of the 
indorsements thereon, including the list of witnesses, and 
asking him whether he pleads guilty or not guilty to the 
indictment or information, pn effect April 9th, 1880.] 

Manner of arraignment.^'Where the Indictment was not read to 
the def Qiidant, a copy of it with the indorsements was neither deliv- 
ered nor tendered to him, nor was he either then or thereafter asked 
whether be woi^d plead guilty or not gallty, there was no arraignment 
—28 Cal. 830. If the defendant when arraigned asks for and obtains 
time to plead, he waives any defect in the statutory details of the 
arraignment, such as the failure to gl^e him a copy of the indictment 
—49 Oal. 228. See 28 Cal. 831 . The defendant being brought into court, 
the first step is to call upon him by name to answer the matter charged 
against him. See 1 Burr. 643; 2 Hale P. C. 119; see ante, SS 858-S5d- 
976, and notes; andi>o<^, S 990, and notes. 

989. When the defendant is arraigned, he must be 
informed that if the name by which he is prosecuted is 
not his true name, he must then declare his true name, or 
be proceeded against by the name in the indictment or 
information. If he gives no other name, the court may 

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proceed accordingly; but if he allege? that another name 
is his true name, the court must direct an entry thereof in 
the minutes of the arraignment, and the subsequent pro- 
ceedings on the information or indictxnent may he had 
against him by that name, referring also to the name by 
which he was first charged therein. [In effect April 9th, 

Name nnknown.— IT, wbett* arralgD64, the defiendAQt falls to sive 
his true name on request, he caimot afterward complain if he is tried 
by the name specified In the lndlctment--8 Nev. 2ol. If he gives his 
true name, it must be substituted, and tlie subsequent proceedings he 
had in the true name— 32 GaL 64; wliich must be entered on the min- 
utes-6 Cal. 212. ♦ 

See ante, S 988. and note. . . 

990. If, on the arraignment, the defendant requires it, 
he must be allowed a reasonable time, not less than one 
day, to answer the indictment or information. He may, 
in answer to the arraignment, move to set aside, demur, 
or plead to the indictment or information. [In effect 
April 9th, 1880.] 

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S 999. Jn(UctDieiit» when set aside on motion. 

S 996. I>efenclant waives objections, unless he makes the motion. 

S 997. Motion, when heard. If denied or granted, what proceedlngt 

are to be had. 
8 996. Effect of order for subm Isslon. 
5 990. Order no bar to another prosecution. 

995. The indictment or information must be set aside 
by the -court in which the defendant is arraigned, upon 
bis motion, in either of the following cases: If it be an 

1. TVliere it is not found, indorsed, and presented as 
prescribed in this Code. 

2. When the names of the witnesses examined before 
the grand jury, or whose depositions may have been read 
before them, are not inserted at the foot of the indict- 
ment, or indorsed thereon. 

3. When a person is permitted to be present during the 
session of the grand jury, and when the charge embraced 
in the indictment is under consideration, except as pro- 
vided in section nine hundred and twenty-five. 

4. When the defendant had not been held to answer 
before the finding of the indictment, on any ground which 
would have been good ground for challenge, either to 
the panel or to any individual grand juror. 

If it be on information— 

1, That before the filing thereof the defendant had not 
been legally committed by a magistrate. 

2. That it was not subscribed, by the district attorney 

of the county. [In effect April '26th, 1880.] 

Motion.— Maklnpt out and filing a written application Is not sufScIent 
to constltate a moti(«. The attention of the court must be called to 
it, and the court be moved to grant it— 41 Cal. 650. Where the evidence 

PXV. CODB.— 83. 

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Ifl conflicting* the conrt may refiue to set aside the Indictment— 84 
Cal. 899. An order setting aside an Indictment is not an Interioentory 
order, bnt a final order and appealable— 31 caL 661. 

Subd, l.—See 54 CaL 38; 48 Id. 550; 81 Id. 868. This snbdlTlsIon refers 
to provisions of the Code prescribing the mode of finding, Indorsing, 
and presenting the lndlctment-d4 CaL 88; 46 Id. 148; see 4 id. m; 
64 id. 400. See ante, SS 941-845. 

Sub<L2. See 6 CaL 96; 21 Id. 868; 22 id. 848; 54 id. 400. See ante,! 943. 

Subd, 8. See 54 CaL 400; ante, SS 906, 919, 920, 925. 

Suiid^ 4. Okallctngs to gran^ ju.Tj,—lt tha defcndflat wsa lii^ld to 
answer befere tlic} i^nii jury mti\i\ nn^ was tDfnrmfld tbst be coul^ 
tnterpotse a cli«i.1J«ng;i^ to tbe pahuL or to a,n bidivldual sraafl Jurort aud 
be d[!:ciinea to uo go. h& wilIvcs Ills right to do so aXcer ua Is Indicted^ 
4» Cal. GS[^\ fiesMCuL 39; T^ UL ^I'.&SQ m Id. 326; Ml It tiG was not 
belli Us answer at the tlnien Iici may interpose a cbJiHoDge to tbe pMiel 
or au ludlvldtixLl Juror ou his arr^jziimeat— 14 CaJ. h7L A per$oti 
accused before Indictment mav cJjaMen(?:e any ono rtt:iirne<l oa tlio 
graiidjiiry— i Black. 317 j 2 U. iU; 2 Browpo, (Pa.) ^J7j 17 Obio St. M3j 
but It Is too latoaftor indictment la foiiDd and Accepted— 21 Cal. 3Ti; S 
Port, too; 17 eiin)dR4 & M- OHj a Etig. 73; id. 71; a Wend. SH. So, aa 
s>bJ'!?-ctloii to tbo formation of tlie (jtatid jury eaunot be presented on 
motion tQ iHFit naldG thB indtetment— M Ciil. Sdl: 4S id. 143; oi euEb mo- 
tion OD arralgnnmijnt on such a grouail Is, In enc'et, a eballcocti to tha 
panpl— H3 CaL W^; but Lf tiia bifJietmcnt t^'os f oima by a tfpoclaJ gnmid 
jury, It cim be set osldo on tlic first nud thiri] groiindA of tlits fiectlOdi 
— ii CnJ . 3^ ; Bcci 45 111 . 2% S o, a.D In rj ] >? rinc n t f oun cj by a j ury enmio^tied 
as a petit Jury and Impaimtfled ^ a ^filud jniTi ^ UiegM— 45 C^ 2lt 

996. If the motion to set aside the indictment or in- 
formation is not made, the defendant is precluded from 
afterward taking the objections mentioned in the last sec- 
tion. Lin effect April 9th, 1880.] 

Waiver of objections.^The motion to set aside the indictment most 
be made before plea, or it will be deemed waived— 84 CaL 808. If not 
made before plea or demurrer, defendant cannot afterward take the 
objections ^wedin S 995-6 CaL 98; 21 id. 868; 26 id. 115; 28 id. 272; 34 
Id/sOS; 89 Id. 377; 48 1^ 550. 

997. The motion must be heard at the time it is made, 
unless, for cause, the court postpones the hearing to an- 
other time. If the motion is denied, the defendant must 
immediately answer the indictment or information, either 
by demurring or pleading thereto. If the motion is grant- 
ed, the court must order that the defendant, if in custody, 
be discharged therefrom; or, if admitted to bail, that his 
bail be exonerated; or, if iie has deposited money instead 
of bail, that the same be refunded to him, unless it directs 
that the case be resubmitted to the same or another grand 
jury, or that an information be filed by the district attor- 

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ney; provided, that after such order of resubmission the 
defendant may be examined before a magistrate, and 
discharged or committed by him, as in other cases, if, 
before indictment or information filed, he has not been 
examined and committed by a magistrate. [In effect 
April 9th, 1880.] 

998. If the court directs the case to be resubmitted, or 
an information to be filed, the defendant, if already in 
custody, must so remain, unless he is admitted to bsol ; or, 
if already admitted to bail, or money has been deposited 
instead thereof, the baU or money is answerable 'for the 
appearance of the defendant to answer a new indictment 
or infprmation; and, unless a. new indictment is found, 
or information filed before the next grand jury of the 
county is discharged, the cotirt must, on the discharge of 
such grand Jury, make the order prescribed by the pre- 
ceding section. [Li effect April 9th» 1880.] 

999. An order to set aside an indictment or informa- 
tiox^ as pzoTided in this chapter, is no bar to a future 
proseeatioii for the same offense. [In effect April 9t^ 

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$§ 1002-4 DBUUHBOR. 



• 1002. pleading on part of defendant. 

i 1009. Demurrer or plea, when put in. 

S 1004. Gxoondsof demorrer. 

S 1005. Dem«rnD7» bow pot in, and iti form 

, S 1006. Wlien beard. 

S 1007. Judgment on demqrrer. 

i 1006. If allowed, bar to another prosecation; ^en. 

f 1009. If refttibmission ftot ordered, d^tedatie diBcbaKged* ete. 

S 1010* Froceediaga* if snbmlBsion ordfar^ ' ' 

S 1011. ProoeedlngBt if demorrer is dl8aUowe<L 

S 1012. Objections, forming groond of de^ur^* vhea talcen. 

1002. The only ploadiiigr on tlM part of %h6 d«f «iidant 
is either a deniuner or a plea, ■ . - , 

1003. Both the demtuter and plea n^uAt ^ pul te^ in 
o|>en coikTt; either «t th« tinsel the' lirtslgttm^t t>r afc 
such other time as may be allowed to the defendant- for 
that purpose. 

Objections, when taken.— Objectionfl to the insoffleieney of the 
indictment most be taken at the trial— 4 Cal. 226: id. 240; and a fallore 
to demnr at tbe proper time is a waiver of the objection— 65 id. 115; 48 
id. 650; 49 id. 890; see SS 976-90. AU defects purely technical must be 
taken adrantage of before rerdict— 6 Md. 410. 

Eflbct of demurrer.— The offense is admitted by the demurrer— 44 
Yt.6J9: but it does not admit the legal effect of the facts therein 
pleaded— 64 Pa. St. 18. It puts in tssue^ the legality of the whole pro- 

1004. The defendant may demnr to the indictment or 
information, when it appears npon the face thereof, 

1. If an indictment, that the grand jury by which it 
was found had no legal authority to inquire into the of- 
fense charged, by reason of its not being within the legal 
jurisdiction of the county; or, if an information, that the 
court has no jurisdiction of the offense charged therein. 

2. That it does not substantially conform t<» the requite- 

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980 j>wmmKMA. -gSMOarf 

DMixt of ■ectkuifl iii]i6 btmdred and Mty, nine honared 
^nd ftSty-ope, atid nine hundred and Hfty-two. 

3. That more than one offense is charged. 

4» That t^e laets stated do not constitate a pablic of* 
fense. . , 

5. That il^ <^otitalns axiy matter ^hfoh, if true, would 
constitute a legal justiijcatioa or excuse of the oiSense 
charged. Or other legal bar to the prosecution. [In effect 
AprU 0th, 1880.] ' . , 

aronnds of dextrarrer. ^ Olbjectioiis to th^ Indictment must bd 
takfiii|^rlortpplej|»o9r>the/ eannot h9 conaldBred on artest oC ixutf^ 
ment, except under tn^ fourth subdivl&ion of this section, for if no 
efEensel3«bttgedittd«oBivlotton can b6 uiid--TCftl.l29j Id.28et 10 Id* 

for dec e(i« in iad9ra% ^nd ^U(« t2io lAdio1im9iit^28 Af lu 4)0. 

8iibd. 2. That the indictment did not contain th^ p|inimi]ar ;eirt 
cumstances of the offense Is a ground for demurrer— 49 Cal. 390. 
See mtOfi Sf tt0,»5ti ' wiieto theM 'Sr^v^^ eotaxta and dne tf them is 
good* ac^erMidemniver nU bei.otecroted**^ Fac. C. li. J; viO* The 
omiSBlon'toHrtateianyideecriittlotti of the property jstolen is ground for 
d6iaiirrei??-»ifliUaJU2?T>;.8SM.}247; so* i^twm kiok ue for a failure to give 
an appellation to the offense— 30 Cal. 331. It will not lie to a part of a 
count— 42 Md. 5(>3; Law R. 3 H. L. 306. Xt wUl not ayail when the 
efteoseils Mtioithiwlth satotenttatraeeKdaor'^^ Md«' ni; srULiss. 
Seea«<e.$8 9^,969., , ,. . 

JSabd. 3. Ohargihg tWtf offense!^ is & grotuid for demurrer— 43 Gi^ 
82^«l7kl;109;-2tld^3d4;^35Id.n5w SMto^fOM;' tod note.' ^ 

3iibd44^ Bee^JlMWO.- ; , .....••• 

3X)06.' . Theldenmcrer must be dn; writing, sighed either 
hy, tiu9 dafnnlantrorhlB oodnlseU aAdflliKdi It hmst dis^ 
tinctly specify th^ij^oolikdis «f ol^e(6tiani to the indibtiisAnt 
oir infpi^9jB,^^j.Qr it m^t be 4j^f ^garde^ . ilit i^ct 
AprU9th^l880J, , , ^. , .. . .. .. . 

. A0Q6. ' . Upon' ithd deninrrer being: filed, ' the • argmiKent 
npon the objections presented theieb^^ muBt be heairdi 
either jipyme4iat<^y >fty at. eyioh t^e^a§ ifhe.cotirt may »p< 
P9int. ,. , ..;,^ , 5 : ,;.• . ; , >. i •/ r ' -"-i ■ • •• 

IQOSfk ^UponiftenBideiingpitliadennirver^.theooistftlaast 
Ciye jndgmentl^ eitiier:alii0bii|g)ar distdiowing it, and' an 
Older to that effect must be entered upon the wkMqi^q^' " - 

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88100a-ll MDfiTBasft. 990 

. . Jodgn^nt on drauumr.— Tbs rale thai jndlgmmtf BMqr be glMn 
against the iiarty who oommltted the flnt snhstaptlal ezror la AppU* 
cable tocrlmii^cases—ASMe. 438: 4 PaikerCr. B.i217. Ifthere arertwo 
counts, and one of them is ffooa» the iadlctment Ifgood on f eneral 
demuiTer-6 Pac. O.L. J. eiih 40 Ala. 21; S9 10.^47; S.Cush. 299. An 
order anatalning a demwrer to an indletment issflftaL jndguubt from 
which an appeiU Uea-47 Cal. 113: 89 id. 604: S Cranch, 1$9: fCush. 212: 
2 N. T. 9: 2^a. Cas. 202: 2 111. 257: 13 id. 841: 17 Wis. <i69: 5 Litt. 289t 14 

flish.fi25: Terg.800: 6S N. G. 647: 71 id, 268; 7 a^,422| 6» Ma 497? 5 
e^ i; 5 Bar. ATT. 8lf ; 1 Ark. 438; f9 ir. T. 588! 

1008. If the demurrer is allowed, the Jadgment is 
hhal upon the indictment or information demnired to, and 
is a bar to another prosecution for the same offense^ unless 
the court, being 6f the opinion that the objection on which 
titie demurrer is allowed may be avoided in a new indict- 
ment or infonination, 4h:ect^ the c^d tpbe' submitted to 
another erancl jury, or directs a n«w information to be 
|Ued; provided, that ^ter such order of resubuiisslon, the 
defendant may be examined before a ma^^tratei and dis- 
charged or committed by him, as in other cases. [In ef« 
feet April 9th, 188ai 

▲ jndgmexit against the praseeatioii <m a special demurrer la not 
final when the defects demurred to are merely ffonnaL A sew biU 
mnst be sent in with the defects cared«-8 Cranch 0. 0. 441; M Xnd. 434. 
And defendant will be held over to await aseeond iiidlctment-48 Ala. 

1009. If the court does not pectnit the information to 
be amended, nor direct that an inf onoaUon be filed, or 
that the case be resubmitted, as provided in the preceding 
section, the defendant, if in custody, must be disoharged, 
or if adimitted to bail, his bail is exonerated, or if he has 
deposited money instead ot bail, the money must be re- 
funded to him. CEn effect April 9th, ]^«] 

> IJOlOi If the couift directs that the case be restkbtnltted, 
the same proceedings must be had thereon i» are pre- 
scribed in s^tions nine hundred and ninetj^veii and 
nine hundred and ninety-eight. ^ 

1011. If the demurrer is disallowed, the coun must 
permit the defendant, at his election, to plead, which he 
most do forthwith, or. at sooh time as. the oourt may di- 
rect If he does not plead, judgment mfeiy be pxonoanoed 

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391 DEMtTBRBB. §f lOlSf : 

Demtm-er ovepralfld-— Where there Is on tlia face of the pleading 
no admission of crlmlaaUty oa the part or tl(^f enUaijt, Ub will Ue p«r- 
mltted to plead— 13 Maaa. 456; ^ Fen. & \\\ 2W; tt Watts. 77: 9 Mo, e87i 
seo 3 Helsk. a^; 11 Mo. 363; Id. 3^; 35 MJss. zm; 3 Met. 43^^3. la aotpe 

Jurisdictions lioTvllJ not bo penTiiited as a matter of right, but muse 
ay fiufflijieiitffrouncia licfore pormlssloii wlU be granted— "ja €al. 265: 
29ld.ft6a; 31 Me. 3^J; 64 UL 56.1; 17 Vt, ]5]; i*j Comi. ii6; )i Yerg. 47L>; 8 
Humph- 32; 6Leighp63Si see a Denlo, 91 ; i JT. Y* L Wbcro tho indtct- 
meQCJaamtids(tfd good on demurrer tlio prisoner mny except, and If 
the oxeeptioiL Ja isudLiined)uUi^ijaent muy [>o rendered In his favor} If 
overruled judgment jnay be reudereti for the i^t^te, unless ttia prls- 
onfir has rcaervcdhls riifht to jjlead anew—M Me. fifiS. In tli[M State if 
a Mineral demurrer be overruled, ajid defeadiiat refuses to pi^d, the 
court may direct: a plea of ** not guilty " to L>e entered for Lim— :fB CaL 
24i5; 29 CaL W3; see li Leigb, (JiS; 21 Wend. 40y. See ante, § eay. 

1012. When the objectioas mentianed. in pectiQn one 
thousand and four appear on the faoeof the ittdietment 
or information, they can only be taken by demurrer, ex- 
cept that the objection to the jurisdictpn bf'the court 
oTer the subject of the indicstment or information, .or that 
the facts stated do not constitute a public offense, inay 
be taken at the trial, under the plea of not guilty, or after 
the trial, in arrest of judgment. [In efiEdct April 9th, IdSO.] 

When objections mnst be taken.— Objections appeaxinflr on tbe 
face of the Indictment caa only be tal(en advantage of by deqipirrer^ 
47 Cal* 106* 

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ttcM^e PLB^ , stiaa 



' S 1016b Tbo dUterent kinds of p^eas. 

1 1017. Plea» howpat in, and itsform. 

, i 10I& ^lea of ^iltf, bow put In, and when witbdrawn. 

S 1019. Wbat plea of not gnllty puts In issue. 

S MMK fVbat may bd'glrenln^Tidenoe under plea of not guilty. 

- S lOIL HKbat is not afonnee aeaoittal. 

S 1022. W^is^fa]:pieraQqalttal. 

. $ 1023. Conviction or acquittal for a bigber offense, effect of. 

I 1024. Defendant refusing to answer, plea of not guilty. ' 

S 1026. !P)^Tlou8oonyiotiou8. CBepetadd*} 

. X016. There are' four kinds of pleas U> an indictment 
or information^ A plea of— 

1. GuUty. . , ' 

2. Mot guilty. 

3. A former judgment of conviction or acquittal of tliel 
offense charged, which may be pleaded either with. or 
without the plea of not guilty. 

4. Once in jeopardy. [In effect April 26th, 1880. J 

Suhd. I. By pleading gull t7, defendant eonfesaes hi^ fltitlt U 
cbar^^Cid ia thii liidietEiitiul:, but if tlio liiiJictmeut chcirigca uo a^eaio, 
nono h co]ifes.?.Pfl— 7 Eiig, [\B. It laciwl'?^ a i>lc!i of f annQriZoiivlGtlianp 
ttaU renrtora defeoclaTiS llatilo for a ft^iotir— 4:li GaL 3ti(5. Where tba 
■paxty plfsuUffi] hy qaLsuke, IE m^y bts cuiTcptetl after entry on tba 
mbiucea— 2fl Qcn. tT^: lin'^l^ba coujtd may, in J ta dijcrsao]!, allow ]]#t{] be 
witlidmwu— 3:J N. H. J41; 2 Nuv. 3il : i; Law J. Bl. C. 115, A pk-a of 
fulilty cures formal defeets— l'7 Ohio, bTL If dra^rn. out W the court 
tcdllii^ def enihiut If he does noE^lGMha will 1)0 beavlLy ^tuiiiibod. 16 

tHBput In by ty- . :' ' ' ■'■. ■ •■ ■■ .i,! . k ,..; -..,.,- ,,.,', ...,f. 
not iQperaon— ; ....,- . :,,... :.■.,., ^ ■^..i.l, i.-..^., 
Subd. t. A general plea of not guilty by seTeral defendants is a 

StOd. t. Where defendant pleads in bar and the general issue, and 
botli are submitted at tlie same time, there must be a verdict in each, 
and it is error to take a verdict on the plea of not guilty alone— 51 Cal. 
278: 28 Pa. St. 14. On a plea of former acquittal, if the court holds the 
defendant could have been lawfully convicted on the former proceed- 
ing, the plea is good— 2 Terg. 24; 43 Wis. S95. Acquittal, even without 
the JudmiMit of ooort, is a biu^l Me. 165: 2 Zab. 212; but convicUons 
do notloUflrw this mJe-^ Gnnoh O. C.87; 120 Mass. 260; 3 Zab. 212; 

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393 PLBA. § 1017 

Ad^. 1% U 0blOt S<»5; i5 lU. 51U 2 Yerg. S4; 6 Mo. fi44; I Tex. €t* 
Ajip. 32^1 ; but 6^ 2i Miss, 3S^ \ 2^ Nl Y. 1:24; as whero tk« prosecutliig 
omuer, after convieticEi, concede!^ tliQbinlii&sd of tlio l[i<IlctiiLbuc &aa 
proceed!^ on a second i n tl ict men t— Addis. 140; or where tbe case i& 
peadijirf iaerroi^Ud M^iss, 2<Mis HI U. 8.611}; U Jolin^. 3-il| or whore 
iiJtie IiidlCLinentwa}iit:tilen after verdjc turn: I before>jiidqtDeiit— UOlUOp 
2V5; but Ofd[uarilyfa.vercIlcb of guilty Will buauiu tliti pli^U — 13 Wis. 
1IS5 ; see 41 Me. lLh3. A ijlt;:i of farmer oauvlctioUp to be ^ baj-^ need Otft< 
bavo judgment enter ed—ai Cnl. 4;JJ. 

To make a v lea of f o ime r ai.Hiul E [4L orf onae r conviction available, tbe 
court must ha.\'o besa coinpetcLU. bavins: jLirlsdtctlosi-^ll N. H. 156: 
1 Va, C:i3. IM: 42 N* H. 475 : 13 MiSS. 4Mj l1 Met. 337 ; 3d How. Pr. 3i: 2 
Ark, 2-M', i JllackL 15o: 12 Tnd. atil: 14 Tei. 33j: 4 Mo. 37tii li NelJ. \\)2\ 
lEug. lS7i3iIeisl£*Jt2Ii 4 Ma;^3.47j{ bbo 02 Ind, 55; and tho proceed- 
ings must Iiavobepn rcijnlair— 113 Haas. 200; but wUere tha court baa 
Hual lurisdkition, anncquitt^l or convict eon Li a bar, aJtugui^li tha pro- 
ceedLQKa vrere defective— !^ Me. 2iii>; 3 Met. 323 ; aea ^7 Mo. 3(ii] ; A Datid, 
3t20. A Judgment by a court-marliiil la no bar to riii liidilcimciit la a 
State court-'4 Cold. 145; nor Id a prosocullon In a 8ute court a bar to 
procee<Unga Ity a U. S. court-marrial— ;j Op, Att.-i.feii. 7.50; 1> Id. 4J3; but 
Bjufd^ment of conviction of amilltary court in an insnr^ent Stato is a 
bartoaBultsequeut rroceodlng; lu a £>tato court— ai U, S. SOS; see iH 
I^ w EeportCT, e^l ; 4 Am. Law Re^'- 5:.4. A pollco a ummary c on vie tlon 
for a breach of a municipal ordinance Is no bar to a prosecution for a 
breacb of tbe public peace— 9 Iiid. :2S1 ; ^ Bj^iXt. 5ijj ^ (> Oreg. nil ; but see 
tTMo. 3f^: norii jv conviction to recover a penalty a oar to an In- 
dictment in tbe naine of the fitate— 10 Cent. L. J. t!7. rroceftdlnja for 
a contempt la no bar to a tirosecution for ttio as-siuUt—i Stniage, 11U7; 
6eefilr«d. iSJfDj '2Speera,2bl: ICar. LawEcp.5lyj 2 Op. Att.-(>en. 9681 
The utterance of forced coin may bo pun I. sued by the State aa fLcliBat 
^-6 How. 410; and by the Federal jjovemnient as forgery— 3 How. aeoj 
and ono iudgmont cannot bo pleaded In bar of tbe otbei^U How. 1! ; 
buteee (j Neb. 121; 65 Hh 430; 14 Al% 4Stj; 14 Aid. IfjJ n, ■VVbere the 
judgment is re versed for an illegal sentence on conviction, where there 
Tivaii po error, th6 pica of former convictiOU is good— 2S N. Y. 4tfl ; see 
2tl N. Y. 167^ 28 Id. 40* j 27 Id. 124. 

Jeopardy.— Jeopardy attaches wbea a party Is once put upon his 
trial l>efore a competeat court and jury upon a valid Indictment, and 
au ftcqultt&l before the Jury, or If the ]iiiy be dlsfthai-Ked without 
legal consent, or unwarratitably— 43Cal.325; 4 id. 37Li; 5 Id. 278; 3!* Id. 
4tt7: Id. 47^; 44 Id. 3^; l6Atk.2tl: 1 Bail, m; 8 lilatcbf 52S: a Brev. 
421: 16 Conn. 64; 3 Cnsb. 212; 1 Kng. Iii9; 7 tla. 4J2; 3 Hawks. 331; 2 
HAlflt. 172; 17 Mass. 315; 2 Pick, 621; 7 Mo. ^44; ISId* 6S3; 3 Smedes & 
M, 751; 1 Swan* 14; STei.liei 2 Tyler, 471; B Wend* G40: 7 Port. 137 j 
63 Mlflj. 3(kI; Id. 439; or an arbitrary digchiun£r&-!J Bush, JSS; or a dls- 
chaiva without Rood cause fihown— 'Jij Ind. 34ij; 27 id. Ul j see 17 Iowa* 
329; laid. 23Gj 3Kob. 357| ilTsev. 4jl3;3a Tox. GjI; or If the dcfcndaut 
is acquitted for variance between indictment and proof— 17 Oal. 333; 
2» Ala- 135, 11 attaches where th a verdict of guilty U rendered^ and 
JudguientJa arrested for want of arraigiunccitaud plea— 43 VVis, 395; 2 
Vei^j. 5f4. Jeopardy attaches on a discharg^e of the jury wJtbout the 
consent of the defendant, for any causa within tho control of the 
courts before verdict rendered— 4 Cal. 37ti; 5 id. 278; 33 id. 478: I Bail. 
651; a CuslL 212; 2 Tyler, 471; 1 Blickf, 34d; 5 id. IM: 7 id. IBS; ft Id. 933; 
IT Flck. 335; 6 Ind. fiO: 1 Swau, 14; Ycrg* 133; * Uayw, 110; 1 Mart. & 
Y. 278; G Humph. 410; id Yerf*. 5i>; 1 llawk^, 4g2 ; 3 id. Sill ' 2 Brev. 445; 
3 Id. 421; ll;ng* l^n Id, 2^3; 3 Tex. 113; e Wcud.54£»; 2N. Y.9; la Conn, 
Mi 3Sinedesl; M.f53; Mo,Cit: IF) id. G^JS; 8 iowa, 290i 2 UalSt. 172: 6 
S«n;.* 11, 678: 7 Tort* 1*5; 2 lib -i!i7; \ Va. Cos. 202: 2 ISiun* 37; 2 
31o Leaa, li4. l>efendant mny waive bla constlttitlonal privilege by a 
conseut to the discharge of the jury-3a Cal. 4«7 : i£fi Ala. 135; 15 Id. 351 ; 
60 lad. 291; a llass. I2t* 21 Wend. 503; 15 Ohio St. 161; 37 Mq. IK; 5 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

§ 1016 PLi 

Cox C. 0. 901; but ABQ Si Coim. 280; qr to, fhetr aspaxaiOjmrrl H 

4S»; ia.429; )51fo. ISB; 14 Ifid. 589 : 1 Humph, mi tmt ra<ht v-u»m: 
auinot be made psenkttre by jno^ns InttErest pr Bshteemmtatmt-^ 
not go t6 vacate m prior proceedings-^ gtOl 27d ^ 95 Os; ssi : 11 Htamplb. 
502; 12 JA, An. 710;^ Itflss. 864; iSpa. St. 488; 1 ■ Swan. 256;^ 1 TTtab. 
seot f^olt. 403: 1 C^w. & D. 151. The constitutional rliAit ia Intehded 
to shield the prisonet-ftom a second trial, except athiseiectiO'h and re- 
eue^, Which u manifested by his application for a new triat-^ GUff. 5; 
IMcLean, 434; 3 id. 573; 5 id. 286; 1 WaU. Jr. 127: 6 Ala. (176. When the 
record showi, itt a case M V^^-*^ " "- -"— ^" -— '^- ^ — 

MOi m XI. ^. owi in lu^ ymi oJ id. 571: 26 Indr, 847; id. 86B; S Ohio St. 
280; U M. 494; 24 Id. 191; 5 Alien, 216; 2 Pick. 621; 18 Johns. 187 j 83 
Tex. '67. ■ /■' 

JteopardTi when does not attach.-'A part? Is not put iu jeopardy 
until a verdict ha^bef^n rendered— S Bu^li,£63; 2tf Ala, 13^; 4l\L 173 f 
35 Id. 406i 7 id, 2S%i 13 Johns, laT ; 2 Plcls. &21 r2 Sohm, Cas. 3(?l i U OiilCi 
Bt. 4^: 25 rntL a^G: 20 Mtl. 425: M IIow. FnM; ThLicU, a 0. 1; 25 Ai-t, 
206;'27Ind. 131; 041110,376: ti^^M. 4&7j 9 Wlieufc. 57^; 4 Wasii. C.O.402i 
Walk. Cb. 134; add twice in jeopardy does not relate to amistrlaI-4 
Wash, O. C- 410; 7 Port. 167; 2ii Ala, 135: 4 Id. 173; WLeat. 57U; 11 
Johns. IST: nor where the Jury 13 djaehar^fed fromnccesslty—D Wheat, 
679; 2 Sum. IS; 6 Sersr. & R. 57Tj Bald. SJ5; 1 MeLean, 431; 7 Port* 197-, 
In a capital case aa well as in a misdemeanor— 4 Wash. C. C. 402} as on 
account of absence or n^itnesscs— 20 Md. 425: seeaBeu, 1. On adts- 
cbarpo of the Jury on aecoutit of sickness ot defendant, his coasenii 

win be ImpUetf— '2G Ark. 2ti0; 1 Ball, tiol j 13 JoUna, lb7 ; $ee & Leijfh, ^3 1 
63 N. 0. 1Z0J ; I Craw. & D. 151 ; 2 Car, & P. 413 ; 3 teach, 546, If a juror 
becomes 111 during the trIaUtne lory may be discharged, and tho prl»* 
oner trie danew-38 CaL4aT: 65 Ala. I2y ; 2 Mo. 135; 5 llamph. GOU tlld. 

24fl; 9 Leigh f C13; 10 Yerg, bh\ 4 Wash. C. O* 402; Thaeh. O* C, 1; Rusa. 
& R. C. Cr. 234: 3 Cmw. ^ D. '212; 2 Leaeli» 620: or wlicro ho hecoizkes 
Insane— 4 Wash. C. C. 40*2, ■* Legal ncccBslty " is not conDned to c&ses 
of death, etCt when the dlschargo bccoinos Inevitable— 33 (J%1. 4B7, 
The escape of a juryman will warrant tho tllschargo of the jury— 4 
Hal3t,356; 1 Ball, 651 : 1 Hale P* C* 295. So, the jury may be discharged 
on account of inability to aCTce* and thia doea not work an ac^iittal 
-*iCal, 3r24; 33G:u 32f!> 64 Uo. ST&; G5 Id. 497; 29 Pa. St. 323; 9 Wbeat, 
579: 18 Johns, l&i; if tbey fail to Agree after a reasonahlo time— 7 Ala, 
25S; S5ld, 4iW, but$ee S4 N. C, 3C4; 3llawle.ii:iS; 43 Ala, 402; or^here 
they do not agree on tho last day of the term— Wallc. Ch* 134: T Port. 
187; ?S Ala. 1^5; Thach. C. C. I. A statutory cloao of the berm of 
court justifies a dlscliarge, which la no bar to a eerond trial— 4S CaU 
323; 3 Wheel. C.C.473, 5 Ina.270i 1 Va. Cas, 3lfl; SHili. (S. C-> 6S0: 7 
Port. 197; 7 Ala, 259: iy id, 577; 1 Wallr. (Miss,) 134; 39 Mlsa.GlS; 64 Mo. 
376; 10 Yerg, 132; 2 Hnmpti.7l}: Bid. MI; 13 Q. B.71S; 3Fo3t. A F. 2W>| 
3 <Jox C. G. 4^. If defendaotls put mi nls trial, aud the jury dl^WT^Oii 
and the tenn 13 adjcjumed without the dlacbarge iioEiig retortled, bd 
must avail himself of such defense when put on lila trial a^ainj and bj 
appeal If Judgment should be rever^sed— 45 Cal, 2i% Whera the In- 
dictment was defective, the defendant has not been In Icopatdy-J 
Cai.&43i 17 id, 333; '25 Alt, 2Q6; 49 Ala, 344; 3<i Miss, 648; 2TlclE.6il; I 
Met. 33S| 9 Id. 531 1 2 Day>M4j U Serg, A It. 677: $ Rawle, 4!*&i 1 Johns. 
66; 4liL a€3; 73 Icl. 320; 69 id. IWJi 1 Hayw. (N. C.) 241; 3 Sueed,28a. 
The prisoner may be remauded for further proceed In g^ss^H emp. 29». 
Jeopardy does not attach where the Judgment waa reversed at tue In- 
■tanco of the aecnsed— 3 Ala, 102: 1^5 Id, j91; 40 Uh 382, So, a defend- 
^t ia not la jeopardy who has natl leave to withdraw his plea, and 

Iilead In abatement, which plea has been found for blm-l3 Allen, 554) 
05 H3S9. las. The Oeath of the judge, durlnif a trial before the jury. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

SOS FLBA. §§ 1017^8 

does not rellGTe b defendant frotn a second trial— 3S Cal. 467; 4 A1&. 
272 s * fitowt* A P. 72 J 32Ind. 4SC: or from an Indictment for amtsd^ 
meacor— Id. See 3S Cal. 4ti7. Misconduct of tho Juror la brcuklna up 
the trial"4 Halsit* 256: 1ft Coi C. C. 574; anfi intcrnicdLato discovery of 
evidence of a Juror's bla», Js ground for withOrnrwal of a luror* and dla- 
eharge of th© Jury— 1 Curt. S3; jseo la Wend. SSI; 3 IlL 32<3| see alao. 
4 WaalL O. V. 4U3j II Cox C C. 142j bQtnotiiblesfi upon anpttcatlon or 
defendant, or ualess the defect was sucli that bo was m-Miyr never In 
ieoTWdy— 1 Bad. 651; 9 Bush,g;33t Sa Arlf. 31; 3IU.3:iT; 1 Lelsh,a99; 3 
Ohro St 239; 8 liam, i 0. 117 ; S Ad. A E. flSl : Car. A M. 647. T:iie rec^ 
opd evidence of proceed tngra at a previous trial U not admissible to 
proTO former jeopardy— 53 Ual. (3^4). l>eo Const. Prov, anie, p. 17. 

1017. Every plea must be oral, and entered upon the 
minutes of the court in substantially the following form: 

1. If the defendant plead guilty : * * The defendant pleads 
that he is guilty of the offense charged." 

2. If he plead not guilty: *' The defendant pleads that 
he is not guilty of the offense charged." 

3. If he plead a former conviction or acquittal: "The 
defendant pleads that he has already been convicted (or 
acquitted) of the offense charged by the judgment of the 

court of (naming it), rendered at — (naming the 

place), on the day of ." 

4. If he plead once in jeopardy : "The defendant pleads 
that he has been once in jeopardy for the offense charged 
(specifying the time, place, and court)." [In effect April 
26th, 1880.] 

Flea.—ETery plea must be oral-i^T Cal 124; 55 11. 29S. Tbe omission 
to plead l3 fitLat to tho Jadgnient, CYcn after to rd let— 53 Cal. 431; 63 
Mo. 321 ; ti3 hL 'IM. On appeal » 1/ tlio record falUj to show arraignment 
and pica, tho court will a-ssums that ttiero ivaa no arraignment nor 
ple»--5i Cal. 4aij 3 Wis. 620* A plea in ahat«^ment, Or a i pedal nlca 
not Involving a statement of f:ict, U exclusively for the court— 46 MlBS. 
6f^ and two may bo plead t^d ^M the iiaiue time wlieu not tt^pueriE^nt— 
2 va» Caa, 3ia. They must always ba tried befcre the sreueml lasue— 8 
Allen, S45 ! 23 Pa. St. 13; 33 Ata. 2^3; 33 Id. 3i^i; 84 ItL 211 ; 40 Id, 344; 3 
Helslc. 33; 4!J Ind!, idQ. The obJecMon that tlio grand jury has not b&en 
(^rawripiiumuicncd. and Imnannelcd, accortllng" to law, must, in some 
jurisdictions, bo made by plea In abatement— 5 Port. 474 : 4 1>ev. 305; S 
Blackf^248; 12Smcdes*4;M.ft^, It Ig too Jato to raisH the objection tn 
apnellato court— ;J7 A La. 4iiJ : 30 Id. 511 ; but nee c Blackf, 104 ; 3 Parlter 
C^, It. 272; 25 N. Y, 3n>!; 47 Ala. flS; 2 Aiibm. 90. After I b^ linpannellng 
and flvrt^arlD^ nt several trial jurors, H ta in tbe discretion of tho ooori 
to entertain tbe obJcgUoa-iS N. Y.2S. 

8ubd,l. See49CaL895. 

1018. A plea of guilty can be put in by the defend- 
ant himself only in open court, unless upon indictment or 
information ag^dnst a corporation, in which case it may 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

$^1013-20 FLEA. ^96 

be put ii^ by coouael.. The court, may, at any tune befora 
ju^ment, upon a plea of guilty, permit it to be ivitb- 
^It&vnn, and a plea of not guilty substituted. [In effect 

April 9tLt, 18S0,] 

Plea of gniltyt^-Ths plea of guilty ehoulil not b6 entercfl, eXQspli 
with the e^prcd^ cozistat o£ dtrlundajjit^ ^iven pfirHOji^liy, ia fllroct 
Cerius in oj^en conrt— 41 Ctil. 4til. 'llie coutt may^ In ita dLst-retiqiip 
allow ttio plea of {ruJJty tolio wlthflm^ni— 'i4 N. M. 143; Be&:i J>iev, ail, 
lVli«a tti^ie l-i rE:a5^on to I id Ed v a IC h;iA bt^on entet^etl tliroiL^li iiiuilvtij-^ 
encB, and niaml/ fvuintlj^j hopo thrit pinibhmi^Jidvoitid Lo uiiLigaL^d, 
ttia c au r t fi bou Id pe ]■ 111 1 1 1 1 ; L7 b iMVL eJ] a ru wn — 1 1 Cal, i^lv bii 1 1 ] i o party 
Hbould ni^t bfj perLuattt'ii jg trtfiflj l>ir etitortng n pica ouo dayj ftua 
capriclcni"i]y vvltLnli-awnii^ !t tliti iiPit— iJ. TttP SupiTmo C[>urt will 
not rovLUf^o Qu order rclLiMii^ Co pfifoiit thB plea oi not guUty to bo 
withdrawu— i7 CaL Id. 

Seo oate, 5 IDIG, uoto^ 49 OhI. 3S5u 

1Q19. The plea of not guilty puts in issue every mate* 
rial allegation of the indictment or information. [In ef- 
fect AprU 9tb, 1880.] 

Flea of not gniltv.— The plea of not guilty puts In Issue all the mate* 
rial arermentSfinClading that ot the locus dmcti—S^2 Cal. 470; 44 Id. 105; 
48 la. S82; 9 id. 421. Uud^r this plea insanity may bo shown— 23 CaL 
461. See anfe, § 1016, note : 49 Cal. 395. Proceedings on plea of Insanity 
•-see post, $S 1368-4372. The plea of not guilty puts in issue the aver- 
ment of place where the crime was committed, and Imposes on the 
prosecution the necessity of proving the locus delicti— Si Cal. 470. 

1020. All matters of fact tending to establish a de- 
fense, other than that specified in the third and fourth 
subdivisions of section one thousand and sixteen, may 
be given in evidence under the plea of not guilty. [In 
effect April 26th, 1880.] 

Involuntary intoxication.— If a person be made drunk by fraud or 
stratagem, or by the unskillf ulness of a physician, he is not responsi- 
ble for his acts-2 Parker Cr. B. 235 ; SI Qa. 424 ; see 19 Mich. 401 ; S3 Ind. 
543; 40 Conn. 136. 

Insanity from intoxication may excuse from punishment for crime, 
as on a fixed frenzy or insanity , as delirium tremens— 43 Cal. 344: 1 Ashm. 
289; 50 Barb. 266: 48 id. 274; 6 Parker Cr. B. 209: 1 Curt. 1; 2 Cranch C. 
C.158: Crabbe,558; 1 Duval, 224; 20Gratt. 860; 3 Har. (Del.) 551: 5 id. 
510; 26 Ind. 422; 4 id.563: 81 id. 492; 3 Jones, (N. C.) 245: Mart. & 1. 147 ; 
6 Mason, 28; 19 Mich. 401: 46 Mo. 414 ; 18 N. Y. 9; 5 Ohio St. 77 ; 12 Tex! 
500; or mania apotu^-^ Har. (Del.) 551. 

Intoxication.— Voluntary Inf = .]i I* no exensB tor crime— n 

CaL 607; 86 id. 531; 49 id. 485: TA .^ ir. ;iJl; 13 Ala. 419; 54Barb.31Q{ &0 
id. 226; 2 Brewst.546: 8 Bush,^4e;; Ci.iIjL»(^»&'»ai •! Cusdi. COO; 2 Cnmch C. 
C. 158: 1 Curt. 1; 2 id. 19; 2 Dall Sir^j I Dliv;iK2^; a id. liiS; i^ Ga. U ; 
45 id. 225; 3 Gray, 463; 20 Gratt. m]"; 5 Ilnr. (Del) SIO : 9 HiiEQpU. mil 1 1 
Id. 154: 66I1L118: 66 Ind. 185; 50 Ed. Ilf2; 4\iUl. J^]; U KMm. i:iS:ri LL 
An. 691; 22id.58r: 2Mason,'91; 5 Ul 2Bi Mart. & Y. W; .; ML!L(Ky.> Ij 
114 Mass. 295; 21 Mlnn.Si2; 14 Mo, M!^; m Id. mHi CJ^kL a^^ l^Xev. I40| 
44 N. H. 892: 81 N. Y.S30; 2 Parker Cr. U. 14; ^ Id. m: 1 filroH. 4TJ: I 
BmedttftlL 618; 12 Tex. 500; 2i Wis. 4^[ 1 WrJ^ht, 5^; 50 Yt. mt 

d by Google 

907 FUCA.. g 2080 

eren where Bb eittronie m to make the portion nncousdoaa of hJA tLCtt 
— 17 Mictu 9; 3 Hel^. 203. 1 1; doea not aggravatd ft ctlmlual wt, U slm* 
ply furoi^hea no excmse— ^ IiL J3I4. ItueUU^r exomes nor paUin^ei 
p»flsioiioririallce— 1 0mrai,234j 2 Id* 163; U HiilMpb, IM; i ap£afL334; 
3 emedesi <& M. filS ; S OhJo gt, ia^; 2^ la. MB; «ea U Hamp^li. 6is^; Bmd. 
330; 2 1'^rkerCr. 11. 233; 21V tJ. :£l.'3; nor ]d war tii a gratia ot tho oilensa 
— Addid, 255; 13 Alfi. 4U; B BlisIi* 4^3: 40 Qouu. &G4; ;} Gi^y, 4Gtt; 2Key&9f 
424: 2i>Gratt.ti60; aallL5l4: tiSMo.BSg; 14 La. An. 671); 12 Nov. HO; 9 
OMo St. 435; 2 Mason. ML Nov does it cxtcniiato crlmo— 27 CaL 507 1 29 
CaL £7d: 21 1<!. £54^ 111 Maiu. 2115. Nor famish nn Inf crenco of thoab- 
Benca of premeditatloa— 4d Barl>, 274; Sit N. Y. 276; 27 Mo. 332; soo anie^ 

Intozicatlon.'-TIionglL Intoxication does not extenuate or excuse 
crimo^ jct It may bo receivable Iti ei'ldeuca to deterniluo tho degroo 
of tlio offense— 27 Cal. Bdl i a Parker Cr. R. ti32; JS N. Y. U; or to dotor- 
mino what specific oUcuso waa com Emitted--^ I CaL 614: 27 id. £07: 43 
Id. W4; SLSitl. bl; 13 Ala. 413; 3a Id. iVJ; 2 Brcwst* &4fi; 1 Duval. 224 i i 
id. imi 25 G;k 627^ 2;> id. 5Li4; 3i Id. 44!j; L> lliimpli. (JGJ; 4 Id. ISS^ 19 
MieU,401; H nnnn, 151; iaind.4:S! 2 Lea, (TynnJCTS; I Spear, KHi 43 
Tex, 6LIJ; i T*;x. Ct. App. 21^i 4 Id. i^75i Jd.ltil; or to teat tbo condition 
of tba mind, £uid itbt cup^icity to form au iatention— a4 Cal.2i:f; 2J id. 
AOT; 1 DaJ£..2iJ?; ai N. V. aiJU; or to alio ^T that hawaanot capaMaof do- 
liberation, or of attack or dcfciiso— 41) Couu. I3G; Kans. liJ; or loca* 

fable of 1 iicIgLog hii act3 or Ibeir conscqLieiice3— 21 Cal. fiH : 37 Id. 507 ; 
i Pa, St. Ij>5: 10 Mich. 401; 11 Humph. I5it 4 Id. lliiS; Id.S&aj Sid. 
GTl: 1 SpcaTrdSl. It may ho shown hi mitigation ofpnnishment— 3 
Bush, tif; & Id, 3Jj2^ I Id. 320; 8 kl. 403; I Duval, 2M. EvldeiicO Of hi. 
toxlcatlon&bouEdbcrecelvcd^lth i^reat cantEon, for a dmatea man 
nmy act wStli premcflitntion as wcU a3 another— 33 Oal, Kil. Bea 

Fkx>of of lnsanit7.~IXnder the plea of not guilty the Insanity of de- 
fendant at the time of the act may be given in evidence— 28 Cai. 461 ; 
bnt it should be examined vrith great care— 39 Gal. 625. The presump- 
tion of law is that defendant was^ane till the contrary ia shown from 
preponderance of proof— 20 Cal. 618: see 6 id. 543. Habitual, but not 
temporary or spasmodlo insanity raises the legal presomption of its 
continuance— 38 CaL 183; 17 CaL 424. The insanity of defendant's par- 
ents may be shown when there appears to bo no motive for the act, or 
where there Is evidence of insanity of the defendant-31 CaL 466. See 
poti, S 1369, and note. 

Statnte of Umitations^The statute of limitations need not be 
speciaUypleaded-n WalL 168; 4 Day» 121 ; 3 Cranch C. 0.4411 5 id. 73: 
2XOW.&7: 29N.H.274J 28 Pa. St. 259: contra, A Parker Cr. B. 231; 74 
K. C. 230; i Ga. 335; 10 Humph. 52; 8 Ind. 494: 7 Iowa, 409. 

Exonse and justification.— Misfortune or accident as an excuse- 
see Desty's Grim. Law, SS 30, a, b ; ante, § 26, 6ubd. 6. Acts done under 
compulsion or duress— id. $§ 32, a, b; ante, § 28, subd. 8. Consent of 
party Injured, as an excuse— see Desty's Crlm. Law,JS 33, a, b. Ignor- 
ance or mistake of law, as an excuse— id. S§ 84, a, b. Ignorance or mis- 
take of fact-id. §§ 35, a, b; ante, § 26, subd. 4. 

Self-defense.— The right of self-defense is based on necessity— 27 
CaL 572. The owner of a house may use force necessary to repel an 
assanlt-S Gal. 841: Addis. 246. The act of raishig the window In the 
n]£^ Is not sufflLaent t6 rottse the fears of a reasonable man saas to 
excuse the Use of a deadly weapon, without first warning the Intruder 
off— 43 Gal. 447; 90 D1.^22U A pa^^ assaulted isjiutifljjm u^g such 


necessary _ ____ - _ 

there waa no real d^^er-^44 _CaJ^ 69; and his^^uHt or hmqcence do 

I^ds on the elrcmnstances as they appear to nim-*55 CaL 207; 44 id. 
Pmr. CODSd-44* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

r^^ It) tnl rt ft ' i i w n nfsnfng. tfifro» Aw 

Sfiisto.o<jMda,lM(i«|wtiaa61&liE^ „ 

, People «.ilfiks» 6* CadU flOTrVero* antosQdeot; t&roatslk ao 

exctito fortwdeatUy Ii6sairit» wlion. up aeaions|nili».ls maa« bj ]mo 
party/threatexUnfiM^ OaL aSL See I>esti7's gnau £Mir, ntio aO)ci« 
bu>a. . . I. ,■ ' . ..,',;..'.:•; 

•riOfi2i% If tlieilefendaiit was f ormerl j aoquittod .on the 
^5tind of -^atiance between the itidictoeiirt or informa- 
tioti and t!i« proof y or the indictment or infornuttioa was 
dismissed upon . an ^objection to itslpm or dul>atajice, or 
in order to h6]4 tlie defendant fpr A higher offense, with- 
out a jftdgment ol acqnittal, it i^' not an aoqoi^l of the 
•ame offense. [In effect April 9th» 1S80.] 

j' r " ' or caaTlctloa pro* 

tuj'.r .:.: :!..■ . 1 ::...;.:...,: ^ : m MaTti* ailArk.TaSi 
lfiIC!W.'^2i'>; 4 inLkfiir, si'; ai ill. i\i}; 7 U:\. liJ: 1 Swan* W; Itt Cona* 
M; 26 Id* 2tl2: fin m ph. 677; llitl.5'Ji)j lH tad, 170; 21Iow.St.TrLfi44) 
Sdjom, yo. All Jicijiilttui of hOT", wltti intent to Ftcal^ la not a bai 
toapro^eCUUqraf'jr'larceny— irfCaLL"2'l; liGaKti; 2lliiwt:», SS; 4a4idii; 
li7\ u Ind.fiii; fio.sii dlaclinrpc on aiircllmrnary cxnininatltjn— iBKaa* 
BOaj nrtrnaistliargabyagrraml jury— 2Ar<hiu^Gi; 2HLjc}(Jr^E>SCtr aodt 
gesfi On. Et : or wlicro t3m iTHUcrment avtis qn^licd— I2il MasQ. i46j 33 
ArlL. S;{L< KvJfJrace tbivt fi furuitjr Iridic tin L>ut Larl bcou Fetoaide on 
tlio yround that tho ^rrkncl Jtiry i]n,d bot Ijofn Ic^lLy coiistitiitcdir hdcI 
tlint t lie court had drd(.^rifd the coiio Eubmtlcod to nuoLLer (.TUTid jury, 
1011 nint ^u^t^to, tkplnA of former ftoqulttal— ti3€alK UiO* Aromncr pentt* 
Ittsladtf^tiiierit IfltiQ bar to atria] on tlii] Enroad^r} Cmncli O. O, b7; 1 
Cafih.?7«l il ld.47'i; & Gmv, (HI; 126 Hiy?3. 2tk5t U l^Veud, 6; 23 Gratt. 

Variance.— Inunaterls^ Tsriance sliqnld be dlsregardea— 41 Cal. 236: 
If the defendant be in fact acqmtted tn the fsroiXna Of Uhmaterlal' 
variance, he cannot be a^tn prosecuted for the kame Offense— 41 CaL 
236 ; but if the variance be material, it l3 not a bar-41 Cal. 236. Where 
the indictment charged stealing of five certifleotOs of shares of stock 
of the No. 7956, and the proof snowed there was bnt one such certifi- 
cate, and not a series oi five, it was not a fatal variiuioe— 45 CaL 672; 
see ante, % 1016, and pot(» § 11 12 ; see 49 Cal. 89&. 

1022. "Whenever the defendant is acquitted on the 
merits, he is acquitted of the same offense, notwithstand- 
iDgany defect in form or substance in the indictment or 
information on which the trial was had. [In effect Apiil 
9th, 1880.] 

Former aoonittaL— Where a person is put on trial on'a yalid indict* 
ment, before a competent court and jury, a dischar8:e of the jury 
without his consent, or from some unavoidable acciaent or necessity, 
is equivalent to an acquittal— 43 CaL 826 ; 24 id. 41. BO. if the toroaecut. 
ing attorney enters a nolU prosequi after the Jury 1 

d by Google 

399 .•-.v.iii'. • ...■J-'lPJMSA.Oi-.-..:t.r..<AMl ^UttlSK^ 

Dev, 491; 3 G^ 53 J kl 306; W Id. 623; 7 GniyT 328: 1 Hampli. 253; S 
lTia.290; 2 McLean, 114; 4D N. H. 155; 14 Olilo,'i<)5; l2 Ohio gu214j 20 
rick. 354i; 2JPa. St. LlT; TJiacli. C. C. 132; 12 Vt, D3; 3 W. Va TW: but It 
Is oilierwiso wbero dcfendaut waa not Iti Jcoparfly— 2 Brewsi&eTi 1 
Curt. 23; 42 Conn. 43:;; 7 Gray, 32d; 5j Tck. Sd; li Vt. 03. If, wliile ttie 
fury l3 out dn liberating, an a beforo tho expiration of Urn term, the 
]u(&e» without callliigtbojiirylntc^courtjafVKJurna for thotcrm. It ia 
eq til valeat to an ac qu i ttal— 4i Car. 3?i>. Sntpi Ise, i n t tio e luIcI e a break- 
ing down of tho Cass of tho pm^st^cution, T^ill not justify witlitlrawing 
ofa 1arai>-3 calnea, SQ.>? 2 Holean, 114 ; 2 Parker <)ii U. fi7ii; 3 Btnotgcj 
984; butaee fow/rff, 13 Ired. 2W; U Wtiiia. 3IL. 

1023. When the def eiidan1t^99^j^^; ()r.^^^^, 
or has jt)een once jjl^ced in jeopardy; upon an indictment 
or inf o^mklbn^ tie ^onvictiin, ^c^i^ J^b^a^dyls a 

bar to another indictjsi^fi^ i©? i^tRVati^^.tp^ 
chargedijQ^ iibittiartobt^c^acitAitmhjaUiuai^tik .touooinmitotibei 
Bame, or for an offense necessarily inclucfe9>%barein, of 
which ho might have boeu con viq ted under that iadipt- 
rnent or information. [In effect April 26th, 1880.] 

Higher offfense.— On ah [ndlctnieut TormnTfler, defe-Tiflimt wasfdcfnd 
sruUiy iot muDSlAujcliter, aud on a gocoud Ixiidictixieni l&t ft:Lurdei\ his 
fg-r«ier coiivlcUoii, ^vli.3 ft g"ood pica, tbougii a new trial bad been 
granted oa Ms motlDn-^ CaL 37^: A IcL '278. A contlctlon of loaji-' 
sLaugtiter l3 an acquittal of every Jia^licr oJXc^nsc^^ and so of all o^ensea 
Included In an indtctnieiit— lia CaL S^h tt iv person i$ IncSlctca for 
maaaianf bter, andtlio court, without coaaemtofdefendtintj ili»chailga9 
tbo jury oecan^e it l3 of opinion that the evldencaebowij defendant 
gulky of murder, if he is again ijidictied fH^rtlio eamo tiiiinie^heia twice 
m jeopardy f Euid U eutitled ta ^q^ultta^— 43 C:d. 334. Soo ontie, S lOlti, 

*'l6a*'jK tiiri'^^^daliti^reSHife^'^^y 
xnent or information by demurrer or pli^, ^ pi^ 6^^'^i 
guilty niiift^lie^tMileito/iilEi^^ndO<ri^piiiMq'ja80.po^^ 

Befasal to pleads— If a defendant stands mutOp a plea of notgollty 
can be entered by order of court— 125 Mass. 397 ; 76 Pa. St. 819 ; ft Whart. 
67 ; 10 Cox C. 0.4<»: so if he refuses or declines to plead after demurrer 
overruled— 28 Cal. 274; 29 Id. 562. A refusal to plead does not admit 
jnri8dictton-30 mcb. S71. 

1025. Section one thousand and twenty-five of said 

Code is hereby repealed. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Change of place of trial.— The veaae of a case may be dianged at 
tbe discretion of the court on good cause shown— 53 CaL M7: 44 id. 85: 
49 ld.425; 48 Ala. 85: id. 180; 29 Ark. 225; 4 Denio, 150; 54 Qa. $71: 1 Hill, 
179; 52Ind.215; 53 Id. 408; 44 Iowa, 667: 55 Mo. 440; 65 Id. 454 Li5 Kan. 
407; 20 id. 811; 8 8. C. 237: 45 Tex. 148; 6 Tex. Ct.>lLpp. 257; 85 Wis. 294; 
Id. 303. The venue may be|«baiigcML m taone or several defendants— 
25 Mo. 439; 2 Ired. 101 ; 1 CWetoB?«S^-^'^ 

A, ;!; ■; J ." . ..... ^'! j nflldavlt miL^t stota facta and cUw 

ctmi.sLiiijr vrilrwii WTiic-ti ttir t'^rrt- liisjijn Is deffnccfl, ttui^Afnlrfind Utj- 
pai-ital trial rnutiut b« JiJid fu Die cuuuiy^ ^vlii^ro the tndletiut^tit U 
tdimii— 11.^111.^79^ aid. 41:^. , T1j0 fullclai'jii jUa£ lao camigi^ iiavon fair 
fiud impart tal irlaliii tins irrnfaty Is TiDt[Broneuiifflf!fcnt^:Jl Cal. 'iD5; 3 
McCord,e02; nQrait^m^imilMri »Baru.^ AdDl.3i7;£E>eliCiI. 1^^: 
norSi^ iliflukfrfl fact ihiiL thLrf^ or forty miv^QUA in ihtu county had 
euliatTltjednionpy ta proiiuio alavrjcr tQ aid tUo pro^cut)ng attorney 
—21 CaL 2C5- qnf^^tlosiSnjj ft CaL U^. A nrn^ftr onlnlm ur iJPSief set 
toTth M lfc« ^i^Mmv It, t tmt ji f^r UItiI can [lo t Ue Iliia» i 3 nc i: Sull tiJ ent— 
44r:kl,^; s«q Sid ld.4!<^. TitiJt at^Uatioa U adtlre^'iicd to tliafiounct 
tISsit 1 F tbii of tt3<3 court— C9Qtl. 4?f; 13 ifl. 1?^; fild. I'ilJ; &3 IiLWJT; 41 Jd, 
*3i!i; 3 Id. iHi\ t!i€3 e Kerr ho of -st-liidi must bo ri^a-iOnable— 5aid>Jfi7; 18 
Id. 1 ij to l)o><l]iKHWtid i^r hi mi-tlitraiicA of juttiue^^^ i<S- fii; tt ML i^i 
a^iij tbe ortlE r gfreaipval wiLi|iot be autiitu^jd oiceptlii <:aao of gross 
aUuieor flUfTCtToo-aifJ: l.W; lUd, 130. TMa fTRiiitCoir of timolollle 
coitii r ^ t" aJtlf hi TfUni^iti tb t> ai ^c v$ i ioo of f:bi» ^(mct—%)t Cal U 1 . T b'S »^ 
l^lliiunoii raciutit bf. iu:iifJu nfuv twelve cotiif^utciit Jjrora aro obtained 
-iiViOM, lldi aad t^a burdtA L& on tba peacloaer £o iimkco out a caae— 

jrc|n){>T^)l jof j(ih|0 a^ti<)t|l>6' the p ©f jiidottntgrft*^ 

10S6; ' '^ (hra^ of MoG^ 

tr^jpsij^)^ p.tlie ifiourt tp wbicli tbe actiqil i^ retxipv^'d ?rdbr- 
Jtwdfcipy^^jtl^eprderoT removal, tecifd^'pl'eidjii^', atid 
pj;99«i^ii^ in' jtbe ac^ion^ incluciins tiie^ lin^eHs^iii^'for 

'. [IQ^ryU iim^Tf\im * i»r9wWyfln4^qoMe5^^t 

iM^0«t^ ttlab«tiA4BcliaMfeititteB>fe|^ il^toiMBllMlMil 


any of the original pleadings or other papers beforgjuirti 

d by Google 

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THB MODS 0^.<t9ttA^r'J fri*]/' .^" ''- . . 

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1041. Anissueof factarisesr-^-^'^'^^'--^"--^^'*^^^*'' ■• 
L Upon a plea of not guilty. 

2. Upon a plea of a former conviction or aoqnlttal of the 
same offense. 

3. Upon a plea of once in Jeopardy. [In effect April 
26th, 1880.] 

Snbd, 1. If the indiotment charged only maiulaiighter. and words 
are interpolated, making it ebarge murder, and defendant pleada 
guilty and goes to trial, he mar prove tbe Interpolation, and can be 
&ie4i f or manghwighter only— fio CaL 448. Consent cannot confer Juris- 
diction to try for any offense other tban tliat chaiged-^ CaL 448. See 
ante, S 1016; see alfioS9 OaL 402. 

1042. Issnes of fact mast be tried by jory, unless a 
trial by jury be waived in criminal cases not amounting 
to felony, by the consent of both parties expressed in open 
court and entered in its minutes. In cases of misde- 
meanor the jury may consist of twelve, or any number 
less than twelve upon which the parties may agree in 
open court [In effect February 25th, 1880. ] 

IMal tor lory.— The right of trial by Inry Is a sacred right, and one 
secored by the guarantees of the Con8titutlon-48 CaL 148. See Const. 
ProT. <nif e, p. IC A defendant cannot, without express stttutoiy au- 
thoiltyi waiVe his right to a trial by jury on a plea of not guilty— 27 
Conn. 281: 18Uich.l51; 10 Mo. 496; 6 Ark. 601;^ Ohio St. »3; 13 id. 
6S2j 43Wis.40tt 17 Ark. »0r9 Mich. 198; SOMd.SSOt see 41 Mo. 470; 81 
ArL i28; aOAlb. L. J. 899. l^e action of a police magistrate In corn- 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 


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1043. If th0 prosecnt^Qn pe for' iL telbtiy ^ ^e defendant 

must be pe980Kiall7 presaat aft tlie. trial; tet jt lor miatto- 

moanot, ibhe tiJaJiiifly j(^ hW ^ .1*4irt»|^^ %^*- 

fendant; if, however, his presence is necessary for the 

purpose of identification, the ooortmay. npon application 

of the district attonve^^ hf aA^^rder or '<rarrant, require 

the personal attendance b^ the deiendant at the triaL 

[In effect April 9tli,:iaa0. ] 

Biehtio apptar in person— 42 OsLies. See Conflt Ptot. «m<«. p. IC 
It is errorto aeclsre a. bond forf etMb««M ffftotatifMledto sp- 

'mMe OMVIitadfcMior MlUHoar^wmBtitm^nmk iwsiillftnil to 
thecomt aboold stthe commenceuient of the trial, oritor lilm 
actual enstoOj-tfOsL 43. : ^^ .r 


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I104S. Fonutloii of trial jury. 

S 1047. Clerk to prepare a calendar. 

S 1048. Order of disposing of issues on the calendar. 

S 1049. Defendant entitled to two days to prepare for trlAL 

1046. Trial juries for oriminal actions are formedin the 

same manner as trial juries in civil actions. 

Itupflimeliiig trial jurors— se& Code CI ^, Proc. W 243,247; ae^pw*, 
I 1074, tiote. Jr Jurors affi not dr&wti and smiLinDned to iLtt&nd tliB 
term cf the CDiut, nn order 111^7 forth with lasue dlret^tlug tit a sbarjjf 
to Htimmod them^47 C^l- !ii&; fi BlaEcbL 2D4; and Jt Ja liuiAa.terl&l 
whether cho c-.^LiS8 far ihQ necE^sslty ajfose before or after tbo com- 
m^ncem^D t of Lb a te rm^l J Gal . %\\\ : 4 J d. ^'Jfi ; 2 H d . 4(^0. The names of 
all juroni se^lected , whether as groDd or trial Jurors., are to bo placsd In 
tliO BRcnQ box— ^ rac;. €« L> J. dl?!^, A trlnJ %\\tj miiiit cooslst oF twelve, 
and deffindBJit cannot con-^ent to a ictss nuiubcr^^ CaL 2SS; 43 id, 12:11; 
S7 Id. 677, Tbe omission of tiie clerlt to lujjf rt, la hJfl qertlflcftte of the 
dj^wki^, tbi^ djit^ of \X\% order for tbfj dniwlug, la not a fatal error— 6 
Fac. O.X. J. 682. Ifp thouLfh liSffaily drawti, they have not been flnun- 
moued, the court may <it<i^t tntjtii i]aimriuLiOd— 46 Call, 47^ 

1047. The clerk must keep a calendar of all criminstl 
actions pending in the court, enumerating them according 
to the date of the filing of the indictment or information, 
specifying opposite the title of each action whether it is 
for a felony or a misdemeanor, and whether the defend- 
ant is in custody or on bail. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

1048. The issues on the calendar must be disposed of 
in the following order, unless for good cause the court 
shall direct an action to be tried out of its order: 

1. Prosecutioas for f elon^, when the defendant is in 

2. Prosecutions for misdemeanor, when the defendant is 
in custody. 

a Froeecutions for felony, when the defendant is on 

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4. Froseoations for misdemeanor, when the defendant 
Is on bail. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

A felony is a crime which is or may be paniBliable with death, or by 
imprlsomnent In the State prison-Hsee Desty's Grim. Law, § 3, and 

note; see also atUCf S 17.. ftX^ry, (^tojCrin^is a "^ ^ 

Desty's Crlm. Law, § 4, aAib«tei ISISSEmBSI S 17. 

IQAd^.TiA^rUs pkft^tbaide&iidanfriiB 
least two days to prasMWafosLtriaJ^' - r 

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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

'4<yr •''''•' 'ipbM^^^ §1052 



S 1062. Postponement* when, and how ordered. 

1052. When an action is called for trial, or at any time 
previous thereto, the court may, upon sufficient cause, di- 
rect the trial to be postponed to another day. [In effect 

April otb, isaa] 

FcistpDnement of triaL^BLt^lmeas of defendant's coonsel— 4 Cal. 188. 
of surprise at the wKliciravir'al of a wtfopss la aground— 4 Tex. 260; « 
Oa.SDa. Tho eurnrlso must Im ^hawn by affltlavli, or in SQina other 
proper f onii-^22 Ual, 3i&. The nuaenue of witnesses la & f^xind for 
conilnuanco— CaL 21i[?; 23 Id^ 445. A jnolion ou tULs proiiud abould 
clfafclnetly steto that to whkh theywoultl testlfy-Hl8 CaJ. tiJ, Where 
thero l3a pufficleiit ghu^vlnj^ aa tu their maierjal^ty^and no apparent 
laclL of <lLllgencep tti.q> motion iijitould b& graiited-4di CaL 10^; 41 id. 481; 
2cJ ItL 417. T^het^ourt will not g^rauc tho motlomrhcn the absent wit- 
ncssM arft beyond its process— 49 Cal. 6&0; 1 Const. B. C. 234; 3 Brer. 
39f: 2 H^ilSt. 2:i'U; 1 Mass. ti; ti Giatt. ti^5; 2 Sum, 1^>; antl where ttiejf 
Ma tnatla depoai lions before the exaralnlas court— 49 Cal. frSOj hat 
see 43 Ttla. 1^7; nor, wliere the facta sliown cast fiuspiclcm on the B^ood 
faitu of the applicant— 40 Cal. 120; nor, ivhere he in guilty of laches 
and delaya— 2U Id. 6tij ; 1 Ashm. 281 i & Dana, 303; 12 Fla. ^1 \ 28 Iiid. 22; 
iJGratt. 5S4; 23IcL&30; M Mo. 274; CSid. SO't; GEand. 673; 1 Mass. ft; 
2 Va. Cas. IM; nor, of any cormh^ance— 10 Qrtktt. £5^; nor^ where ttio 
testimony Bought U immaterial- 4 a CaL 47 j 4 Id. 2JSi 3 Rrov, 304; 17 
Ga.4;jii; 21Te3:. 3S7i 4S 111. 152; 6 Lelgli>715; nor, wbero the onpoaltO 
party concetI(?a thfl fact souiflit to bo prove c^—W QiK 34S; 60 liL 169 : 
U Mjss. 4H\ i Parker Cr. K, lliS; bat the arlmifislon of the prosecQtlag 
attorney, that the absent witness told thy prosecutiaff wliiiesn of the 
fact, Will not defeat tho motlon-&l Cal. £43; fiee aa Id. 445; 1 Meiea, 
1917; 20 liid. 30; 2^1 Tei. 464. A nontinuance as to one of several do- 
lendaata does not Involve the trials aa to another— 31 Iiid. 2«2. 

Affidaifii,— The affl davit, on the gronnd of absence of witnesses, 
must show dQo dUigtnco to procure their attendance,, setiiuft forth 
thGfacts-lCaL40;t; 4 Jd.24]; 8 Id. US; 5f4id,3B: 341d.6ti3; GPacCL. 
J. 323; 14 Bush, 106; 63 Mo^444; as, by cxhansung the process of the 
court, or otherwise— 4 Cal- 2,^,.^; 33 id. 13i; 'li Id, 31; and tho service of 
the process must De dei^crihed ab such as would commrti^d obedience 
under tho law— 39 id. Stt*; and that tho witnesses canjiot bo readily 
reached hy attachments? itl, 103. It should state 111-1.1; there Is rea- 
sonable gronnd to beiiovo that tho delay will tend to the furtherance 
of justice, and tliat their attendance or testimony will bo ohtained at 
the time 10 which the trial Is dcferrcd-53 Cal. (Jia ; 4 1 id. 458; 33 Id. I&8; 
Btiratt.OtiS; l5Ga.5»5i -J lQd.244; id. 544; 6flMo.4La; 2Va.Ca3. 150; 
63 Mo. Si 1 and that ho cannot prove the samo facts by other witnesses 
—47 CaL 100; 43 Id. 03; 211 Id. loS; H id.tW; 4 Id. 240. Whtro tho affida- 
vit contradicted hia testisiony taken before thegrantl jury, the appli- 
cation Is properly denied— r>3 Cai, 4^4. So, where the aquavit shows 
that tho witness la a fugitive from ^ustlce^aud catmot proliably he pro- 
dnced-49 CaL 690. B&e posit i 1^^.. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

rBOCwmJKf»4afmkeSm¥mPF'a3n. 406 


Of ProceedingB after the Commenoeiaaat of tiie 
Trial and before Judgment. 

Chaf L Orajxbkgino tbb Jxtby, §§ 1065-88. 

n. The Trial, §§ 1693-1131. 

HL Conduct of thb Jxtbt aftk& CU0B9 n Sob* 

HITTSD TO TrntM, }$ 1135-43. 

IV. Thk Vbbdiot, §§ 1147-67. 

V. Bills of Exobption, §§ 1170-6. 

VI. Nbw Tbials, §§ 1179-82. 

VI£ Abbbst of JxTDcaoBNT, §§ 1185-8. 

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106S. XWlHitlwimwl mivlaloii of dbftUanges^ : . 

1096. Def^BdwtseannotflQverlnclubUeqBeflk - 

1057. PaikeldbflnM. 

1058. GhaUengetotheJurydeflzifid. 
1069. Upoa whatrtoondBfiL . * 
1060. Wlxenaodh^wtiikeUf , 

lOGl. Exception, if safQcieiicy of the challenge be denied. 

lOCi. If exception overraled, court may allow denial, etc. 

1063. Denial of challenge, how:madev and trifti thoeof. 
lOM. Challenge for bias ia Bommoninfi^ ofOcer. 

1065. Froceeding3» if challenge allowed. 

1066. Defendant to be Informed of his right to challenge. 

1067. Smda of challenges to indiridualjnror* 

1068. ChaUei^re, when taken. 

1069. Peremptory challenge, what.^and how taken. 

1070. Number of peremptory challenges. 

1071. Definition and kinds of challenge, for cause. 

1072. General causes of challenge. 

1073. Particular cause of challenge. 

1074. around of challenge for actual bias. 

1075. Exemption not a ground of challenge. ' 

1076. C&uses of challenge, how stated. 

1077. Exceptions to challenge and denial thereof. 

1078. Challenge, how tried. 

1079. Trtors,;howaiipolnt8d. Maiforifty miQr decide.. Cltopaaled.3 

1080. Oath of triers. [Repoaledo 

1081. Juror challenged may be examined as a witness. 

1082. Bules of evidence on trial of challenge. 
1088. Decision of court to t)e«entered. 

1064. XnatmctionsoatiaiplfQraciiaalbias. 0Bfi»99ioa.j 

1065. Verdict of triers, ^4 its effect. [Bepealfid.^ 
1086. Challenges, first by the defendant. 
1037. Order of challenges. 
1068. Peremptory challengeB, when may be t^eik 

155. A challenge is au objection made to the trial 

jurors, and is of two kinds: 

Pen. code.— So. 

d by Google 

IS 1056-61 CItALCEMd»Q. 4ld 

1. To the panel. 

2. To an individual juror. 

Oliallenget.— The court may, of Its own motion, for any jrood 

tn, excuse a quallfled Juror^-82 Cal, 43; see 2 Mason, 91 ; 10 Ch^tt 

!0 Ga. 164 ; 2 Dev. & B. 221. TbereJe^^Qn of a Juror by ' 

not nreJudice the defendant, and u hot matter avaIlaol< 


reason, excuse a quallfled Juror^-82 Cfd. 43; see 2 Mason, 91 ; 10 Ch^tt. 
767 ; 20 Ga. 164 ; 2 Dev. & B. 221. Tbereje^ttoa of a Juror by the court 
does not prejudice the defendant, and u hot matter avaOaole in error 
3 CaL ^; 17 id. 80; 7 Id. 140; 4 Gray, 19. 

1056. When several defendants are tried together, 
they cannot sever their challenges, hot nnwi Join therein. 

Severing chaliengeiv-rWliere defendants -Meet to M tiled Jointly 
they cannot sever their challenges-^ Cal. 801 ; 20 Ala; 107; K) Ohio, 282; 
lOB. Lld9. 

1057. The panel is a list of juron retuxned by a sheriff 
to serve at a particular court, or for the trial of a particular 

1058. A challenge to the panel is an objection made to 
all the jurors returned, and may be taken by either party, 

1059. A challenge to the panel can be founded only 

on a material departnre from the forms prescribed in 

respect to the drawing and return of the jury in civil 

actions, or on the intentional omission of the sheriff to 

summon one or more of the jurors drawn. 

Challenge to the paneL— A < 
partiality, or bias, or default of 
Yenire-49 Cal. 173; 1 Mann. (Bii( 

requirements are not complied _. „ , „ 

will not lie on the grouna that the Jury was summoned after com- 
mencement of the term— 10 Cal. 69. Thr "" " " 

fraternity have been excluded, is no i 

returned possess the requisite qaalificatlons-d W^nd. 8: 
taken before plea— 8 Bam. & C. 417; 2 Moody & R. 406. 

1060. A challenge to the panel most betaken before 
a juror is sworn, and must be in writing or be noted by the 
phonographic ireporter> and must plainly and distinctly 
state the facts constituting the ground of challenge. 

1061. It the Sufficiency of the facts alleged as ground 
of the challenge is denied, the adverse party may except 
to the challenge. The exception need not be in writing, 
but must be entered on the minutes of the court, or of the 
phonographic reporter, and thereupon the court must 
proceed to try the sufficiency of the challenge, assuming 
the facts alleged therein to be true. 

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4u «iju«Ht4«mo- {fAMte^ 

THal by the oonrt— Ao opinion Imperfectly fonDp4# 0» one taaed 
npon the supposition that nicts arenas they harei>een nprestnted, 
may be proyea on such a chaUenge— 3 Parker Gr. B. 16; 13 Ela. 67A. A 
fixed opinion of goUt or Inaoeende Bead not 'be tooved'^hen the 
challenge is for favor— id. And any fact or olrcmnstanee from which 
bias and prejudice may belnfextedfls admissible In ey Ldence^l Denlo, 

formed anunfarorable bp^n dmo def emlaiit--S BaK 216; s^e post, 
S1076,note. . . *^ . .' . . j^» 

1062. If, o^ the expepttqp,, ^e^ opmrtjOqds jto ^al- 
lenge sufficient, it may, if justice iequlree.itKJ^#nnit the 
party excepting to withdraw his exception,, and to deny 
the facts alleged in the chaUenge. • If thaezeeptiaD Jb al- 
lowed, the court may, in like manner, permit an amend- 
loent of the fballeage. . 

Ohallenga to panaL-^An i^endeidl flihallupg^ la % folwtitpta for the 

1063. If the challenge is denied, tl:^ denial may be 
oral, and must be entered on tbe minutes p| 'the eourt, or 
of the phonographic re^ortet, and the coart, m'lttt pro- 
ceed to try the question of fact; and npon such trial, the 
officers, whether judicial qr ministerial, whose irregular- 
ity is complained of ^ as well as any oti^r petsoiis, may be 
examined to prove or disprove the faot^ allege4 as the 
ground of the ohallenge. 

EMdeikoe on Ohallenge.— The defendant cannot off«r his ear paits 
■adftvlt In eyldetiQei^. support of the {(Oi^me-^ 

1064. When the panel is formed from * persons whose 
■imes «» Bofe dmsnir m. toUankv a ^iBllMgeiiiay be tifken 
to the panel cat acoonntof may hUm of the offflcer^hosnm- 
moned thaia(,'Whieb^m>iild begood ground of ohallengeto 
a juror. Such ohallenge must be mad* in the sameionn, 
■»nd> 4 s ttsaJl Bedln iitftwm^iAaxttkbt, Mif itt^e«» * juror. 

— " 1 an onlnidn' that dtf endan] 

1069. U, eitb^r npoi^ )^n>xc^Iktlon to tbid ^)Mil)NW6 ^^ 
. «denia of '^be iMfl^^the <»b»lieiif;e V,.*#<JS'?fl^W*;eoftrt 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

concerned. If it is disallowed, tfte court ftjttsl> direct the 
joiy to be iibpsO^nele^.! t^ elteqi 4»pnl 9th« 1880,] 

1066* Before a ijorbr is called, the defendant mtist be 
informed by the court, or under Its direction, that if he in- 
tends to chrtllengj?^ indlr|dnai;[q^rhe must do so^ when 
the juror appears j and before lie is sworn. 

106^. -'A.' (fhlOl^ttge i6 ate Inditidual jiiror is either— 
"li ■'PejffcHii)tottf?.'6ir; '■''■■■" ''• ■■'. ■ 
'^ Foir^uS<y. •: 

.:,,f«ii**3}<;,a«9«iS4i.,f7ft. • .: u,.: :a., ' ■ .,. ■• 

1068. It must be taken when t^ jtuor apt>«aito> aad 
befdMt he^ i««#ottt «<» try ihe cAtis^; btit tbe ciotirt ^y for 
cause permit it to be taken after the juror is sworui and 
bef6lHiitiie'jiii>/fecoinpleted. =' ' ^ • ' - 

Challenge, whcTi taken.— A pcreQjptory chalittng^e ^tniiot hft t^en 
aXiet a ^i^rur 1^ ^warn to %vy tbo IsauoA, oxcopt Cor cans'b filio^a— M 
CM. IJJ; 37 id. e?g; 10 Itl. 59. In jicrUulual actran, tweho u.^uija mii4t 



tie drawn &om the Jury-boat, anil ihs defomlaiit iniy c^xRmJii& es£b 
Hepamtclyt and cxiiau^t IiIj cbali^nrre^^ for cniu^a biiifaro cbaUenglng; 
say mf« iinfemptorlly. If ha bbouJditr^^t tmy filxi, mid rh^iliflDga «tx^ 
tbjgiSjaj£kCccfitGd mu^t iliciii ba av» oro. jmil «.ix nUdiUoaial iion]^ nin&t Itie 
QratrrtftndT presented tor exaiuinjtdoii, wltli iviiiiiJi ihd a^me procosa 
^oulU Ijo reDeated^ ai3.d so coiichiuea milU tiie jury i^ cQmpiet&^ 
FAC, C L. Jh i^^'h 37 Cal. (i7i^; 4ti liL l:JJ : 45 id. 323. If a party iiuempt 
ta clmlleo^f] fpr lizipMed liEii^, and it boloff dlsaUdw«d h& thtia d^gl- 
ICMes periulipiDrlly^ IT U doQS not appoar aMrmalivoly Lbiit (le lii' ' 
(SltfattsEetl his pejemptoiy ct^alJojifres at ttio time ft full paael wi 
sworn, be l3 iml prejudlcfid by dlaa^Uowanco or tliifl iitiaJkrni'o— 41 Ca 
431]. &Qa 20 Gil. 347. 

.pMtj«'«nid ifiCiay be lorsLiLrl^ii* aniobJBcticAtb a. Jprot <fOr 
(>v^}^iliQi9etolai<neQdibd'gidR*ii^Ibat/upbn7wJiiB2i; tli»4iottrt 

,iiniiatEHgCiflldiB htoJ'iwii 'j(: o-tmu, tl;./- .•- .-., ^^ i: 
-J Peteiri i ! ^ • I cngfl , bow i^lton.^A. pemmptorr: ehJmfltige oan- 
xiiOt bo ru . A! . t.;r the Juror la sworn to try tlm iaauet o^cge&t f^r 
tan-^B Ati WT1-4S Cat, l^ i St 1 1!. e7.H* Tlie Tlgbt tnAy be e^ctrcl^ea filter 
,tii»twielT© Jorort fcrdpfl""?sed or titni, Ivitt befoTo.iiifeyaje srt'oru to try 
ttitt tMU«-rl C^t SW: Ifl i<3. lai, no mjy tirterpoyo hlj oliall^ Dgo Rt 
im y tHB« af ttr appetinit^ca of tb« jurdr.tUJ lig Uswom lEinftuitinilo 
6r%fttlttr,rfflCrictt'[iiffilYii to afHLrtttuJnf tinie,Trciit!U bo In confllicttTltli 
the precedlC]^ ^ectlou— 24 Cat. l.l; Bee 37 lil. tyfl. Ttio CouJtr tn the ti- 
ei^i5Q ofuftgai^d dbcretloA, ma^ aUovir tUa pri^aoeutiDiito lotnntoso a 
tjet^tBFtofy tlralhrnfTCf ftrt*Tf the Juror lia*^Ge*ti accepted, and Tvfifore 
Im l&a worn to ti'y tmi c^i»&— ^ GiiL bll; ajid &1^ come mjvy^ lor caofis, 
filter ihb J iiTor I J sW^i^rtLfLnd'bcroro tbe iajTls compLetOp p«iruil( pQi^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


CBt»^ j^wfofurg . 


noment befoi^e tbe case to- opened or Uk^l 
a poMmptory <JMaiQiieo~49 Gi^^ Ml ; ^ ^uk . 

any time after the^atte is drawn antt beTore tMloror ls.6t»%rn to trt 
the titbmh^l Cal; mi M id. 19; 10 id. fi9t 4 ». 199. On due caaie. 
Bhonrn; tb^ ooort, at iaact noment bef oi^e tbe 

littorl«e«oRi, will permit a " 

»; 4 Lelg^TItt; 291^ Bt. U 

1070.. If the offense chained be punishable with (I^Uiy 
or with imprisonment In the State prison for life, tl/e dei- 
fendanti$ entitled t<^, twenty and the Staie to ten per^mp-' 
tory chaHeiges. *' .On a trial for, any other offense, tjie 
ddfendant'is entitled to ten and the State to five peremi>- 
tory challenges. [Approved March sdth^ in, effect Jiil^. 
1st, 1874.J . .^ ,^^ , . ^. . '.'\''\ ' 

107JU JL,chalieng^ ^^cau^o; v^jf. \^ :takezi )>y; j^Jth^ 
piarty;. It is an objectipft.^ta fi,pa^:;t|ci4ji^f ,j\^piUr%»d.'ia 
either— .." . ,: ,. : ;^.- . ' ,.> :, . 'v^.n-M. :. 

1. GejcLQxal— that the jvurpf'is.disq^aii^eA ^oms^K^^ 
in any case; or, .>, . ..■'■* i/' 

2. ;F;»]:tlculai^— th^t he.Jia ^^squa^^d irom se^yj^g. in 
the «wtion on triaf . . ,.•.«.... ./ : 

1072. General causes of ofaiillAneff aaper-«^ . . >i ^ 
Jt^ A' !(milviotionr for felony •• no L v .< -'i a 
2; A.Mnmt o£ any* of thfi:.<|tiaUfioatiaQi»>pat890ztbaduby: 
lmirto9r9iiddo»!pittB«»*todiiflicttob'jiiioK • : <; 

3. Unsoundness of mind, or such de&otdntthkiamiltiea. 
of th0»ifti|id.<«r oifglitui of titidfbody. aaozbtnteni l^imridtapui- 
ble of performing the ilntifift of a joXtai !'-'■'• u . •- . (t '- ' 

lOfa 'I«f«etimir>e«tiik)Bt^f^hanbi^iiiW«f^(Wo 
' li'lFctf'BiMih' ft bia^ Ctar, ^¥i^n'i\i^^imt^ixkih^.H^^'{^ii^ 

and which is known in this Code as implied bi^.' ^ ' ' ' ' ' 

: % jnsk fiMimtiiMidisoe «# &'mk^^Qi''dm&yii'¥kei^n'i>i 

the\lato^ltf )t«f(Biefi6d ta ihib eii^e>, 'or't6'^h^]r'<^'^h&!p^> 
«|0«, .^hteh iMSr ^i:^MlMPM!kn from d^iiift'Wiili di^ftis iin- 
pMlMiy'««i WI«l«M]tt>in^^d!ce to €h«l«eA)Stab:tkrriS^t»* 
oC'olclittripcihy/iwhUb'li Uh6wnfti 'ms^^^e^-esi^'Mmii' 


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§^1074- csAtleirQfi^. 414' 

MftietUir oaoiii wPfMme^ 

gmh Qf me piisimM^ bas fitiQ^m feeimgB .of Lostiufir (o mi»lB *' 
gi^od gM&d dtdbAlT^^ 
' Subd, 2. . The mere (Ebrmation of hyiiothetlcai opinions f oimded on 
hAftrsfty or iof ormatioii. would not support* cbaUengor-tf Gal^ U2 1 pro* 
'^odloie lwdn!a»te«UiwtOf laaJl^coorlll^wijl against <l€ifendai]tTr49 tSaL 
183. Tbe challenge vaSialt be entered on tke minutes, and aApUcfttlon 
be made to have triers appointe,d:-41 Cal. 39. See^oj^S l(l!J8, ^ote, . 

5.074. Ar ciaiienge for implied bias may t)e tak^Q for 
all orahy of the following causes, and for no other: 

1. Coflsisin^nity or affinity within the fourth degree 
to the person alleged to be injured by the oJtensecliargedy 
or on whose complaint the prosecution was instituted, or 
to the defendant. 

2. Standing in the relation of guardian and ward, attor- 
ney aiid client, master ^d servant, or landlord and ten- 
ant, or being a member of the family of the defendant; ot 
of the person alleged to be injured by the offense charged, 
6t on wlidse complafnt thie prosecution was instituted, or 
in his employment on wages. 

" 8. Being a pasty adTerse to the defendant in a civil ac- 
tion, or having complained against or been accused by 
him in a criminal ptoeacation; 

4. Having served on the grand jury which found tlie 
indiotawnt^flar oDia oorohes'f jury whiQ(h Iniquiiredlnto the 
death of a person whosBide«th is tii«8Qbjt9otof ^eiadiot* 
mantioBlnfclrmation. > .: 

fi. Haniiig sez^Bd on a trinl jury wfaiob has trtod an*' 
other person for the oflFense ehuged. ' ' 

>6. Say^,1;>eenon^ofajiii7iq]mi«r}y9worato.i^tli6 
same qhafge, And whqseT^rdlQt w«a set 9Mi^jfy^ which 
was discharged withont^ verdict,. alter t)i9 case was sub» 
mittedtoiti \ . . 

7. ^aving served at a JoroT in afplvU action brought 
figainst the defendant for the act ol^aiiged «» an oiiSense. - 

8« ^ tihe offense charge ^e pm^hftM^ ^tii death, tlie 
^tiertaining of a^ch cpn9ci^tloaB;09^ifl4one m: would pce^ 
ql^his, finding th^ defendant g^^|yj^to w)acdi:ciiM he. 
must iMith^ be pef^i^t^ nor QopwmUwl'to se^e as a 
juror, llni effect April 9th, 1880. ] 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

CStJjjLtskGtSG, $§ ' 1095«^ 

id. 146: nor is he disqualified, because ^ 

to Aemo tb9 vofd ** qtiaUfted ^-^id. Where he had expressed hlsjm" 
qualified opinion, he Jsln Judgment of law lacomBetent-41 Cal.a42; 
&id.207; 819.259: 10 id. !«• bat that he had formed ah ophilon trtijA 
what he had read and h^rd la not sufflclentAioimd of caallenge— 18 
Id. IMw TOere isia wide dlfterence betweeirif«flx5d*' opinion, formed 

la. iMw There isia wide diirerence betweena **flxea*' opinion, formed 
^5f!^^9>!S^$'^§^^'?AA^?'^^ InmressfoQ or hypothetiQaa Qpinlon 
-46 CaL l9tU id. 132; 45 id. 142; see 5ld. 347. 

Sub^. 9. See 2 Gal. 299: 24 Id. 17; IS Wend. 351. That he wbnld not 
c<mvic« cm clrcnmsfantlM evldenoe Is ai^ood groiiiid of challenge-^ 
CaL 401. • - -» 

1075. An exemption from service oti a jury is not a 
cause oil dmllenge, but l^e priTilege of the; person ez- 
emptedr \. . ■ . . 

Where a perton whose name Is on the poll^az Ust only ly^iwoinJe I 

try the caWfan4.dBto^fl#pt reoelY" "' " i=r.«-.-^-»-.— 

tlon, he cannot, after T> 
43CaL31:«id.40&. a\ 
" qnaMffed;lSjq ■ 

qiiaiiilcatlon--§ Cu. 411. *nni zighl of ezemotlon of a Joror is not a 
groond for ohaUe^se-^S Ctf .-98. A prlvHego ot a Joror cannot be tech- 
nlcallj regarded as a ground of chaUenge, as old age-^19111. 74: 11 Tez. 
257 : deaCness or other lnfliiiiity*-20 Oa. 156; see Law B. 3; H. li. Cas. 
306; or, holding ezcnsatetf. nositkHUH»6l Me. 396. The ezeosinf o£ a - 
Jorer f (>r such leasona Is wKfiXa, the diicretlOQ of the conrt-i-8AQu 3(tt; 

107€L In a ohallenge lor implied bias, one 6s more of 
tlie causes stated in section one thousand and seyenty- 
f our must be alleged. In '^ cballeu^e fot actual bias, the ^ 
cause stated in the second subdivision of section one 
tbcmsand and seventy-three must be allied; but ho per* ' 
son shall b.^^^l'^^qualif^' as a jurdr by reason of having 
formed or* expressed an opinion upon the matter or catise 
to be submitted to suoh jury, founded upon public rumor, 
statements in pufilia Journals, or cbmmon notoriety; pr^ 
videid it appeiar . to th^ coilrt, ui>an his declaration, under 
oath or othemi^s^ that he can and will, notwithstanding 
such m PPlllipi^ act impa^tialDr «t^. italdy iipoh the mat- 
ters to be submitted to him. The challenge maybe oi^, 
Mit ^tbidsl b6 «titiBred id. ^he mihuteff of ihe codit br of the 

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Jtilyist,18T4l ; ', * i . 

Ohallexige for ixxmlied bia8.^The challenge: f os ImDUed- ttlBS Bnut 

SMf et to the partlcaikr tttbdlvision of S 1Q74^ to my he cbaOenMs the 
^MdriMpUedbfiasi3no«Gnu&cient^9'Cal.l69;id. ItS; id.^Q6; Id. 
1; ilid,m; Id^ 97; 87 id. 277; id.29B; 16 Id. 130; 4310.448; 16 id. 190; 
id.147. • , 

10774 The adverse party may except to the ciiallenge 
in tl)e same manper ap to a ^fiaUeiiigeflK^i the panels and 
the same proceeding^ most l^e had t|iereon as are pre- 
scribed in seotionioxiethonBaxid and sixty^one* e;wpt that 
a the exception, be allowed, ^tlip ju^br must be excli^^ed. 
The adverse party may also orally cleny the facts alleged 
as the ground of challenge. 

See ante; H 1MB. .1013. lOM^ 

-107a If the facts are denied; the cl^lleng6 > iitoist be 
tried by the court. [Approved March 30th, in effect July 

If a challenge i$ Hototi^^^ aad the opposite Wftr deqrar^ t0 its 
suflciencjran isaae |s praised, v^a ^e Jar6r cafi bp farther eixamlnedf 
other wUne^es call^ and the matter ti\ea euiimltted to. the ceurt— 
1^ CaL UU l^ti the dlsquaUfic^tipa miut be urged it the proper time 
-r6 Cat 409. The competency of a jitfor Is decemuned oy the court 
froiahi»tiriaIrrT29Cal.C36* ,: . 

5 ■. ' ' :igo for *' actual bJm" mo-^t ntate sgulaBt ^bomi 

ana > ! ^': . m lij -i >r ; . VJ^nU it ttinst t>o so BtaXxA-^ Cal. 21^ 

Compete ac7 of jaror*— The law contPriiplartcT that CTtry jnrQT who 
iJts Ld a causo fiEiall tiavo n mind frety f mm fill Itlas or ijrejiiUico of any 
kUid— 5 Cal. 34!\ 'rho burtJeri of pro of of Ini-niapeteacy lis ca ttio j;»^ty 
ftifi^rttTisr It— 17 CftL 899. Tbd tnqulfy Jhouia aot Iw llmltea to tho 

in, Eviilence tetiUlng- tDish[.l^y bia.^ Is fliImlH:!iHjj;&— 13 Fla. 6-75; S 1*41?- ' 
kerCr. it. lij; 1 I>f.tLl(^. 'ZH^ A u^aifrA]. iiuprtj^oj] Of d(±fi^adaut bGM:e ' 
aliail Dian, from. ni^jUllLig, etc.^ h rsot ri dlsqunliacnllfln— ISCaL 190; 24 " 
UImUm De-ing a I >ol f ceman ,iLiidIjia,vhtgJipreiicralbadiO|> Cniou of people 
ctiargea w'aU crijiui, I3 dqp valM ci'tjc-'^tRiu, If other wHo lio is compe- 
tent— 1 8 OaJ . 1 2e. The mer& UcarioK o r r** aiJ Ina ftbo iit » casp* iiTiitl even ' 
a fiiUtesteat of the f En^ts, doc^ not tiiPcituiUiy— Iti Cat l^d. liejiriug tins . 
purported fact* nimoreil, bnt rCl^TeJ■sfI]f^ With hoth? of the lyitnoa^s, 
atiU fruui tbln rurmlnir ati (»]iJJiJoiJt doifii not tli^qusulify- 17 Cal. 14^ ^t. 
laiiiit fiuinthinE to fiutasliiLe :\ Jijjor, tli^tt ho ha3 feinnerij jiii iiutuvorabiu 
optnloii ul thQ Mc\iw?'*l^'l BaiU. ^lij; me n D^ulu, IL^I., 1 hat &siy opt 11- J 
Ion ho hnii eiiiLU bu chii,ii;{'i?{l hy cYltlN?[ieL% aud ^11 (>xp[<a&9ed '^vliiliiguf'-aji . 
tobPjfoveroL'd hj tlio evidmrfr rrin^tJUutes agoatf juror, ff other*lSf! 
qoAilQieil— ii ClilL ^TFr. But it n propa<$t?a lurcir liaa saLd**' Tho p^o^Ia/' 
oujfht to tafeo thf5 prifionpr out Cif jaJl amJ nair^ litiri /' It would bo trr or 
to aUow bim %a sAl on Uio lur^ — :» C^h ^Tib; buc s(H» 43 Ut IWi. Flieil . 
coi^clii&lona to ilhiiLiiIify luu^iC Eiui!t>uut to&eniijdi coijvkm^iiis, GrthCY 
muse hav« b^enejcnreused— 1 Diitiio, [iCSs !£TCiil.fil2; bq« Itild.^ iSt^r IT' 

W79, UOBOof .saJ^ Code^ff* ?^P^ed. : tApBJ;oTr*4«M<M^ 
SOth, in effect July 1st, 1874.] 

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417 6B£LtMGXitQ. §§ ld8f«-7 

Trien.— Ot^eetlon to the appointment of triert^ittwit >b^ fakde at t 

<JBptKSS^-8rcS:lS?vfe«n^H 9ori»ke& for.the parties f 

iMinnd bytbe Adfslsion^sC Idie nourt^lS Akk. iSOr I Maui. (Hlcb.) 4 

Trien.— Ol^eetlon to the appointment of triet»tttu6t i)h fmble at the 

ties are 

^ ^^ . iich.)461; 

4 Wend. 229: 21 |cU 6QK^ The t^lal shoaldbe conducted in the presence 
of theconrtM-19G«J¥n. > if 

1081. Upon the trial of a challenge to an indiyidoal 
joroi*,- the jtirOr chiftllenjg^d' tciay be examlnedus a ^tness 
to prove 6r di^ptor^ t^' challen^, knd mniiii anstrer 

every ^ueiAiOtt t^iii^tt^'fli^ itt<lii^« 
Jnror as witness.— A dhtnes^ defeildaat haS'ttTfihtto SBlcaiffo- 

1062. Other witnesses may also be exarnined on either 
Bide, and the roles of evidence applicable to the trial of 
other issues govern the admission or exclusion of evi- 
dence on the trial of the challenge. 

1063. The court must allow or disallow the challenge, 
and its decision must be entered in the minutes of the 
court. [Approved March 30th, in effect July 1st, 1874.] 

Determination of chaUenge.~The action of the court InaUowing 
a challenge for implied bias is not the sublect of an exception— 51 CaL 
496; 49 id. 679; as distinguished from disallowing the challenge— 45 id. 

conrt in denying a challenge, unless it is apparent that it abused its 
discretion— 47 CaL 396. When the court overrules a challenge, and the 
prisoner excepts, the exception is to the decision oyerruling the chal- 
lenge— 41 CaL 1(9. The decision of the question of fact raised by the 
cluulenge is final, and not subject to reyiew on appeal— 49 Cal. 166. 
Whereuoubts, more or less grave, as to the actual state of mind of the 
Juror, BtlU remain, the challenge for Implied bias should be allowed— 
43 Cii 531. See ante, S l^^l and post, S U70. 

1084, 1085 of said Code are repealed, [Approved March 
SOth, in effect July 1st, 1874.] 
See 49 CaL 169; and ante, SS 1074-1076. 

1066. All challenges to an individual juror, except 
peremptory, must be taken, first by the defendant, and 
then by the people, and each party must exhaust all his 
challenges before the other begins. 

1087. The challenges 6f either party for cause need 
not all be taken at once, but they must be taken sep- 
arately, in the following order, including in each challenge 
all the causes of challenge belonging to the same class: 

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§ 1068 GBAIXBNODTO. 418 

1. Ta49pi^neL . » . 

2. To an individual }an>r, for agenei^ dioqtiiitffliDatloii. 

3. To an inidiyidual joFor, lor an implied bias. 

4. To all individual juror, for an kotoal Wm*, 
SeeS7GaLe76; 451d.828. 

1088. M all challenges on both aidea.aro disallowed, 
,eith^ party, first the people and tl^en the de|^f|^^ m^y 
take a peremptory challenge, nnless the p^es* per- 
emptory ohallenges are eshansted* 

If fh* pfOMontien passes the luror to tbedefentfsnt, who d«ellnes%o 
challenge, the proeecution may then tetarpesenpereinptory chattttage 
toaJuorDeforehelsswoniin— 48CaLS50. SeeSTCalTeTS. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

419 TBttAX,, 



109S. Order Of triaL 

1094. Wben order of trial may be departed from. 

1099. Number of cooDael who may argue the case. 

1098. Defendant presmned Innocent. Beasonable doubt. 

1097. Beasonable doubt as to degree convicts <mly of lowest. 

1098. Separate trials. 

1909. Diteharghig defendant that he may be a wltneoi. 

1100. Same. 

1101. Effect of such discharge. 

1102. Bules of evidence in civil applicable to criminal easei. 

1103. Evidence on trial for treason. 

1104. Evidence on trial for oonsplracy. 

1105. "When burden of proof shifts In trials for murder. 

1106. Evidence on a trial for bigamy. 

1107. Evidence upon a trial for forging bank-bills, etc 

1108. Evidence upon trial for abortion and seduction. 

1109. Evidence on a trial for selling, etc., lottery tieketa. 

1110. Evidence of false pretenses. 

1111. Conviction on testimony of accomplice. 

1112. Proceedings, if evidence show higher offense than charged. 


1113. Discharge Jury for lack of Jurisdiction, etc. 

1114. Proceedings, If Jury discharged for want of Jurlsdlcttan of 

offense committed out of the State. 

1115. Proceedhigs in such case, when offense committed In the 

1118. Same. 

1117. Proceedhigs, If Jury discharged because the faeti do not ooai 

stitute an offense. 

1118. When evidence on either side iaclosed« court may advise Jury 

to acquit. 

1119. View of premises, when ordered, and how conducted. 

1120. Knowledge of Juror to be declared In court, and he to be 

sworn as a witness. 

1121. Jur(»8,sepa»tion of, during tnaL 

1122. Jury, at each adjournment, must be admonished, eto. 

1123. Juror imable to perform his duties, proceedings. 

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§ 1093 TBU]>. 420 

S 1134. Court to dedde qaestlons of law arising during triaL 

S 1125. On Indictment for libel, Jnry to determine law and fact. 

S 1126. In all other cases court to decide questions of law. 

S 1127. Charging the Jury. 

S 1 128. Jury may decide In court, or retire in custody of officers. 

S 1129. Defendant appearing for trl^I wpT. ^ committed. 

S 1130. If district attorney fails to attend, court may appoint. 

1093. The jury having been Impanneled and sworn, 
the trial must proceed in the following order, unless oth- 
erwise directed by the court: 

1. If the indictment or information be for felony, the 
clerk min»t read it, a;^d state the plea of the defendant to 
the jury, and in cases where it charges a previous con- 
viction, and the defendant has confesaed the same, the 
clerk in reading it shall omit therefrom all that relates to 
such previous conviction. In all other cases this formal- 
ity may be dispensed with 

2. The district attorney, or other counsel for the people, 
must open the cause aiid offer the evidence in support of 
the charge. 

3. The defendant or his counsel may then open the 
defense, and offer his evidence in support thereof. 

4. The parties may then respectively offer rebutting 
testimony only, unless the court, for good reason, in 
furtherance of justice, permit them to offer evidence upon 
their original case. 

5. When the evidence is concluded, unless the case is 
submitted to the jur^ on either side, or on both sides, 
without argument, the district attorney, or other counsel 
for the people, and counsel for the defendant, may argue 
the case to the court and jury; the district attorney, or 
other counsel for the people, opening the argument, and 
having the right to close. 

6. The judge may then charge tbe jury, and must do so 
on any points pertinent to the issue, if re<^uested by either 
party; and he may state the testimony and declare the 
law. If the charge be not given in wrfCing, It must be 
taken down by the phonograi^liic reporter. [In effect 
April »th, 1880.] 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

«21 TBJLLL, §1093 

Order of tri8L->AQ order ezcladincr vacHt. of tbe Jurors m were not 
ImjmDneied to try the case is not'a aeprlraQon of the right of paollo 
trlal'-53 Cal. Idl. Personsaccosed of crlnieaallesea to liave be«i com- 
mitted before the PeoAl Codo took effect ftre to bo trledin accordance 
witb the forms of procedore provided in the Code— 4^ Cal. 1 17. TliouRh 
tbe requirements of tbo Couo should appear wholly immaterial, a fali- 
nre to comply with them may bo grounds for a new trial— 15 CaL 476^ 

Subd, 1. The fEdlnre of the clerk to read tbe indictment is not a 
fatal error where it appears that tbe Jury were fully informed of the 
precise chaige-^ Cal. 494. 

Subd, 2. The opening of the case by the prosecution is a simple 
statement of the theory of the case without argument or elaboration, 
and tbo introduction of proofs necessary to support the indictment— 
43 Cal. 349. 

Subd. S. The conrt may exclude from tbe court-room all witnesses 
except the one under examination— 53 Gal. 491. In general, tbe court 
will on the application of either of tbo parties direct that all witnesses 
but the ono under examination shall leave tbo court— 53 Gal. 4^; 1 
Wheel. C. G. 123; see ante, § 867; and at any period of the case— 1 
Wheel. C. C. 123. It is in tbo sound discretion of the court— 29 Cal. ()22. 
Should a witness bo present in disobedience to the order excluding 
him, he Is in contempt, but it is no ground for rejecting his testimony— 
20 Cal. 436; 3 W. Va. 705. See note to subd. 2. See Evideitcb, post, S 
1102, and note. 

Rights of proaeontion.— The prosecution cannot be compelled to 
Introduce particular witnesses-ju CaL 60. 

Bights of defendant.— A defendant ought not to be deprived of the 
personal presence of a witness which may be had at the trial— 28 Cal. 
445. In criminal prosecutions the accused shall have tbo process of 
the court to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf. See 
Const. Cal. art. i, S 13. Defendant as witness— see ante, p. 18. Defend- 
ant is not entitled to a bill of particulars of tbo evidence relied on to 
sustain the Indictment-^ Cal. 236; but see contra, under the practice 
in other States-U Pick. 432; 1 Gray. 4(36; 2 id. 434; 4 id. 11; 15 Pick. 
t22: 41Yt.526; UB.I.314; 107 Mass. 329. 

RlghtB of witnesses.- Witnesses shall not be unreasonably detained 
nor confined in any room where criminals are actually imprisoned— 
Const. Cal. art. i, 8 6. 

Subd, 4. Where defendant is surprised at the exclusion of evi- 
dence relied on to establish bis point, ne may apply for leave to intro- 
duce other testimony— 17 Cal. 400. Tbo defendant is as much bound to 
produce testimony to rebut tbe testimony which tends to prove bis 

riillt as any other testimony of the prosecution— 28 Cal. 428. See post, 
1102, notes. 

8ubd. S. In cases tried since the Penal Code took effect, the dis- 
trict attorney must open and may conclude tbo argument— 4S Cal. 1 17 ; 
changing the rule as prescribed in the amendatory statute of 1854— see 
43 id. 155. That tbe prosecution must open and may conclude the 
argument, does not change the rule prescribed in % 1094. that accused 
maybe heard by two counsel— 43 Cal. 164. When other counsel are 
associated with tbe district attorney, the court may, in its discretion, 
for good reason, allow tbe associate counsel to conclude— 47 Cal. 105; 
46 id. 803; and the presumptiou is that the court had good reason for 
allowing him to conclude— id. Under tbe old rule, it was competent 
for the court to require the counsel for defendant to open and tbe 
counsel for the prosecution to close the argument, without stating 
any reason for the ruling-44 Cal. 100; 43 id. 156: but see 4B id. 117. R 
islrregiUarfor the prosecution, against the objection of defendant's 
counsel, to comment on the refusal of defendant to be cross-examined 
Txs, CODB.— 86. 

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§1093 THTAT.. 422 

as to tbe wliole ease-m oa. 490; W Id. 522* Tbe eonnsel for tbe pris- 
oner 13 not entitled to makeU^ argoment when the prosecution closes ; 
It is to be made when tbe evidence is concladed— 43 Gal. 849. Courts 
may limit eonnsel to a proper and reasonable consumption of time in 
in^sentlnff cases to Juries, but this discretion In capital cases should 
be carefully exerqisea, and only under extraordinary circumstances— 13 
Cal. 661. The limitation must In no case deprive a defendant of his 
opportunity to malce a full defense— 13 CaL 081. As a general rule. 

reading law to a jury Is objectionable^ but there are cases in which It 

may be allowed, Dv vr »"•----- -..---- ^.-- .-^-—-^.-- - 

the court— 44 Cal. 70. 

may be allowed, oy way of Illustration, subject to tlie Instmotions of 

JSubd, 8. Charge of court.— A written charge may be waived by 
the defendant— 46 Cal. 653 ; but the court cannot deliver an oral charge 
without defendant's consent— 43 Id. 384: id. 29; but with his consent, 
or the mutual consent of the parties, it may— 43 id. 29; id. 384. The 
entry In the minutes of the court, that ** the court charge the Jury 
orally, a written charge being expresslv waived," must be construed 
as a mutual consent— 43 Cal. 334. A defendant Is entitled to stand on 
his rights, and need not except to the charge at the time it is given— 
12 Cal 346; and his consent cannot be presumed from his failure tq ob- 
ject-Id Id. 29; 44 id. 186. Seepo«f,S 1127, and note. It is irregular for 
counsel against the objection of defendant to comment^ in nis argu- 
ment, up<m the refusal of defendant to be cross-examined to the 
whole case, and for the court to permit such comments— 41 CaL 430; 
36 id. 622. 

Reading a deposition to the Jury In the absence of the defendant, 
either before or after retiring, is error for which anew trial will be 
granted- 5 CaL 72. See po3t, ^ 1M6, 

The Oonstitution does not prohibit Judges from determining and 
charging a Jury whether there is any evldenee with regard to an Issue, 
or tending to sustain a fact on which a Judgment may depend— 49 CaL 
180. So, where there was no evidence to prove the Killing man- 
slaughter or excusable homicide, it is not error to charge that if it 
was willful, intentional, deliberate, and premeditated, it is murder in 
the first degree, otherwise not— 49 CaL 180. The Judge may *' state the 
testimony ''^to the Jury— 17 Cal. 169; Const. Cal. art. vl, § 19, ante, p. 21 ; 
but he cannot state the effect of the testhnony— 16 CaL 138. It is for 
the Ju^ to determine whether the evidence amounted to proof of the 
fact-30 Cal. 158; 16 id. 98: id. 138; 17 id. 169; 14 id. 438. Ifthe charge 
appears on the record, and the record sbows nothing to the contrary, 
the presumption is that it was fairly taken down by the reporter, ac- 
cording to t&e provisions of the Code-45 CaL 652. see post, S 1127. 

Evidence may be such as to Justify the court In charging that if the 
Jury believe defendant killed deceased, and that before doing so he 
declared it to be his intent to kill, the killing was done with express 
malice and deliberation— 45 CaL 322. 

The charge given by the court on its own motion Is no part of the 
Judgment roll, and cannot be reviewed on appeal from the Judgment 
—44 Cal. 698. If the court refuses a charge once clearly given. It should 
dIstUictly inform the Jury that this is the reason for the refasal-6 CaL 
880; 13 id. 172; 17 id. 142. 

Instructions.- An instruction should be based on evldence-43 Cal. 
351; 6 id. 217; Olid. 498: 24 id. 28; SO id. 207: 15 id. 482: 1 id. 385; 47 id 
96. An instruction which goes to the acquittal of the defendant, must 
be broad enough to cover the essential facts In the case— 55 CaL ia5. 
An instruction which ignores the possible guilt of the defendant as a 
present alder and abettor of the killing, should not be given— 48 Cal. 64. 
The court may strike out a clause from the iustru^lon, which Is irrel- 
evant, and not connected with the remainder— 49 CaL 169. See po*t» S 
117$. If an instruction is not sufflciently explicit as to the preponder- 

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^3 TRZAL. §§0.094-6 

anco of eylde^ce, d«f endant a^raia^ tbe court to make it more ex- 
pudt--4§ CaL 650. An l^knction that tbere was adMspiracy. and 
that ilefendant was murdered lir pursnaDce of the cwisplracy, and 
that the verdict should be gollty. Is not erroneous-^ Gal. 650. See 

1094. When the state of the pleadings requires it, or 

in any other case, for good recusons, and in the sound 

discretion of the court, the order prescribed in the last 

section may be departed from. 

It is -within the discretion of the court to depart from the order 
prescribed In the preceding section as to arguments of counseI-/.4d Cal. 
155. It Is competent for the court to require the counsel for the de- 
fendant to open, and the counsel for the prosectftlon to close— 44 Cal. 
100. Where nothing to the contrary appears on the record, the pre- 
sumption is that the court had good reason for allowing' associate 
counsel to conclude the argument before the jury— 46 Cal.103; see 47 
id.l05j 43Id.l55. 

1095. If the indictment or information be for an of- 
fense punishable with death, two counsel on each side 
may argue the cause to the jury. If it be for any other 
offense, the court may, in its discretion, restrict the ar- 
gument to one cQunsel on each side. [In effect April 9th; 

In a capital case, the court may allow more than two counsel t o ad- 
dress the jury on each slde-^8 Cal. 236; see 43 Gal. 153. See Const. 
ProT. ante, page n. See antet S 1093, subd. 5, note. The order of ar* 
gument is subject to the discretion of the court-see (mier% 1B94, and 
note ; aud see 55 Cal. 298. 

1096. A defendant in a criminal actidn is presumed ta 

be innocent until the contrary is proved, and in case of a 

reasonable doubt whether his guilt is satisfactorily shown, 

he is entitled to an acquittal. 

Barden of proof— In crlntlnal caacns, the pirjysecmtton 1& required to 
proFs? two tbingsj ftrst, tlnatthe trplme hna heen eommftted; flntl Arc* 
mm, that; It wp,^ cummlEttjd by ttia person <!LiArgcd>iUid by noQt? otli^r 
si Ctil. 5&T; Meo 21 Plclc. Sijti; 2i) AJx m^; McCuhon, 134; & Mu. 4^^ 
Without fiume evbiGiice teudlnj^ to abow that ncrniiP iiA» b*eiicotni- 
mltt{3d,tbe tiuo&tlon M to ilii> [JcrPfjiil)y\Yhoii:i*'oium!ttc?d cannot oa-iHG 
— aiCal.iHi^. That SI crliiio lias Iteen commitfftLcanTim be itrovedi by 
tbe Qxtnir judicial coafe5<^4ond or ptatcnicntsi of th« prlsoiier alone— 31 
Cal. £68 : & Mls3. 3&J- ThcTO m siat bt> ftotn n ccnTuborat Iuk clrt umsta n- 
ee^tendtD? to show that ft crt mo Hr.'i bcerx eoniqiitt^ed— 41 C'oJ, SlitJ; 3? 
la.flli BGO l&Wi^na.l4^; 2(iMSF3.15:; {;ifd,4iu; lli Wend..W{ :^ Mo. 
219, Wlicro there U an entlru wa.atgf (jvJdaiicd of tko corpm tUlicii, 
except fltatemem^ madn by the prJ^ner^ tbocoartobouJid dlroet tbe 
jTLTf U> acquit-^ I HiiX. ft^JH. Tho KVldoneo musc \m con Hoed io tbg 
crbno chFiiTjed— 3S CaU fliOi M Id- 1-^\ &J Id. 61, aiUity kiioivletiRe i* 
an t^s-^eDtm gircEimbtcLuco to ptavii^liJ Cal. 06; but^ lauuatcrUil dvif-^ 
mtmtSw^hi^h may bo rojecteu a5 surpliisa.?e» aced not boptovcd— -31 
H. H. 931 ; 7 lowB, 2&S* Burden of proofs wben stilfta— see jjoj^ S IWi 

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§1096 TBJAL. m 

Tbe hypothcBts t^onx^n^Bd far by tlio pFaaccctlon must ba sitatH- 
llshed ta im absoliito moral ccrtalnlyi to tha cxclusLoa or any ratlooal 
iifatobllltyof any oibcr lijpotLc'^la Uplne truo^ortto jury must flu d 
thfl dereua.iiit not puUty— li Cnl. S;t5: iiW Id. 3.^4; 52 til 4^3 3 111 M:i.^. L 
It Is not rc^quircd that loruEpivtpry iart=? Lo absolutr^y incompatJUlo 
TrVltli tha Innoccnf o of tbo imicufltU-4 1 1 nL uil. A in«r<? prepoaaRniknco 
of cvWenco M not sutQdeqt-Jjl Tar. 't:i; -it liL f?: 41 Id. tiij. Qii ttio 
other Imnd, it 1:* nut iie^-eHSttry that, intuljsatory raita Lie iiliSQlntely 
IncoECiptnlblu vvifh tlio Iniiort'iii^ti of thtj accust-'d— 41 CaL tiii, Wbcrti 
InUepetidcut frLcuanilclrciuiistfliic^^a ata YQlied on, Lu caso of rimirn'^ 
BtanllEU Bvldpuci?, cfttU «:iJBiMalifil Judt-'jiciiilem fact in ibe chxilii tjt 
eeriea of fa'^ts, mn>t li>o cstabiL'^bcd to ft nrionil ecrtnluty, lu-yoMl 
reasonabltt tloLiUt^ mid Ut theiiuibtoEMlst^itlQii of tbo jury^-Vi C^l. bus; 
$^ UL i^!&i 'It AiA. i4; ^:J IjL 21). It ougbt not ouly to bo eouslfit^: ut i.vitb 
thG T>vlfinj\^v's frn lU, Init lnroii?;I?=f:rait wUli any ot her rati ou.Tlr our tnalon 
^-41 r, ,]. i; ,:]]■:.: , IT. : -. ; T! ", Y. " r ■, •' n i. : r r T, ::3:itL 
Mil: 4^, V.U. ....... ,, „ .......... .. , ^ 

If a juror goes Into tbe trial with his mind unprejadiced, knowing 
nothing of tfad flocts, and becomes satisfied without doubt from the 
testimony that the Prisoner is guilty, there can be no reasonable 
doubt in his mlnd^Sf Conn. 355. 

As against the defendaiit, the facts must be proved beyond a 
reasonable doubt~6 Cal. 129; while on the part of the defendant, 
preponderating proof is sufficient to establish a fact— 5 Cal. 129; 6 id. 
ilU; 24 id. 236; see 43 CaL 14. Presumptiou'-seelH>4^ S 1102, note. 

Brorince of jury.— It is the peculiar province of the Jury to draw 
the conclusions from the evidence, in which they are not to be inter- 
fered with, nor prohibited, nor aided by the court— see 17 CaL 877; 27 
id. 607: 30 id. 21^; id. 151 ; 31 id. 409: 33 id. 213; so, it is thehr province 
to find malice— 6 id. 214; and the identity of property— 32 id. 60: 23 id. 
160. The circumstances producing the conclusions, but not the im- 
pressions themselves, are the subjects of proof— 8 CaL 390; and error, 
m permitting certain improper evidence to go to the Jury, may be 
cured by sttScing it out, and instructing the Jury in regard to it— 84 id. 

Reasonable doubt is that state which, after entire comparison and 
eonsideratlon of all the evidence, leaves the minds of the Jurors in 
that condition that they cannot say they feel an abiding conviction, to 
a moral certamty, of the truth of the charge— 47 CaL ^7; 44 id. 290: a 
certainty Uiat convinces and directs tho understanding, and satisfies 
the reason'and Judgment of those who are bound to act conscientiously 
upon it-44 CaL 290. 

The jnnr mutt be Mtisfled beyond a reasonable doubt that every 
fact essenual to constitute the offense has been proved— «3 CaL 67; 47 
id. 406; 1^ Id. 127; 6 id. 217: id, 410; tf N. vTSupreme, 369; 45AIa.6ti; 27 
id. 20. They must be satisfied beyoncl a reasonable doubt that defend- 
ant and no othw person committed the crime— 62 CaL 446; 39 id. 326; 
42 id. 635. 'Jh^ cannot convict merely because th^ believe the 
evidence is such that a man of prudence would act upon ft in his own 
aflabrs of greater importance— 51 CaL 373 ; see 8 Nev. 400; lO Minn. 407; 
18 id. 208; 31 Ind.492. No conviction should be had, unless the jury 
are entirely satisfied, from the evidence, that the defendant is guilty— 

Where two persons at the same time fire at another, and there is 
no evidence oTcotisplracy, and the Jury ore in doubt as to to which 
killed, the one on trial Is entitled to the benefit of the doubt— 45 CaL 
no ; but otherwise if there is proof of a conspiracyMd. 

If the whole testimony, taken together, leaves no room for a 
reasonable doabt on the point of venue, the venue is sufficiently 

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429 TBXAK §§ 10971100 

1097. When it appears that the defendant has com- 
mitted a public offense, and there is reasonable ground of 
doubt in which of two or more degrees he is guilty, he can 
be convicted of the lowest of such degrees only. 

See €mte» S 1016, note. 

Instances of conviction of lower offense— 4 Cal. 376; 5 id. 278; 6 id. 
543; 17 id. 332; 35 id. 391. See ante, § 1016> note 3. 

1098. When two or more defendants are . jointly 
charged with a felony, any defendant requiring it InuSt be 
tried separately. In other cases the defendants jointly 
charged may be tried separately or jointly in the discre- 
tion of the court. [In effect April 9th, 1880.] 

Separate trials.— A defendant in a Joint indictment has a risht to 
demand a separate trial, or to waive tne right— 8 Cal. 303: see 5 id. 184. 
'Where defendants waived separate trials, hnt before the jury was 
sworn moved for separate trials, it was In the discretion of the court to 
refuse the application-55 Cal. 230. On electing to be so-tried, and be- 
ing tried, one mav be a witness for the other— 5 Cal. 134; 20 Id. 440; 2 
Humph. 99; 6 Mo. 1 ; 1 6a. 610; 4 Wash. C. C. 428. 

1099. When two or more persons are included in the 
same charge, the court may, at any time before the de- 
fendants have gone into their defense, on the application 
of the district attorney, direct any defendant to be dis- 
charged, that he may be a witness for the people. [In 
effect April 9th, 1880.] 

DlsGhaxgo.—ThQ dl3<]kurea must be at thg tdal, bofore defendant 
has gono Into his rt^tense, by tSio court of lis own raotlon, or on a[ipll# 
cation of the district attorEiey— la Ciil 2S3. A iJuf^urtant cannot be 
dlscinrefldfroin tli» tntlictment without tflal^iccjrt in tlio Cfises pro- 
vided L}/ fit^tate-id. Otiti indictQd ajj tm lULees^ory ia a coiupctleDt 
witneisa for the peopio In tho Lrlal of tho prtiiclpal— 44 ral. Sl^n. An In* 
^truetlon bf tha coorC tofjiicli vvllriesa tlunt liEa evldent'Q cannot be 
v^d agL^Lnst himself » (loc:! nut prejudice rlefeacluiit— Id. abo di.^cbiirgd 
of oiia defendant Jo k d tly Ifii] ieted , to m ako hLm a wltneea f of the pBOpig * 
la In elToct an act^uli tal— 31 €ak 4!^. A promlso by t he proiieoutlinif atlop- 
ney or tho commLttlni; magistrate or Immunity from punMuueuti fur- 
Tii^l^i^s no groumi fof a dlacMEge ot the prlaoner wli*^n on trial— 4fl Cal, 
202. * 

1100. When two or more persons are included in the 
same indictment or information, and the court is of opin- 
ion that in regard to a particular defendant there is not 
sufficient evidence to put him on his defense, it must or- 
der him to be discharged before the evidence is closed, 
that he may be a witness for his oodef endant. [In effect 
AprU 9th, 1880.] 

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SS 1101-2 TRiAi. 428 

When joint defendants ate aepsratelj tried, e»cb may t>e a witness 
for the other-4»Cal. 184; 20 id. 440; 2 Hompli. 99; 6 Mo. 1; 1 Ga. 610; 4 
Wash. C.C. 428. 

1101. The order mentioned in tlie last two sections is 
an acquittal of the defendant discharged, and is a bar to 
another prosecution for the same o£Eense. 

Discharge from indictment-«n acquittal— 24 Cal. 46; see 48 id. 253. 

1102. The rules of evidenoe in civil actions are appli- 
cable also to criminal actions, except as otherwise. pro- 
vided in this Ck)de. 

Name of defendant.— It may be proved that defendant was known 
by the name mentioned In the indictment, and also by another name 
—46 Ga. 269. Where a person indicted by his initials, the fact whether 
he Is 80 known may be put in issue, and if so proved against him he 
may be convicted— 49 Ala* 311. The initial or a middle letter of a 
name Is no part of the name, hence a variance la iinmaterial-39 XU. 
457; but wherq the first name was an Initial, and the second name was 
in full, by which appellation he was generally known, the indictment 
is not sustained by proof that he usually signed both christian names 
by Initials— 12 Ohio St. 427. Whether a person is aa Well known by on© 
name as another Is a question of reputation, custom, and usage— 11 
Gray, 320; see 54 Me. 569. 

Upon the issue as to the name of the defendant, the fact that to a 
former indictment by the same name, she answered on her arralni- 
ment, is proper for consideration of the Juiy— 40 Me. 438. If there is a 
variance in the sound of the name as spelled In the indictment, and 
proved at the trial, defendant ouffht to be acqiUtted— 6 Parker Or. B. 
31; but where the diflereuce Is scarcely perceptible the variance Is 
immaterial— 37 Ala. 106; 16 Gray, 1; 58 lli.160; 8. 0. 1 Green C. B. 704. 
The question of idem sonant is for the jury and not for the court— 20 
Gratt. 825; but where defendant omits to submit it to the Jury as a 
question of fact, he waives the right to insist on the oMeetion— 14 Gray, 
400; see 25 Tex. 574. 

Where identity is an important question, witness may be asked 
where his acquaintance was, and what was his own business— 55 Me. 
200. An answer made to the clerk of the court demanding his name is 
part of the testimony— 49 Cal, 383. If the mune of thd person injured 
U alleged as unknown, the proof must correspond with the allegation, 
and it there be no proof, defendant cannot be convicted— 30 Ind. 115; 
but see 30 Conn. 500. 

I' '" lK5 proved directly mr by any clromistanc&J 

»"u . i i.-'n taU 57 J, Wlicrelc y nrtn-^d tlmt ii crime 

l],Lj I . ■Li i.^iriiniuijl, jiniJ tSie clmmiistanceiipoii^t tathu siceustd.jikttts 
tcndLuL; tij.'^Uuw a,iJiuUviL% tlimiijli reiuote, are udmlsstjilu— n AlQh. #.51. 
Wberc? DiotiTo la material It ran oot be Ihiagtnei:!, biitfn(i:t!» from wiilch 
it Li iMftrrrt^d Luuiii ho provE^U— 4:J'N. Y. 1^7 ; pi'tJuf cf ^i |i.i-©¥lous ])€isf}|:u».L 
lUfneulty Is nriijici' tor eonskipniLiiiTi on tlio iiu&^;tku.n of muttvo— 4 
Fmrker Cr. It. 3iD. Soimrato ami iLL.'iLinct Fetontya may Ijq x»n>vcd to 
c^jjtarljlbb the (.xlitciiuo yf a mijtivo lo coiomlt tiii'> crSmj? In tiupstlon— 
ihik. aai 41 AU. Hi5| 3 Hfislf. BUj » Parker Cr.Il. ^U 4 la- 71; pcoS 
l^x An. hX2. Wherutlie tbaraclcrof aiiiact dcpands upou tinsljitcn- 
tlon with whlcH Jt was dtina. ttrn iTnomncts of tho pci^flu tlcviiig it n^ay 
liocoQSildcred on ihociiisstlijjuifiiis guilt— ^ Ttx* W*. U U f<n* the 
Jury to d&termlno thts i]UjC:^tloii nX hitciit— fj3 €jiL 41J&, Every saxia p«r- 
sou Li presumed to kijiU-ijd lIiio cciTiu^quc:u€i.'j of lil^ c^Wn act* andna tui> 

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427 ntzAL. i 1108 

lawfkdACt done.IsdoAowtthaanttUwftil intdht— 69 Cnl. 201 : 65 Ue. 
30; 6 Qftrb. 203; 3 Dev. 269: 11 Ga. 019( 2 Gratt. 594-9 13 N. J. L. 361 ; 8 
Halst.220: 8Ind. 290; 40 Id. 263; 561(1.263; 5Ired. 350; 18 Jobus. 115: 8 
Bow. (Mlss.> 656; 4 Mass. a»l: 50 id. 103: id. 410$ 92 id. 337; 7 N. Y. 
385; 13 TVend. 87; 60 Ala. 445; 91 IH. 143. Intent to jnaiin or disfigure 
may be presuinea from clrcnmstances, and it is not necessary to prove 
antecedent grudges, tUr^atcnioss, or an express desiun— 1 Hayw. 130. 
WUero one wpurposely sliotuuuer tlio mistaken belief that he is a dif- 
ferent person, inteutwiUbe presmurd— ldCal.636; 21 OUio St. 306; 7 
Ga. 2: ll Humph. 159; Wright, 20; 59 Mass. 30G; 2 Strob, 77. Intent 
may be Inferred from facts and circumstances— see Desty's Crim. 
Law, sea. 

Loons delicti.^The prosecution must prove the offense committed 
in the county charged lu the iudictmcn t--43 Cal. 382 ; 44 id. 105. Where 
the venue is laid in the coimty to which the stolen property has been 
brought, it is competent for the prosecution to prove that the prop- 
erty was stolen in another county— 40 Cal. 643. The estimate of a 
witness who had been on the ground without actually having mtaa- 
mred the distance, is admissible to provo whether the nlace of killing 
was within five hundred yards of tne county Ihie— 55 Cal. 230. Where 
the evidence tended to show the offense committed within a certain 
saloon, but nothing in the record tending to show that the saloon was 
in the county, there was a f aiiare to prove the loeus delicti-^i Cal. 105. 

Jodicial notice will be taken of the territorial extent of jurisdiction 
and sovereignty of their own de facto government and its subdivisions 
—1 Cal. IS; 39 id. 40; 3 Pall. 297; 7 Feters, 341. 

AUbL—An alihi is a fact, and its existence is established by the same 
evidence as jany other fact— 47 AJa. 659. It need not be established be- 
yond a reasonable donbt-7 Cold. 92 ; 12 Ind. 670; 39 Ul. 457 ; 42 Ind. 373 ; 46 
10.811: but8ee74ra. 8t. 463. If the evidence is sufficient toralsearea- 
sonahfe doubt, it should be considered, although the alibi does not 
cover the entire time— 49 Ind. 248: as the proof of an €dibi need not be 
exact as to time— 8 Bush, 366. Where the offense is shown to have 
been committed daring the night or part of tlie night, the evidence of 
tho oXiH ought to cover the whole of such time— 48 Ind. 483. Where 
tlio prisoner undertakes to prove an aUUt the prosecution In reply 
may disprove it— 4 Gray, 39: see 37 N. H. 196. The mere nnsuccesfnful 
attempt to establish an alibi is entitled to no greater weight against 
the prisoner than the failure to prove any other item of defense— 81 
Ind. 263; 20 XU. 65; 89 id. 457; 16 Ohio St. 583; see 64 N. C. 56. 

Presumptive evidence.— After Indictment found, the accused is 
presumed to be guilty for most purposes, except that Of a fair and im- 
partial trial before a Jury— ^ Pov. 421; 4 Parker Cr. li. 651. Capacity for 
crime of persons above seven years. Is a question of fact— 41 Vt. 585. 
A Avlf e will be presumed to have acted under coercion of her husband, 
when he was at the time near dnough to be under his ImmedAato in- 
flaence itod control— tl2 Mass. 287. The question of compulsion is to 
be determined by the Jury— Parker Cr. B. 0. Evidence that parties 
cohabited together as husband and wife is competent to prove mar- 
riage, except in cases where marriage is the foundation of the crime 
tobepmiished-2«Cal. 129. 

IiSalice is presumed from an assault with an instrument likely to 
produce death, in the absence of px^f to the cohtrary— 19 Iowa, 447. 
Malice may be implied-from clrciunstances— 5 Sawy. 620; 14 Bush. 601 : 
id. 362; 5 Teoc Ct App» 166; but express maUoe is never to be Inferred 
from tho act or the weapon used— 37 InU< 432; 25 Ala. 15; & Tex. Ct. 
App.559j id.565. 

False Btatemonta or falsification of the record afford a presomptlon 
of gnilt-^Deady, A24. Proof that a grocer sold- liquor, and that it was 
dnmlc on the premises, is presomptlve evidence that it wasr wttb his 

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8 1102 TBIAL. 428 

ooiiBent-6 Miss. 646. The existence of a foet does not raise a reason* 
able presumptton of the ezistence of another fact-M CaL 568; 62 id. 

No Inference of gnilt can be drawn from the prisoner declining to 
testify in his own behalf-38 Cal. 622: 89 Id. 704 ; 40 Vt. 655: see 15 Mich. 
403: contra* 65 Me. 200; 67 id. 574: 69 id. 298; but where the prisoner, 
when testifying in his own behalf, fails to explain a material fact or 
circomstance, the same presumption arises as from such failure by 
another witness, if in his power to give it-56 N. Y. a 15. 

Where accused is so situated that he could explain thecircum> 
stantial evidence against him If innocent, and he fails to do so, it will 
bo presumed tliat the proof, if produced by him, instead of rebutting, 
would tend to sustain the chatse— 5 Gush. 295. 

The omission of a party to produce evidence showing where he 
was on a certain day, or how he became possessed of a fflven sum of 
money, or other property, is not conclusive against Iiim, though it 
creates a strong presumption of gnilt; it is a question for the jury— G3 
N. Y. 501: 48 Barb. 466. The omission of a purty to make his son a 
witness for him, when he could have probably explained some of the 
facts bearing against him, is a proper subject for the consideration of 
the jury-14 Gray, 867. 

Eeceot poBseBstoii'— Becent possesslOD of stolen property is nv% 
prima /acisQVldcm&tha.l the posac^sqr i^ n-uilty— -3 CnJ. 6L; but ana 
nntnti ih:it posa^asloii of pruinTty recently stolen, unaccounted fur 
of liUe^c^^laJnedr U presuoiptlrfl i-vlljeneo of gtjUt— tJ Conn* fi2T : i Mesa. 
6; «lud,iiit]7i B Jonea, (N. O^) 413; ti.5 N. C. M[J: 12 limi. J550: MJ low.% 
liiJ: lald^iBj 24 G-L »l; 1 Qroene, (lowfl) ItW: '1^10^^.1,27^1 1^7 Ul. Vlii; 
1141I11S8* 2ljfl5 20 Iowa, IP; 41 Id. ?l7i Ti N. U. 4S2; U Ul.a,>l)j 33 Tex! 
4mi 21 Gralt. a*W: *J Mlsa. GM(: ii Ji. Y» 17L*i 30 ML93. mt 3ii id, 120| fiJ 
id, 41)7; 6^ Id. G&i; 37 Mo. 4iii; 51 Vt, 257; ];i tli.*^ C. C: 275; flj AIji. 
37 jP. XHb not of Itself sufflt. luiit to convict— 55 Cal. 2'M: 51 Id, 5S8: 4L1 
id. aS; 4ald. l^E 27 Id, 4&7; 20 id. IIS; l;! lU, 3^J; lu hL 1M; d Paq. O. L, 
J . uai ; 44 T^ J£. im. it U not prima faris tJ vW t' nct3 of 1j lUKlary^O CjiI . 
a? ; 4,!l luwa^ U- It iii A clreuinstaneja to bo coiujlUcred wiLb other c|r- 
eum£tfc«nee$-^Si5 Cal. m&i 4 J id. Asi; 45 id. 265; 44 Id* a;i^: IS Id, aS2i £0 id, 
m; Ha lit 647: W N. H. 5W; fiS 111. '^Hi \2 Minn, m* 57 Tcx-fflJJ; 3 
Jones. tN. C.i 104: 4 id, 4W; ^i> lowx 4H; 5iiN. y. 3l6i « Cox C. G.4mi 
M tnd. aiO; B. C. J Aiii. €r. E. 372: I'd Kjiii. .-5,^0; a> tV I Am. €r. B. m. 
It must Uo accomiMudcd liy pront of othcir cl;rcuuistaoi:>iLid to render it 
ayiiiiabJotocoiivfctlou— 4:s€ai, 123 ; 44 Id. 641; ti Cold. H; 27 Iowa. 128 1 
3aMji>.a73; ISI Mo* atig; 15 Mo. 311*1 4ii lud* 447: 42 lil.4^'0i a Id- Ul: il 
Tex. 280 i S, C. I Am. Cr, E, 437? 13 to^t C. C. S^^i, AjS whero part 
of tho stolen tiropfrlywa^ lound coucraled, and tbq rest of Lt lu pos- 
Af^ionof dcfena^nt— I? CaJ. ICKi; or\Yti<2ro tho mone!ywu,$Df a kind 
rarelr seen, and toiislsr?! cf a ccunblnatlon fjf plpocs— 41) Id. 5B3: 39 Id. 
S14 j nnd nn lUitmctloQ tint pusie ssioxi l.ionly a " giillty cJf cmiistauce" 
l!( u0% fiTTQnvQiuh-4i Id. SJL If \h& t?vlUC:in^o In cspIaniLtLon creates a 
teasouablo doubt, U prattlcflllv' rebuts tho prc^muDilon— ^9Iiid.M0! 
S. C, a Am. €r, B^iTTii 33 In [1. 412; ja Id. 4yt>. TbO question Li ous of 
factfortliejury— Ulirev, 611; 3l>eT. & B. l::^: U McL 6&4: 2 lud. mz 
3? Tti. 203 3 S* tt. 1 Am. Cr, H, 434 ; 7 Car, ^ P. 5S1 : 3 Id, 600 1 6 Jur.^7 ; 
I I^ifih & C- 4.'7. Posa^EiSiQu of Liank-uotci Eimu^ir to ttioisu etolcn*. 
wltti coumtdlctory accounta ot tiio in.i.uner In wblch lie fftina liy 
thcm« arc evidence toiibowliQ diduot runio bv ihom lioneatly-4 Dejv, 
tiW. l'n-?iniii[.iln:i ..f (Tj,ii|.. f,.,ji,i, ^t,,, ,^n^...-c<ii,'L^, ,.r L.frL|.,., ni-uuerLy ia 

Admissions.— What the prisoner said at any time after commission 
of the offense Is competent evidence against nlm— 65 Barb. 18. So an 
admission of fact made at the trial in open court may be considered 
by the Jun:-^ Gal. 6S1. The admission of a fact made hy defendant's 
counsel la bis preaenee, and not objected toby him. Is picsumed to bo 

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429 TitTAL. § 1102 

wlfh his consent, and may be read in evidence against him— 25 GaL fiSI. 
An admission by the prosecuting attorney is binding on the people, 
and is proper for the consideration of the Jury— 34 CaL 831. Admis- 
sions and confessions may be implied from the acquiescence of de- 
fendant in the statement of others made in his presence— 32 Cai. 98: 
62 Me. 129; see 5 Met. 53(i; 33 Ala. 523; 32 id. 5G0. The admissions and 
declarations of the prisoner may be proved without first showing that 
no promise or threat was held out to induce him to make them— 13 
Fla. 636. Telegraphic messages in the liandwritlnffof defendant are 
competent evidence as adousslons made by him— 7 Allen. 548. They 
are to be considered for all purposes to which they are relevant— 36 
CaL 522. 

evidence of admisaionf and declarations mnst be confined to the 
BnbJec^matter of the innuiry— II Gray, 823; yet the Jury are not 
bound to_give equal credit to allparts of the statement-32 Yt. 241; 
see 56 N. Y. 95 ; 65 Barb. 551 ; 42 N. Y. 270. 

^cti u:*.! iI:^u:!.-i'-L:v!Ai:: ^j L vi J. 'J noe.— Previous jictS utid Jeclar- 
aUons ci£ ilia pri^uutr uru Li£i]ai:^.i^ilil4j iu (^DUiiGcUciU wltti ttii;: rg^ ff€itm 
where U U neet-^sajiiy to tirovo a corrupt Intciit— aii N, ¥. 4Jl. Dcclarsp 
tloiit VfMcli aftJ voluriitjiTlly and spoiitarjc^onsly mndc?, springing out 
of ctip triniiiactLoii nntl ti.?ndlDt? t'> (?iLpln(n it, nr»:5 juliutsiiHile mnart 
cf ttiti rf$ ffw^zfl— ^1 TllL i't. CoinUict tif tltfecjiiiLcit ttualiHg to sliow 
iimadiuisslcjtiDf guild It cPinpetiJut taviileiicij— 41 ALi. ^-kl, Tiie con-^ 
duct, doiiioanor, juid csprcsa-igns of tiJtt ikccii^ad at or Jiboiit the 
time of tliD oITei^fisq, ixvG f or tUei {!onfi]:deraLioii of tbtJ jiiry— 4y Alik aaJ ; 
5 Uiimpb, yaa. Tbrc^at^ mada a^iu^E the parties enga-^fl'tl lu ttio pros- 
ecution uru atltnlssiblo toshow tbtJthajaeicr of tbe dcifcuse— 111 Iowa* 
liH* Tlitj rtofilrv rations milI fi in E omenta inado by de>rcndant ofier bcLug 
clian^ed ^itii the crluio, to bo admisalble tLicy must be Bhown to have 
been ToUUitary-l^ N. ¥. SiU; 67 Darb. 353; 42 N, Y. 2(J0; boo II K* Y. 7- 

The declarationB of the prisoner cannot be proved for the purpose 
jf drawing out the reply of the witness to whom they were made, 
unless they form part of the conversation put in evidence— 23 Ala. 44; 

\Vherf thedecla"" '"" — ' ' """ ' "" "" 

take the whole i 

and believe thos- _„ , . . — . 

10 Mich. 212. The prosecution, in proving the declarations of the 
prisoner, is not bound by them. T^ — — - - -«- 

aU the other evidence— 27 N.Y. 330. 

Declarations of defendant In his own behalf, as a genenU rule, are 
not admissible-!} Ired. 440; 1 Woods, 581. To be admissible, they must 
have occiured within the period covered by the crimmating evidence, 
or tend in some way to explain some facts introduced. by the prosecu- 
tion, or to Impair or destroy the force of evidence against him— 31 Ala. 
342; 47 id. 68. 

The declarationa of a cod^endant, not on trial, made in the 
absenee of defendant, are not admissible in evidence unless made 
during the criminal enterprise and in furtherance of its objects— 45 
Cal. 19: 7 Gray, 4&x 8 Serg. & B. 9; 51 N. H. 105; 7 Gratt.641; 16lfe.293; 

?Ga. 408; 19 Mo. 227. If two are Jointly indicted, and tried separately, 
be declarations of one not on trial, if there is testimony of a con- 
spiracy made before the killing in the presence of defendant, may be 
received in evidence against him— 49 Cal. 166. 

Promises and threats made by a third person, after indictment, to 
a witness for the prosecution^ to induce hibd to leave the State, are not* 
admissibla against defendant unless his connection withtsuch third 
person is otherwise shown— 28 Ala. 71; 4f) id. 173; providing such 
conspiracy is afterward made— 47 Cal. 3^)7; 89 id. 52; but if made after 
the offense is consummated, they are not admissible against the other- 
A2 CaL 212; but where the accessory is tried before the principal, the 

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of drawing out the reply of the witness to whom they were made, 
unless they form part of the conversation put in evidence— 23 Ala. 44; 
\Vher« the declarations of the prisoner are proved, the Jury ought to 
take the whole in consideration, yet they may reject those in his favor, 
and believe those against him— 21 Cal. 2iil ; 13 Mo. 882: 23 Ohio St. 146; 
10 Mich. 212. The prosecution, in proving the declarations of the 
prisoner, is not bound by them. They are taken in connection with 
----- '"-nce-iTN.^ "'"* 

g 1102 TRTAL. 430 

actsaQd conduct of the latter immedltitely after tho^ offense itre ad- 
mte^le-SS N. H. fW. It is proper for the conrt to Instraot the Jnnr to 
disregard them unless sucii conspiracy is proved— 49 Oal. 648. They • 
are aamissible to show that the previous confessions of defendant 
were true— 19 Iowa, 94: see Id. 313. The declarations of one of two 
defendants are admissible only against the one who makes tbem->47 
Ala. 673. 

An act of a third person done in the presence of the prisoner^ is 
equally admissible as a declaration made in his presence^l Keyes, (i6; 
but if made when he Is not present, they are not admlsslble->52 Cal. 
616; nor is It admissible unless it is shown that he was immediately 
concerned, so that his silence may be construed into an admission— M 
Mo. 620: but Bee 9 Allen, 27 1. Where^ there are circumstances of com- 
plicity 1>etween the prisoner and his wife, evidence of her excUima- 
lions at the time of the killing, if in his presence and bearing, is 
admissible--49 CaL 143; 89 id. 667 

If declarations are offered against another, made in his presence, 
and if there is evidence that he heard and understood them, the Jury 
Is to decide whether he understood them— 51 Cal. 087. 

The declaration of a child too young to testify Is not admissible— 
41 Tex. 362; so of words spoken in sleep or 8tupor-19 CaL 40; 39 N. T, 
39; 4 Gray, 41. 

Declaratibna of husband cannot be given against the wife on her 
separate trial— 60 Ind. 557 ; nor are the declarations of the wife admis- 
slDlo against the husband— 10 Cal. 275. The exclusion of a declaration, 
wiien properly made and no advantage to the surprise of defendant 
is attempted, is not error— 17 Cal. 389. 

Statements in evidence.— A sworn statement made by the prisoner 
upon his examination as a witness, before he wasAceused of the crime, 
is admissible against hlm-5 Bich. 391; 10 ]^. Y. 13; 41 id. 7: but other- 
wise if ho be under arrest at the time of the examination— 16 Id. 384: 
see 69 N. G. 106. The evidence of a committing magistrate as to the 
statements made by the prisoner on his prellimnary examination are 
not admissible on the trial— 43 Cal. 538. The Act of 1866, S 866, ts not ap- 
plieable to preliminary examinations— 43 Cal. 559. The sheriff may 
testify to statements of accused after arrest, if they were made volun* 
tarily and without threats or promise of reward^-44 Cal. 63i>. State- 
ments made l^ a prisoner tn his ceU, in the absence of threats or prom* 
ise of reward, are admissible against him— MS Hass. 286. To prove 
statements made by defendant* a memorandum made at the time, or 
soon after, may be deferred to— 49 CaL 169; hut they cannot be proved 
by such A memorandum alone— U id. 144. 

Statements of third persona are inadmissible unless aeeompftalea 
witbproof of defendant's statement, or conduct in response thereto 
—64 Cal. 89; in harmony with— 32 Id. 98; 43 Cal. 171. They areevidence 
only so far as defendant admitted them to be correct by aiseiit. silence, 
or acta on his part construed as assent, either, words or conduct— 4$ 
CaL 171 ; 64 id.^; 32 id. 08. 

Where defendant gives in evidence a statement made to hlm» he 
cannot prove his reply— 4 Zab. 843. The party calling a wttness is not 
permitted to prove statements made to others, which if testlfled to on 
the trial would have made out bis case— ^9 Cal. 384. Statements made 
to the prisoner in respect to his connection with th4-aileged Offenso 
are admissibto to show his conduct when they were made, but not as 
evidence of their trttth-63 Cal. 613; 49 id, 172. 

The ezol«aion^ statements of the district attorney, whteh have a 
material boving for the defense, made under clrcumstanees of pecril- 
lar relevancy, and the credibility of his own witness, is error— 34 OaL 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

431 TBIAL. § 1102 

statements of the ix^nred party tending to exeolpate the prlBoner 
are properly excluded-^ CaL 100. 

Oontrersatlons.— Evidence of a conversation between a coconspira- 
tor and a third person, in presence of defendant, in which admissions 
were made, arc admissible— 49 Cal. 169; see 8 id. 106. A conversation 
between theprisoner and his accomplice, before the committing mag- 
istrate, may be given in evidence against him— 30 Ala. G03. Evidence 
of part of a conversation is not admissible-^ Cal. 139; 39 id. 664; but 
the remainder may be proved by other witnesses— 90 Cal. 139; 48 id. 

The plaintiff is entitled' to call ont all that took place in a consulta- 
tion between the witness and one of the defendants— 55 CaL 185; 31 Ala. 
329; see 16 Ala. 672. Conversati(ms aro to be received with great cau- 
tion, but the evidence of a witness that did not hear all of a conversa- 
tion is not for that reason to be excluded— 47 Ala. 573. If a witness is 
unable to state the whole conversation, the remainder of it may be 
proved by another 'witness— 50 Cal. 139; 43 id. 236. A conversation 
partly in English and partly in Chinese can be proved, the English 
part by those who understood it, the Chinese by those Who understood 
that, if both accused and his victim understood both languages— 48 CaL 

A witness with a very imperfect knowledge of the language is not 
competent to testify to a conversation in which a confession was made, 
if he did not understand the whole of it— 39 Cal. 663. Conversations 
of third persons with the witness merely' to show that the fact 
was fixed on his recollection, are admissible— 1 Dutch. 566. The de- 
ductions of the witness from the conversation are not admissible— 47 
6a. 524. Evidence to prove that deceased had said in conversation 
some three years before the killing, that he had enemies in the country 
who, he was afraid, would take iiis life, is inadmissible— 41 Cal. 40. 
The party whose conversation has been proved, caimot on cross-exam- 
ination, show by the witness a subseauent conversation, though it re- 
lated to the same subject— 1 Parker Cr. B. 11. 

Defendant cannot introdnce statements of deceased concerning 
circumstances attending the difficulty in which he was wounded, made 

AJlen,5d7; 2 id. 136. Inquiry into tbe religious belief of deceasea is 
not admissible on the point of credibility or competency— 61 CaL 599; 43 
id. 34; 17 id. 612; 51 id. 600. 

Confession of guilt— A confession is the voluntary declaration to 
another, by a person who has committed a crime, of lilis agency or par- 
ticipation therein— SD Cal. 151. •* Confession " is not a mere equivalent 
to ** statement " or <' declaration "'—SO Cal. 151. Confessions as evidence 
are restricted to an acknowledgment of def endant'sguilt, and the word 
** confession " does not apply to a statement made by the defendant of 
facts which tend to establisb gullt-49 Cal. 637 ; 30 id. 157. If a person has 
sufficient capacity to be amenable to law, he has sufficient to make a 
confession of guilt— 4 Har. (Del.) 563. A member of the Jailer's family 
has no autliorlty to take confessions— 14 Gratt. 652. 

F^of of confessions.- Confessions and admissioiiS ought to be very 
carefully considered before they are permitted to be proved as evi- 
dence or guilt— 30 Cal. 151. Thus it was held erroneous to allow proof 
that accused, under the influence of fear, induced by threats and vio- 
lence, conducted persons to the place inhere the stolen property was 
found— 20 CaL 177. They may be proved either by the record or by 
oral evidence— 61 Me. 171. A witness may testify to a confession made 
by the Drisoner to him through the soil-pipes of a Jail, though he only 
knew mm from his voice— 76 Pa. St. 319. The prisoner is entitled to 
proof of the whole confession— 26 Ala. 59; 29 id. 532; but the defend- 

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§ 1102 TRIAL. 432 

ant cannot have the confession stricken out on tbe ground tbat the 
witness stated tbat he did not remain to hear tbe entire conversation. 
—32 Cal. 660. It will he presumed that a coitfesslon made before a 
magistrate was) reduced to writing, but It must be shown that defend- 
ant signed it, or admitted It to bo correct, in order to exclude {parole 
proofs Har. (Del.) S54. 

Admlsaibility of confeasions.— If a confession In a deposition made 

bGf-' ■■' . .. .r - ■■ :.. ...,;, ■ L f -i - ' , | 'l ("l OTl 

mir-i ■ . . •. . ' . .• •:.,... ,. . , . ,..■......•; ■- ixml 

VDfcllJilii.i'i'— ^^^f i..;i.l. 1' ■ i and iJ-'LciiiL^ilU !:i:lv |H-^.Mr iL \\:i^i n-M V r\ niit:\yy 

^-A'MiHyi. Beforo tJio ciJtif^.'S^ilima of prisoner nan h& iui]jiittP<i, tfte 
court ttiUBt t)a sachtlod Hiat tiiey wvfo voInutarJl/ iiifttiOi— 40 A La- M. 
Wlifice tliey are imicly VLflantary, tljor ara to bu Btibuiltttd tQ tlie 
jiuy^-tiBarb. 271: afl N. Y. 2Tti; IV Mo. ITi; 4 Smodes ^ M. 31, They 
iira arlml^silkio loabow tlio croodnct of l!ie dcfeoduuc uudlcrtbe clrcum- 
EtanQGB—^ CiU. &9p Whem a confession. In lts(?If inadiiils.'^JblOt leads 
to tliB discovery of a, fiirt. so nmcib of It ns relates to tbo fact, may be 
recelveil— 3 Helsk. 33.^ ; 5 Kk'h. yiiL Asthut property wbicti was tiiosiib- 
Ject ©rliLitrumciit of tiio ciinio m^ dlseovertja throu^rh tbo confes- 
sion inipittpi^rlfobtaJoed— 'JO €aL ITT; 3j Mis^, 3^!ri; i\i hh biii 13 Cold. 
K3r awl Va.eila; a ParUT Cr, B, St^; Id, 31JI| ^<j N, Y. 633 j 90 Blass. 
i^S: sec ^7 Tex» ^!2:)» A cuiife^ts^loai U adiuliiijible) ngn.hi£t tCiS [lemoa 
mxkklLiii! It, nJtUoiv^jib It nXsa impUeat<^A otbi[^i^ wba aT<& jointly trLtsJ with 
him— iJ^Fn. 6t. l'J!f^ but unless a prasioua combbmtlou liutwoen them 
lA DToVPtl, tt Iff not admlspJble nsubist tba otbei^S La. An.Tl4 ; (l Ld. BT. 
Tlio qncstlon of tho iwlmissUitlfty of confeastoiLH Ja oao for ibfl eieP' 
cbo of ^ maml Jntllclitl rtteeretion— 31 QiU fiiiOj 31 Id. 3lij. It ia the 
provlneoof tlioconrt to deride on tUo mlmlRalbillty uTa confcaalon, 
aad of tha jurv to estiumte tbo dn^ree of erudJt rluo to it— 3 Bui^b, 306: 
PbllL (>J, O.J 2155J G3 N. C. 5T3j 35 Iowa, SJl. Tho jury mny btjllevo 

Sia.rtfb.nd tll^bPlievo pnrt of tTio prl3onRr"3 conf esiiloii— 3 fiirlicr Cn R. 
01; »Lt]S^b.(kKl: 1 1 Xa. An- f :) j shu 4 Cold, ISO* A eonfciisloii of dec- 
laraLLou, tQ bo atlmUslblE*, oted ait)t be ti:itnutO or eitpllcttt uor dtifli^o 
tiio i\m(^t place* or petaon with wkom tbs traasactlon occurred— lU 
Mass. 411. 

OonfesalonB^ when admissible*— Confe^istons, entirely Tolunteirr, 
Kre admMslblc. oven If* on a p^rlor occasion, sotno proralao of favor 
not acted rni had been mado to liiduco tli^^m— 33 C^l, GO^ SJ VL 191: HB 
Gil. UTOi and nltbougli n prbaoner bn^ pre v lonely tiiAde a confesslom 
whtrbislreo from Bucb Inntience, wiTl bu tiOuiL^Sblo— 20 fJratt. T24; 5 
Jonefl, (K. C.J 315| Id, 4i0; Sid. JIS; 3 HeL?k. 40S; 4 BiilRdes & M* »l! 12 
La, Aju tSi.^ ; biit wlieru n snbsfqucn t fonfeislon tvfw ni:ido on tho immo 
dayi^fmathcr linpi-ofierly obtained, In tho presence of jsomo Of th9 
per^onj. to whom im (irst confession wa!i made. It la nnt admissiblo— 
t: MISS. 28.1* T^hi?roaii cmpiDver told his empioj^ thttt bo would bo 
dlsmisaea o&ieHs.b'j settled witb thoo^TicT of ifcio FioJcn r^iHipprty. n 
coafe.3M$on ftfLerwaivl made In tbo samo conversation was lUliuisslUlo 
—2 Aile , 1 5J ; fieo 3 I f el.^k . 23J ; 3 J one g , ( N. L\ T 4 i :3. Wlie m no bop o or 
favor Is bpbl ont,, It wlil bo competent tliaugb obtaLned by a promise 
Of somfl colbiteml beo^fir-*^? N. II. im; 2 Met. (KyJ m, where a 
pperaon In jail wm tpld thai It wiia conRidifrodbonorabla In all eaaes, Lf 
a person wm gidlty, to confei3*tbo coiLfesalan wa^lidmlssible— 1 Gray, 
Jfll. A confession made to a rellow'prUonef la atlmissible— PhlU- tN. 
0.)447. Prlanuera being; In cij|5torly before the eopouet-'ft jtity, we re told 
bysevofml of ttio jury tbat tiielrgtateiuentawero contradietoiTp '^'Jd 
that If they trera guilty they bad betti^r conte3.9{ a coiifE^islon in3,iio 
neit day to n pet^on not nreient at tbo Ci3rcincT'a jury is admissible— 
m MlEB. eiT, The eooresdon^ of a principal aro ndnjlgaSble ioestaJdlsh 
tho EuUt of tho accessory— 3S Miss. *17. Tiio confession of an accom- 
pue«. made under a prom he from the prosecution tba.t ho ihould sot 
be tried, 1* adjulsslblc-lo Pick. i'A. That accused had asitsted to get 

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43a TRIAL. § 1102 

aootber out of Jail who woiua aid mm In escaplDff Is admissible 
against tbe one alOIng Ms escape— 23 CaL 44; but for conctJuInga 
bOTse-tbief, the prosecution cannot prove the confessions of the thief, 
in the presenceof def enOant, that a norse had been stolen— 5 Ohio. 438. 
A confessioii made to an officer who has the prisoner in custody, if 
not induced by Improper means, is admissible— 43 Cal. 446. The cir- 
camstaoce* that a party Is at the time under arrest. Is not of Itself suffi- 
cient to exclude a confession as evidence— 44 Cal. 538: 8 0. 2 Green 
O. R. 4U; 11 Ga. 225; 6 Ired. 305; 4 Pa. St. 264; 18 N. Y. 9; 4 Parker Or. 

Oonfessions voluntarily made after arrest, and whde his hands and 
feet are tied, may be giveU in evidence against him— 28 Ala. 9; 44 Miss. 
332; 74 X. C. 491; 17 Ala. 192. Confessions are not to be excluded as 
evidence on tbe ground that he was illegally in custodyt because 
twenty-four hours expired before ho was taken before a magistrate— 
46 CaL 48. A confession is admissible, even though obtained by arti- 
flee, or deception— 2 Met. 387; 54 Mo. 478; S. G. 2 Green G. B. ()02; 14 
Minn. 105; see 18 Ohio St. 418. Confessions drawn out by an officer in 
conversation with the prisoner are admissible— 11 Gray, 201; 14 Ark. 
555. The mere fact that a confession is made in answer to a question 
wbich assumes the prisoner's guilt, does not. for that reason, render it 
inadniisslble-40 Ala. 54 : 37 N.Y.303; 14 Minn. 105; 23 Ala. 28. Con- 
fessions made to an officer, without promises or tareats, partly in 
English, and partly In German, are admissible— 3 Parker Cr. K. 256. A 
person being arrested by officers who next day found the stolen prop- 
erty and told defendant of it, certain statements made by defendant 
a3 to the recdvered property were admissible In evidence— 108 Mass. 

ConfessloTifl, whon not admiasibLc— A eonfesslo. obtained by 
tbreatfl l!j not attralsnible in evWeuce. as " it you clo not tell tlio truth, 
i will comraU you '*-4 Pit. St- 2€9, So, by peraona armed with guas, 
ttLrfatf^nintr. tbat if he did not confess, he would bo Lung— 4 SmoUe* 
& ni, 3L Where the prisoner madB cotif csaloii utadtr tliia Inllucnca of 
thTPtitta of arrest, or, after arrest, upon nroralscs of es^apc^ if bo would 
confess, they rtro Inadmissible as cvIciptico against hlm—yi Cal. 218. 
Fe^r or coercion does not exclude rontessions oa to Trbero stQlen 
property Js concealed— 20 0:^1. 177, Wh<^ro no promises are luado nor 
threats used to obtain confessions, they should not bo excluded be- 
cause tbe <?ltcum»tJincea eurrouiidin;? tho defcntlant were tlireuteiilng 
-^7 Ala» SB; ssfu 7 Ired. 2',l'J. ConfossUmfi inntlo under improper in* 
ducenienta aro not admissible— 70 N. O. Sfltij 17 (iratt-STti; il N. Y. im; 
S7 Masii. 5(4: 134 Vt. IJUti; 4G Mo, 54W. Whcro apersoni accused of urimo 
confessea his guilt to tho esaminiug magistrato, the confession Li not 
ndiiiL'^slble in evidence against hlm-40 Cal. &.57i S. C* I Green C. B. 
fi32i see 2 Dill* 40i5; S. C, I Green C. R. i3£». WliPre a polkeman told 
tha prisoner lie should be released If ho woutd tell whero ho got tho 
liropcrty, tho court excluded tho confc!?,slon, butnclmltted proof of his 
acts In connection therewith— 40 Ala* 341, So, where tho oliicer prom* 
Ised to nan hla InHucnco to lia¥0 It go la hij favor, tho confcsfliou waa 
not admissible— S Cush. 505 1 see 3<ff Tex. S.3S. So, wh«ro the officer 
told a person accused of lavccuy, thn-t. If ho would tell them where to 
get the floods. It would ead the inatter— 54 Mo. 1H2; and see i'J Ala. 9. 
Confessions made to the gherlCf, on ajreiSt, after being tO'ld by that 
officer it la useless to deny takln.r^ the propeity* and that there was 
eTltience to couvlct lilm. and thnt It would jjo llr^'htcr with him If ho 
conf esse dj s n ot a v ohmtary confessional 1 Cal, 454. Wb e re tho arrest 
l5 made by private persons, a confei^sion to them la not admiSMiblo— 15 
La. An. U5. If confess 3 oi53 In r.iihgtance be rc-peated beforo the com- 
mitting masl'^trate a few daj a afti^r arrt^st. aud bo reduced to the form 
of awTittf^n statement, they are inadmissible for liavlng been made 
under ind I : L ;,'• ^ siich as to exclude tho former confession— 41 Cal* 
4M. The i : incB a subsequent confession to hava been made 

Fsir. GODO.— SI". 

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§ 1102 TRIAL. 43^ 

and Inflnenced by the same hopes and fears as the first, and the 
harden Is on the prosecution to establish that such Inflaences had 
ceased to operate before the subsequent confession— 41 CaL4S5; 1 Dev. 
209; 4 Smedes & M. 31; 5 Halst. 163; 1 »need, 75: 38 Hd. 140; 22 Ark. 

C^jectlocB to ibmr admission. -It iA not sulILcient objection to a 
c^afeii^ioii tl;^t: tUa prison r\r >vad urifi'il lo make a Statement with no 

?irotul4o of favor or intimi&A.uou.-n N, IL 171. SaTing to a prisoner 
hat it would ba tool ter for liiui to f.ij]\ ro- 1, or words to that effect, op 
tliat IT iiQ w^ c(ullty U coitid not pat JiDil in a worse condition, and he 
had b^tfip ten the triit!i, will iwx <?jEr« ule his confession— 3 La. An. 
497; BOtloSLPSi eonim,^! Harb. ^^i 'd7 N. H. 175; see 7 Mo. ISO: 87 
A][i, J Ofl. BfJt whpro ft f j-lcn d lidv raJ?fl li iiii 1 o confess that he was guilty 
and it would bw ijf ttcr for jisfn— B Bush. z<. i: or where the officer said 
thi?TO ^Tii3 no uRe* Ills denrlafT It, aiid ihnL "he had better Just own up 
to it "— li Ind* 100 J &0p wiiero tlie witncv^s "advised the defendant as a 
f ricud and a ijoo ^*— 10 Gray* Ij'3; so, ivbt s -> an officer having defendant 
iQ castotty (MiJd to himt '^Conio, Jnekt yni might as well out with it," 
and thi::^iiuiig[^'«i:i<^t£ interposed, undwaiEKd him not to confess; some 
boorft utterwnrd, the iirlsonpr confe.^^i iL to a third party, but not 
within lieiLrtJi^of tha ofOoerSt tlio conff'SNlon wasadmissibi©— 5 Bich. 
a9U It 1 * u ut t\ lijroimd of obj ecti an to a f j luf ession that the defendant 
was lutoitiiiatQcl at tba tJme, and PomRTvhjtt incoherent— 25 Ala. 50; but 
if HO dtojik SA not tG imfj(?i^tand vnhut h r^ uaid, it must be disregarded 
— S Gray* 11 Lf; thcv niri.^r b& fre*clv inrnli> ;i t the time— 32 Cal. 60; but if 
n^t objected t ^ ^^T^ v ^ tr r- ^ r„i ii if . . und, defendant must show 
duress, fear, cr .._ -lOCaLSO. 

Eftocx of confessions.— The confessions of a party, not made in 
open court, or on an examination before a magistrate, uncorroborated, 
and without proof aliunde that a crime lias been committed, will not 
Justify a conviction-60 Cal. 415: 31 id. 565; 15 Wend. 147; 12 Mo. 692; 
39 id. 424; 43 Miss. 472; 47 Ala. 38: 4 Mhm. 368; 1 Mont. 394; contra» i 
Wheel. C. C. 107; 11 Qa. 225; 7 Ired. 239; 26 Ind. 89; but this rule is not 
appllcablo to lower grades of crimes— 36 Vt. 145; nor t^ cases where 
the corpus delicti is proved— 5 Halst. 163. The defendant cannot be 
convicted on his extra-judicial confession alone, without corroboration 
—50 Cal. 416; 31 Id. 565. If prosecution proves defendant's confessions, 
circumstances may be proved in corroboration— 32 Cal. 80. It is suf- 
ficient if the confession is corroborated by a single circumstance— 4S 

Oircmnatsntlal evidence.— Clrruoistnntla] etvdencecctiBtBtehitiea^ 
lonlng from f a^ta wlilch iiTt:^ knoiyn or proved, to establish sueh ss are 
c5on>«ctTife<J to eilfttf bnt Hie rli'fiitmataiicos themselves moiit uot rest 
oti coQJecstijre— as Jf, T, Hi- Ucatmot i>o Zieined out tj the Jury bf 
takli^tkotlce from tlielr own. kno^Jedi:&-j» N. Y* Euprcrao K. 8. 2ffi; 
nor by evidence of law or fmet lutrodiiced iu ot^or cosm within the 
Imowledge of tho Juiy. Tlicy ore to declile tht C3150 accini'tJlng: to the 
evidence lotroduci^d Into Jt— W Gray, li33. ClrcuQiiitaiitlal dvI deuce 
when rcllpd on \a to be itot only cemslstout with llio iJ.rlfHiner's ETUUti. 
but inconsistent with evcxy other ratlrini.'il rois elusion —2:3 €iit. ^M: 30 
Id. m% ^ Id. 2U\ 41 Id. 87{ 34 la. 202, Each link In tho clialn cf Idsnti- 
fic&tloa mait be shown " te ^ nior^l ccn^ni >\ or Uryond a rcusountUte 
tj0Bibt[" vtad so with i-e«arfl lo In^iependont wnd oisiturial f aet»-3a faL 
339i a BLvclcf, BTPj H Cfilh^ Silk Wbf^Q the prosecution eatks to draw a 
certain tnfcrenee frmn a gfven s-^U"- of fn4;t3. tt ts tncumljcjit oa llicm 
to lihow that sueh InfeTonPo Ig neceasapy and tipavolflablo from the 
foots proved— 2 Dlaa. vt. To convict ott clftaiostimtiiil cvJdiTac^o, it 
should iH) J? Qch as 10 produco neatly tho earn e degree ofcerUiintvM 
that wbici* arlsca from direct; testimony— 4:: Cal. 539; Si id. 20U It la 
not *oinciedt tbnttho clrcumstanc^oaprovod eolneldo with ^e liypoth^ 
t9ii sought to be estobiJihetl by tho prosecution. They muat eicluda 

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435 TBTAT.. gUOa 

to a mofal certolBty. eyery other toBO t liMto-82 CaL 9U; 28 .Id. 
480; 90 Id. 151; ofSs. 0. Xu J. 208L la So^ ci^o tholaw nakai St tlw 
duQr of tbo Jniy to convict, notwltlistandingiBacb erlctencd may not be 
as satlsf actoiT aa the direct testimony of credible eye-witnesses— 34 CaL 
191. Where the circomstances proved implicate two persons eqoally* 
who are in no way connected in conmiittlng the crime, neither can be 
conTlcted— a Humph. 289; 14 Ohio, 886. Although circomstaatlal evi- 
dence la not so conclusive as direct testimony, yet It equally entitles 
tbe people to a verdict— 34 Cal. 191. It is the duty of the court to cau- 
tion the Jury against attachinpr too much importance to rare cases of 
conviction of innocent persons on circumstantial evidence-M CaL 

Ooncealment as a circumstance.— Concealment when an attempt 
is made to Identify a person Is proper for consideration of the jury as 
raising a presumption of guilt— 25 Ark. 92; it may be evidence of mal- 
ice and of a premeditated design— 39 N. T. 89. Where property, al- 
leged to have been obtained by means of threats, ina afterwards found 
concealed in defendant's bouse. It is admissible, aa tending to show 
guilty knowledge and intent— 80 Me. 72. The suppression, dMtructlon, 
or concealmenf of evidence by accused, is a circumstance from which 
the jury may draw unfavorable inferences against him— 3» 111. 457. 
Falsehood, evasion, or silence on tbe part of one suspected of crime is 
evidence for the consideration of the juiy on the question of guilt— 62 
Me. 129. Silence showing unusual seriousness on the part of one 
charged as participant, at or about the time of the crime, is a circnm- 
atance from which guilty knowledge may be inferred— 17 Ala* 618. 

of guilt, yet the flight of one of several conspirators is not admissible 
in evidence as a circumstance tending to prove the guilt of all— 47 Cal. 
118; see 48 id. 277. Where four « men jointly commit a robbery, evi- 
dence at flight of one, ona deinurate trud of another who did not flee, 
is admissible, to show that, after arrest, he had an opportunity to 
throw away the money«-48 €al. 278; 27 id. 118. The fact that defends 

Aisk 89; but such presumption is ordUiarUy inconclusive— 23 Iowa, 430. 
It may be proved that accused advised an accomplice to break Jail, and 
escape— 21 wend. 509. The offer of the prisoner to bribe the person 
who has him in custody to Allow hiin to escape^may be proved— 4 

Evidence of character.— Evidence of good character Is relevant to 
Uao question ot guilty or nqtguiitgF, aa^ Is to be considered by the Jury 
in coime#on with other facts-^ CaL 860; 40 id. 630; 44 id. 201: 45 id. 
292; 2d IdTSde; 17 id. 316 overruled. The jury may take evidence 

the question <A guilty or nqtguiitgF, aa^ Is to be considered by the Jury 
. 2r-_^ ^^ ^^gy faCts-K^ CaL 3g0; 40 id, 630; 44 id. 201 { 45 iil. 

9 Duri- 

tag^i^ether It'creates {Treasbnabie dou'Bt of his guiit-49 id. 4S3; 44 

id. 288: 6 cai. 248. Evidence of good character is not only of value in 
doubtful cases, but is entitled to be considered when the testimony 
tends strongly to establish the guilt of defendant, and will sometimes 
Itself create a doubt-44 Cal. 288; 45 id. 287; id. 292; 2 Keyes, 360: 540 
Barb. 342; 56 N. Y. 815; 5 Jones, (N. C.) 65; 18 Ala. 720; 47 id. 603; 5 
Farker, 414; 4 id. 85; 40 Ala.698; 84 lU. 516; 5-2 Mo. 251; see 3 Strob. 517; 
5 Cuah. 295; 10 Ohio St. 264; 22 Id. 477. . 

Evidenoe of previons good character, when evidence of guilt has 
rebutted the legal presumption of lunocence, may be given and con- 
sidered by the Jury-44 Col. 288. It is restricted to ttie trial of the 
ch«ffacter which is in issue, »id ought to be a sure reference and 

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§ llOa TRIAL. 4S6 

asuftlogy to the nature of the c]iargo->43 CaL m;'6 Bush* 912; 8 Smeaes 
WSU m ; S Flck. 463; It must lioc be to a particular fact, but with ref- 
erence to the whole case^-S CaL 127 ; 47 Ala. MO; 61 QL 231 : 3 Iowa, 4t0; 
see 12 id. 479; Tbach. C. C. 230; and must havo reference to a time be- 
fore and not after the commission of the offense— 46 Ala, 175; see 22 
Pick. ^. A person accused of crime Is entitled to the presumption of 
a character of ordimury fairness, and which cannot be put in peril 
unless he himself elects to put It In i88ue-43 Cal. 147. £Tldence of 
bad character of defendant may only bo given when good character Is 
attempted to be shown, nor is the character for chastity involved in 
the trial for mnrder— 43 Cal. 139. The failure of defendant to intro- 
duce evidence of good character, cannot be considered by the Jury as 
a cbtmmstanoe against him-»a N. Y. 472; 38 Me. 261: 7 Ired. 251; I 
Denlo, 282; see 40Me. 404; 6 Parker Cr. B. 120. 

Admisfltbilitf of evidence.— Proof of the contents of papers in the 
possession of the adverse party Is admissible after notice to produce 
the originals— 2 pev. 481 ; contra, 8 Port. 511. Where the witness was 
asked ii he bad signed a paper of a certain tenor, and before answer- 
ing Is shown and he examines the original. It is not error to admit his 
answer In evidence— 43 CaL 166. The existence of a corporation may 

496; id. 587} 42 Id. 242. 

Where evidence is oflbred on the part of the defendant which Is 
of doubtful admissibility* the better practice is to admit it than to 
chance a re versal— 18 CsX. 187. Evidence of the prisoner's guilty paiy 
tidpatlon In the commission of a crime wholly diseonnected from 
that for which he is on trial. Is not, as a general rule, adn^ible— 31 
Cal. 5^ 32id. 80: 72 Pa. St. GO; 2 Ark. 229; 69 N. C. 486r6Wrya. 032; 
see 1 WheeL C. C. 33; 5 Humph. 9. 

There la a wide distinction between hnmaterial and Inoomp 

evidence— 48 CaL 838. It may be material, and still be Incompet 

48 CaL 338. Where irrelevant testimony Is calculated to mislead or 

prejudice the minds of the jury, it is error to receive it— see 6 Pao. C. 
L. J. 882; 53 CaL 577; 13 Ired. 184. 

Ruling out evidence. Rnlei of evidenoe.— The general rules of 
evidence are the same in both civil and criminal eases— 15 Cal. 144. 
Immateriid and irrelevant testimony may be ruled out— 6 Pac. C. L. J. 
882 ; id. 1021. The objection tbat evidence is immaterial does not raise 
the pomt, wliether it is admissible to impeach a witness, or eompetenft 
to go to his credibility— 48 Cal. 338. Although information souie^t is 
immateriaL yet if defendant is not prejudiced. Judgment will not be 

A party oanaot be precluded trom. giving evidenoe, miless It ap- 
pear with certainty tbat sn^ matters involved have been determined 
against him by competent Judicial authority— 28 CaL 507. 

A party objecting to the admission of evidence mus^ specify the 
groondof bis objection, or his objection will be deemed waived— 48 
CaL 838; 28 id. 507. It is competent for the defendant, on a cbarge of 
felony, to consent to the introduction of evidence to which he might 
otherwise have objected— 53 CaL 74L Eavesdropping Is not a valid 
objection to the admission of testimon7-49 Cal. l&T^ 

If evidence competent for a particular purpose Is admitted, gener